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MAKEDEV(8)			   BSD System Manager's Manual			       MAKEDEV(8)

NAME
     MAKEDEV -- create system and device special files

SYNOPSIS
     MAKEDEV [-fMsu] [-m mknod] [-p pax] [-t mtree] {special | device} [...]

DESCRIPTION
     MAKEDEV is used to create system and device special files.  As arguments it takes the names
     of known devices, like sd0, or of special targets, like all or std, which create a collec-
     tion of device special files, or local, which invokes MAKEDEV.local(8) with the all argu-
     ment.

     The script is in /dev/MAKEDEV.  Devices are created in the current working directory; in
     normal use, MAKEDEV should be invoked with /dev as the current working directory.

     Supported options are:

     -f 	 Force permissions to be updated on existing devices.  This works only if MAKEDEV
		 invokes mknod(8); it is not compatible with the -p, -s, or -t options.

     -M 	 Create a memory file system, union mounted over the current directory, to con-
		 tain the device special files.  The memory file system is created using
		 mount_tmpfs(8) or mount_mfs(8), in that order of preference.

		 If the -M flag is specified more than once, then MAKEDEV assumes that it is
		 being invoked from init(8) to populate a memory file system for /dev.	In this
		 case, MAKEDEV will also redirect its output to the system console.

     -m mknod	 Force the use of mknod(8), and specify the name or path to the mknod(8) program.
		 [Usually, $TOOL_MKNOD or mknod.]

     -p pax	 Force the use of pax(1), and specify the name or path to the pax(1) program.
		 [Usually, $TOOL_PAX or pax.]

     -s 	 Generate an mtree(8) specfile instead of creating devices.

     -t mtree	 Force the use of mtree(8), and specify the name or path to the mtree(8) program.
		 [Usually, $TOOL_MTREE or mtree.]

     -u 	 Don't re-create devices that already exist.

     MAKEDEV has several possible methods of creating device nodes:

     o	 By invoking the mknod(8) command once for each device node.  This is the traditional
	 method, but it is slow because each device node is created using a new process.

	 The -m option forces MAKEDEV to use the mknod(8) method.

     o	 By internally creating a specfile in a format usable by mtree(8), and providing the
	 specfile on standard input to a pax(1) or mtree(8) command, invoked with options that
	 request it to create the device nodes as well as any necessary subdirectories.  This is
	 much faster than creating device nodes with mknod(8), because it requires much fewer
	 processes; however, it's not compatible with the -f option.

	 The -p or -t options force MAKEDEV to use the pax(1) or mtree(8) methods.

     o	 If the -s option is specified, then MAKEDEV will not create device nodes at all, but
	 will output a specfile in a format usable by mtree(8).

     The -m, -p, -s, and -t flags are mutually exclusive.  If none of these flags is specified,
     then MAKEDEV will use mtree(8), pax(1), or mknod(8), in that order of preference, depending
     on which commands appear to be available and usable.  In normal use, it's expected that
     mtree(8) will be available, so it will be chosen.	If MAKEDEV is invoked by init(8), it's
     expected that mtree(8) will not be available, but pax(1) may be available.

     The special targets supported on NetBSD are:

     all       Makes all known devices, including local devices. Tries to make the 'standard'
	       number of each type.
     init      A set of devices that is used for MFS /dev by init. May be equal to ``all''.
     floppy    Devices to be put on install floppies
     ramdisk   Devices to be put into INSTALL kernel ramdisks.
     std       Standard devices
     local     Configuration specific devices
     wscons    Make wscons devices
     usbs      Make USB devices
     isdns     Make ISDN devices

     Please note that any hash marks (``#'') in the following list of supported device targets
     must be replaced by digits when calling MAKEDEV:

     Tapes:
	 st#	     SCSI tapes, see st(4)
	 wt#	     QIC-interfaced (e.g. not SCSI) 3M cartridge tape, see wt(4)
	 ht#	     MASSBUS TM03 and TU??, see vax/ht(4)
	 mt#	     MSCP tapes (e.g. TU81, TK50), see vax/mt(4)
	 tm#	     UNIBUS TM11 and TE10 emulations (e.g. Emulex TC-11), see vax/tm(4)
	 ts#	     UNIBUS TS11, see vax/ts(4)
	 ut#	     UNIBUS TU45 emulations (e.g. si 9700), see vax/ut(4)
	 uu#	     TU58 cassettes on DL11 controller, see vax/uu(4)

     Disks:
	 ccd#	     Concatenated disk devices, see ccd(4)
	 cd#	     SCSI or ATAPI CD-ROM, see cd(4)
	 cgd#	     Cryptographic disk devices, see cgd(4)
	 raid#	     RAIDframe disk devices, see raid(4)
	 sd#	     SCSI disks, see sd(4)
	 wd#	     ``winchester'' disk drives (ST506,IDE,ESDI,RLL,...), see wd(4)
	 bmd#	     Nereid bank memory disks, see x68k/bmd(4)
	 ed#	     IBM PS/2 ESDI disk devices, see edc(4)
	 fd#	     ``floppy'' disk drives (3 1/2", 5 1/4"), see amiga/fdc(4), sparc64/fdc(4),
		     x86/fdