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NetBSD 6.1.5 - man page for hier (netbsd section 7)

HIER(7) 		       BSD Miscellaneous Information Manual			  HIER(7)

NAME
     hier -- layout of filesystems

DESCRIPTION
     An outline of the filesystem hierarchy.

     Naming is very important.	The UNIX System relies on filename conventions for much of its
     power as a system.  The following file system layout describes generally where things are
     and what they are, with references to other man pages for more detailed documentation.

     Not all files will be in every system.

     /		root directory of the system

     /COPYRIGHT
		system copyright notice, most often put on CD-ROM distributions.

     /[a-z]/	user filesystems

     /altroot/	alternate root filesystem, in case of disaster

     /bin/	utilities used in both single and multi-user environments

     /boot*	second-stage boot loader(s) for some platforms; see installboot(8)

     /cdrom/	empty directory commonly used by system administrators as a temporary mount point
		for CD devices for ISO-9660 file systems

     /dev/	block, character and other special device files

		MAKEDEV  script for creating device files; see makedev(8)
		console  the computer's console device
		drum	 system swap space; see drum(4)
		fd/	 file descriptor files; see fd(4)
		klog	 kernel logging device; see syslog(3)
		kmem	 kernel virtual memory device; see mem(4)
		log	 UNIX domain datagram log socket; see syslogd(8)
		mem	 kernel physical memory device; see mem(4)
		null	 the null device; see null(4)
		pts/	 mount point for the pseudo-terminal device file system; see
			 mount_ptyfs(8)
		stderr
		stdin
		stdout	 file descriptor files; see fd(4)
		tty	 process' controlling terminal device; see tty(4)
		zero	 the zero device; see zero(4)

     /etc/	system configuration files and scripts

		amd*	       configuration files for amd(8)
		changelist     files backed up by the security script
		crontab        schedule used by the cron(8) daemon
		csh.cshrc
		csh.login
		csh.logout     system-wide scripts for csh(1)
		daily	       script run each day by cron(8)
		daily.conf     configuration file for daily; see daily.conf(5)
		defaults/      default configuration files read by various /etc/*.conf files
		disktab        disk description file, see disktab(5)
		dm.conf        dungeon master configuration; see dm.conf(5)
		dumpdates      dump history; see dump(8)
		exports        filesystem export information; see mountd(8)
		fstab	       filesystem information; see fstab(5) and mount(8)
		ftpusers       users denied ftp(1) access; see ftpd(8)
		ftpwelcome     ftp(1) initial message; see ftpd(8)
		gettytab       terminal configuration database; see gettytab(5)
		group	       group permissions file; see group(5)
		hosts	       host name database backup for named(8); see hosts(5)
		hosts.equiv    trusted machines with equivalent user ID's
		hosts.lpd      trusted machines with printing privileges
		inetd.conf     Internet server configuration file; see inetd(8)
		kerberosV/     configuration files for the kerberos version V; see kerberos(8)
		localtime      local timezone information; see ctime(3)
		mail/	       configuration files for sendmail(8)

			       aliases*    name alias files
			       sendmail.*  sendmail(8) configuration information
		mail.rc        system-wide initialization script for mail(1)
		man.conf       configuration file for man(1); see man.conf(5)
		master.passwd  Main password file, readable only by root; see passwd(5)
		mk.conf        optional file containing make(1) variables, read by pkgsrc and the
			       system sources.
		monthly        script run each month by cron(8)
		monthly.conf   configuration file for monthly; see monthly.conf(5)
		motd	       system message of the day
		mtree/	       mtree configuration files; see mtree(8)
		named.*
		namedb/        named configuration files and databases; see named(8)
		netgroup       network groups; see netgroup(5)
		netstart       network startup script
		networks       network name data base; see networks(5)
		passwd	       World readable password file generated from master.passwd; see
			       passwd(5), pwd_mkdb(8)
		phones	       remote host phone number data base; see phones(5)
		printcap       system printer configuration; see printcap(5)
		protocols      protocol name database; see protocols(5)
		pwd.db	       database form of passwd file; see pwd_mkdb(8)
		rc	       master system startup script invoked by init(8); see rc(8)
		rc.conf        configuration file for system startup and shutdown scripts; see
			       rc.conf(5)
		rc.d/	       directory containing per-subsystem startup and shutdown scripts;
			       see rc(8)
		rc.local       locally editable system startup script
		rc.shutdown    master system shutdown script invoked by shutdown(8); see rc(8)
		remote	       remote host description file; see remote(5)
		security       daily (in)security script run by cron(8)
		security.conf  configuration file for security; see security.conf(5)
		services       service name data base; see services(5)
		shells	       list of permitted shells; see shells(5)
		sliphome/      SLIP login/logout scripts; see sliplogin(8)
		spwd.db        database form of master.passwd file; see pwd_mkdb(8)
		syslog.conf    syslogd(8) configuration file; see syslog.conf(5)
		termcap        terminal type database; see termcap(3)
		ttys	       terminal initialization information; see ttys(5)
		weekly	       script run each week by cron(8)
		weekly.conf    configuration file for weekly; see weekly.conf(5)

     /home/	mount point for the automounter; see amd(8)

     /kern/	mount point for the kern file system; see mount_kernfs(8)

     /lib/	dynamic linked libraries used by dynamic linked programs (such as those in /bin/
		and /sbin/) that cannot rely upon /usr/lib/ being available.

     /libexec/	system utilities (such as the dynamic linker) required by programs and libraries
		that cannot rely upon /usr/libexec/ being available.

     /mnt/	empty directory commonly used by system administrators as a temporary mount point

     /netbsd	pure kernel executable (the operating system loaded into memory at boot time).

     /proc/	mount point for the process file system; see mount_procfs(8)

     /rescue/	statically linked rescue tools, for use in system recovery

     /root/	home directory for the super-user

		.cshrc	  super-user start-up file
		.login	  super-user start-up file
		.profile  super-user start-up file
		.rhosts   super-user id mapping between machines

     /sbin/	system programs and administration utilities used in both single-user and multi-
		user environments

     /stand/	programs used in a standalone environment

     /tmp/	temporary files, usually a mfs(8) memory-based filesystem (the contents of /tmp
		are usually not preserved across a system reboot)

     /usr/	contains the majority of the system utilities and files

		X11R6/	  X11 files
		X11R7/	  X11 files

			  bin/	    X11 binaries
			  include/  X11 include files
			  lib/	    X11 libraries

		bin/	  common utilities, programming tools, and applications
		games/	  the important stuff
		include/  standard C include files

			  arpa/       include files for Internet service protocols
			  atf/	      include files for the Automated Testing Framework; see
				      atf(7)
			  g++/	      include files for the C++ compiler
			  machine/    machine specific include files
			  net/
			  netatalk/   C include files for AppleTalk protocols miscellaneous net-
				      work include files; see atalk(4)
			  netinet/    include files for Internet standard protocols; see inet(4)
			  netinet6/   include files for Internet protocol version 6; see inet6(4)
			  netiso/     include files for ISO standard protocols; see iso(4)
			  netkey/     include files for secret key management, used for security
				      protocols; see ipsec(4)
			  netnatm/    C include files for native mode ATM
			  nfs/	      C include files for NFS (Network File System)
			  protocols/  C include files for Berkeley service protocols
			  sys/	      system C include files (kernel data structures)
			  ufs/	      C include files for UFS (The U-word File System)

		lib/	  archive, profiled, position independent archive, and shared libraries

			  lua/
				5.1/  Lua 5.1 modules

		libdata/  miscellaneous utility data files
		libexec/  system daemons & system utilities (executed by other programs)

		mdec/	  boot blocks, etc.
		obj/	  architecture-specific target tree produced by building the /usr/src
			  tree; normally a symbolic link or mounted filesystem
		pkg/	  packages maintained by groups other than the NetBSD Project.

			  bin/	    contributed binaries
			  include/  contributed include files
			  lib/	    contributed libraries
			  libdata/  contributed data files
			  libexec/  contributed daemons
			  sbin/     contributed system utilities

		pkgsrc/   build descriptions ("packages") for the NetBSD packages system.

			  distfiles/  Where unchanged source archives are fetched to/stored
			  packages/   Where compiled binary packages are stored

			  There are also several other subdirectories which contain packages of a
			  certain category, e.g., archivers, graphics, ...

		sbin/	  system daemons and system utilities (normally executed by the super-
			  user)
		share/	  architecture-independent text files

			  calendar/  a variety of calendar files; see calendar(1)
			  dict/      word lists; see look(1) and spell(1)

				     words     common words
				     web2      words of Webster's 2nd International
				     papers/   reference databases; see refer(1)
				     special/  custom word lists; see spell(1)

			  doc/	     miscellaneous documentation; source for most of the printed
				     4.3BSD manuals (available from the USENIX association)
			  games/     text files used by various games
			  i18n/      internationalization databases; see iconv(3)
			  locale/    locale databases and gettext message catalogs; see
				     setlocale(3) and gettext(3)
			  man/	     formatted manual pages
			  me/	     macros for use with the me(7) macro package
			  misc/      miscellaneous system-wide text files

				     <<<<<<< hier.7
				     termcap  =======
					      terminfo	    >>>>>>> 1.101 terminal characteris-
							    tics database; see <<<<<<< hier.7
							    termcap(5) ======= terminfo(5)
					      terminfo.cdb  database form of terminfo file; see
							    tic(1) >>>>>>> 1.101

				     mk/      include files for make(1)
				     ms/      macros for use with the ms(7) macro package
				     nls/     message catalogs; see catgets(3)
				     skel/    sample initialization files for new user accounts
				     tabset/  tab description files for a variety of terminals,
					      used in the termcap file; see termcap(5)
				     tmac/    text processing macros; see nroff(1) and troff(1)
				     zoneinfo/
					      timezone configuration information; see tzfile(5)
			  tests/     test programs; see atf-run(1) for information on how to run
				     them

		/usr/src/
			  NetBSD and local source files

			  bin/	     source for utilities/files in /bin
			  common/    sources shared between kernel and userland
			  crypto/    cryptographic source, which may have import or export
				     restrictions
			  dist/      third-party 'virgin' source code, referenced by other parts
				     of the source tree (deprecated, use external/ instead)
			  distrib/   tools and data-files for making distributions
			  doc/	     documentation about the source tree (i.e., about the tree,
				     not about how to use the built software.)
			  etc/	     source (usually example files) for files in /etc
			  external/  source for programs from external third parties (where
				     NetBSD is the not the primary maintainer), grouped by
				     license, and then products per license

				     apache2/	       Apache 2.0 license.
				     bsd/	       BSD (or equivalent) licensed software,
						       possibly with the ``advertising clause''.
				     cddl/	       Common Development and Distribution
						       License (the Sun license which is based on
						       the Mozilla Public License version 1.1).
				     gpl2/	       GNU Public License, version 2 (or ear-
						       lier).
				     gpl3/	       GNU Public License, version 3.
				     historical/       Lucent's old license.
				     ibm-public/       IBM's public license.
				     intel-fw-eula/    Intel firmware license with redistribution
						       restricted to OEM.
				     intel-fw-public/  Intel firmware license permitting redis-
						       tribution with terms similar to BSD
						       licensed software.
				     intel-public/     Intel license permitting redistribution
						       with terms similar to BSD licensed soft-
						       ware.
				     mit/	       MIT (X11) style license.
				     zlib/	       BSD-like zlib license.

			  games/     source for utilities/files in /usr/games
			  gnu/	     source for programs covered by the GNU license (or similar)
				     (deprecated; use external/gpl2/ or external/gpl3/ as appro-
				     priate)
			  include/   source for files in /usr/include
			  lib/	     source for libraries in /usr/lib
			  libexec/   source for utilities/files in /usr/libexec
			  regress/   various regression tests
			  rescue/    source/makefiles for /rescue
			  sbin/      source for utilities/files in /sbin
			  share/     source for files in /usr/share

				     doc/

					   papers/  source for various Berkeley technical papers
					   psd/     source for Programmer's Supplementary Docu-
						    ments
					   smm/     source for System Manager's Manual
					   usd/     source for User's Supplementary Documents

			  sys/	     kernel source files

				     arch/	  architecture-specific support

						  acorn26/	Acorn Archimedes, A-series and R-
								series systems
						  acorn32/	Acorn RiscPC/A7000 and VLSI
								RC7500
						  algor/	Algorithmics Ltd. MIPS evalua-
								tions boards
						  alpha/	Digital/Compaq Alpha
						  amd64/	Computers with x86_64 capable
								CPUs
						  amiga/	Commodore Amiga and MacroSystem
								DraCo
						  amigappc/	PowerPC based Amiga boards
						  arc/		MIPS-based machines following the
								Advanced RISC Computing spec
						  arm/		ARM processor general support
						  atari/	Atari TT030, Falcon and Hades
						  bebox/	Be Inc. BeBox
						  cats/ 	Chalice Technology's CATS and
								Intel's EBSA-285 evaluation
								boards
						  cesfic/	CES FIC8234 VME processor board
						  cobalt/	Cobalt Networks' MIPS-based
								Microserver
						  dreamcast/	Sega Dreamcast game console
						  emips/	Machines based on Extensible MIPS
						  evbarm/	ARM based evaluation boards
						  evbmips/	MIPS based evaluation boards
						  evbppc/	PowerPC based evaluation boards
								and appliances
						  evbsh3/	SH3/SH4 based evaluation boards
						  ews4800mips/	NEC's MIPS based EWS4800 worksta-
								tions
						  hp300/	Hewlett-Packard 9000/300 and 400
								680x0-based workstations
						  hp700/	Hewlett-Packard 9000/700 HPPA
								based workstations
						  hpcarm/	StrongARM based WinCE PDA
								machines
						  hpcmips/	MIPS based WinCE PDA machines
						  hpcsh/	Hitachi SH3/4 based WinCE PDA
								machines
						  hppa/ 	HPPA processor general support
						  i386/ 	80x86-based IBM PCs and clones
						  ibmnws/	IBM Network Station 1000
						  iyonix/	Castle Technology's Iyonix ARM
								based PCs
						  luna68k/	Omron Tateishi Electric's
								680x0-based LUNA workstations
						  m68k/ 	680x0 processor general support
						  mac68k/	Apple Macintosh with 68k CPU
						  macppc/	Apple Power Macintosh and clones
						  mips/ 	MIPS processor general support
						  mipsco/	MIPS Computer Systems Inc. family
								of workstations and servers
						  mmeye/	Brains Inc. SH3 based mmEye mul-
								timedia server
						  mvme68k/	Motorola MVME 680x0-based SBCs
						  mvmeppc/	Motorola PowerPC VME SBCs
						  netwinder/	StrongARM based NetWinder
								machines
						  news68k/	Sony's 680x0-based NEWS worksta-
								tions
						  newsmips/	Sony's MIPS-based NEWS worksta-
								tions
						  next68k/	NeXT 68k "black" hardware
						  ofppc/	Open Firmware PowerPC worksta-
								tions
						  pmax/ 	Digital MIPS-based DECstations
								and DECsystems
						  powerpc/	PowerPC processor support
						  prep/ 	PReP (PowerPC Reference Platform)
								and CHRP machines
						  sandpoint/	Motorola Sandpoint reference
								platform
						  sbmips/	Broadcom/SiByte evaluation boards
						  sgimips/	Silicon Graphics' MIPS-based
								workstations
						  sh3/		SH3/SH4 processor general support
						  shark/	Digital DNARD ("Shark")
						  sparc/	Sun Microsystems SPARC (32-bit)
								and UltraSPARC (in 32-bit mode)
						  sparc64/	Sun Microsystems UltraSPARC (in
								native 64-bit mode)
						  sun2/ 	Sun Microsystems 68010-based Sun
								2 architecture
						  sun3/ 	Sun Microsystems
								68020/68030-based Sun 3/3x archi-
								tecture
						  sun68k/	680x0-based Sun architecture gen-
								eral support
						  vax/		Digital VAX
						  x68k/ 	Sharp X680x0 680x0-based worksta-
								tions
						  x86/		General support for PC/AT compat-
								ibles with ia32 or x86_64 CPUs
						  xen/		The Xen virtual machine monitor
						  zaurus/	Sharp C3x00 Arm based PDA

				     compat/	  kernel compatibility modules directory

						  common/    common compatibility routines, old
							     4BSD and NetBSD routines.
						  freebsd/   support for FreeBSD binaries; see
							     compat_freebsd(8)
						  hpux/      support for 68000 HP-UX binaries
						  ibcs2/     support for Intel Binary binaries
						  linux/     support for Linux binaries; see
							     compat_linux(8)
						  m68k4k/    support for 4KB page 68000 binaries
						  netbsd32/  support for NetBSD 32-bit binaries
							     on 64 bit platforms with compatible
							     CPU families
						  osf1/      support for Digital UNIX (formerly
							     OSF/1) binaries
						  ossaudio/  support for OSS audio
						  sunos/     support for SunOS 4.x binaries; see
							     compat_sunos(8)
						  svr4/      support for System V Release 4 bina-
							     ries; see compat_svr4(8)
						  ultrix/    support for ULTRIX binaries
						  vax1k/     support for older VAX binaries that
							     started on a 1 KB boundary

				     conf/	  architecture independent configuration direc-
						  tory
				     crypto/	  cryptographic kernel source, which may have
						  import or export restrictions
				     ddb/	  in kernel debugger
				     dev/	  architecture independent device support
				     fs/	  miscellaneous file systems
						  adosfs/      AmigaDOS file-system support; see
							       mount_ados(8)
						  cd9660/      support for the ISO-9660 filesys-
							       tem; see mount_cd9660(8)
						  filecorefs/  support for the Acorn RISC OS
							       filecore filesystem; see
							       mount_filecore(8)
						  msdosfs/     MS-DOS file system; see
							       mount_msdos(8)
						  ntfs/        NTFS filesystem support; see
							       mount_ntfs(8)
						  ptyfs/       pseudo-terminal device filesystem;
							       see mount_ptyfs(8)
						  smbfs/       SMB/CIFS filesystem support; see
							       mount_smbfs(8)
						  union/       union file system; see
							       mount_union(8)
				     gdbscripts/  support for accessing kernel structures from
						  within the debugger gdb(1).
				     ipkdb/	  support for kernel debugging over the network

				     kern/	  support for the high kernel (system calls)
				     lib/	  kernel libraries

						  libkern/  C library routines used in the kernel
						  libsa/    machine independent stand alone ker-
							    nel library
						  libz/     compression library

				     miscfs/	  miscellaneous file systems

						  deadfs/  kernel only dead file system
						  fdesc/   file descriptor file system; see
							   mount_fdesc(8)
						  fifofs/  POSIX FIFO support
						  genfs/   kernel only generic file system
						  kernfs/  kernel namespace file system; see
							   mount_kernfs(8)
						  nullfs/  loop back file system; see
							   mount_null(8)
						  overlay/
							   overlay file system; see
							   mount_overlay(8)
						  procfs/  process file system; see
							   mount_procfs(8)
						  specfs/  kernel only special file system
						  syncfs/  kernel trickle sync algorithm
						  umapfs/  user and group re-mapping file system;
							   see mount_umap(8)

				     net/	  miscellaneous networking support
				     netatalk/	  AppleTalk networking support
				     netinet/	  IP networking support
				     netinet6/	  IPv6 networking support
				     netiso/	  ISO networking support
				     netkey/	  Key database for IPsec networking support
				     netnatm/	  ATM networking support
				     nfs/	  NFS support
				     stand/	  kernel standalone support
				     sys/	  kernel (and system) include files
				     ufs/	  local filesystem support

						  ffs/	the Berkeley Fast File System
						  lfs/	the log-structured file system
						  mfs/	the in-memory file system
						  ufs/	shared UNIX file system support
				     uvm/	  UVM virtual memory system
			  tests/     source for test programs in /usr/tests
			  usr.bin/   source for utilities/files in /usr/bin
			  usr.sbin/  source for utilities/files in /usr/sbin
		/var/	  multi-purpose log, temporary, transient, and spool files

			  account/   system accounting files

				     acct  execution accounting file; see acct(5)

			  at/	     timed command scheduling files; see at(1)
			  backups/   miscellaneous backup files, largely of files found in /etc
			  chroot/    home directories of applications which are run in a
				     chroot(8) ``cage''.
			  crash/     system crash dumps; see savecore(8)
			  cron/      scheduled commands configuration files; see cron(8)
			  db/	     miscellaneous automatically generated system-specific data-
				     base files, and persistent files used in the maintenance of
				     third party software.

				     pkg	  default location for metadata related to third
						  party software packages.  See pkg_add(1) for
						  more details of the NetBSD Packages Collection,
						  or pkgsrc.

			  games/     miscellaneous game status and log files
			  heimdal/   Kerberos 5 KDC database; see kdc(8)
			  log/	     miscellaneous system log files

				     amd.*	  amd(8) logs
				     daily.out	  output of the last run of the /etc/daily script
				     ftp.*	  ftp(1) logs
				     kerberos.*   kerberos(8) logs
				     lastlog	  system last time logged in log; see utmp(5)
				     lpd-errs.*   printer daemon error logs; see lpd(8)
				     maillog.*	  sendmail(8) log files
				     messages.*   general system information log
				     monthly.out  output of the last run of the /etc/monthly
						  script
				     secure	  sensitive security information log
				     sendmail.st  sendmail(8) statistics
				     timed.*	  timed(8) logs
				     weekly.out   output of the last run of the /etc/weekly
						  script
				     wtmp	  login/logout log; see utmp(5)

			  mail/      user system mailboxes
			  msgs/      system messages; see msgs(1)
			  preserve/  temporary home of files preserved after an accidental death
				     of ex(1) or vi(1)
			  quotas/    filesystem quota information
			  run/	     system information files, rebuilt after each reboot

				     utmp  database of current users; see utmp(5)

			  rwho/      rwho data files; see rwhod(8), rwho(1), and ruptime(1)
			  spool/     miscellaneous printer and mail system spooling directories

				     ftp/	  commonly ``~ftp'', the anonymous ftp root
						  directory; see ftpd(8)
				     mqueue/	  sendmail mail queue; see sendmail(8)
				     news/	  Network news archival and spooling directories
				     output/	  printer spooling directories
				     postfix/	  postfix mail queue; see postfix(1)
				     uucp/	  uucp spool directory
				     uucppublic/  commonly ``~uucp'', the uucp public temporary
						  directory; see uucp(1)

			  tmp/	     temporary files that are not discarded between system
				     reboots

				     vi.recover/  recovery directory for new vi(1)

			  yp/	     Databases and configuration for the NIS (YP) system; see
				     nis(8).

SEE ALSO
     apropos(1), ls(1), whatis(1), whereis(1), which(1), paths(3)

HISTORY
     A hier manual page appeared in Version 7 AT&T UNIX.

BSD					   June 3, 2012 				      BSD


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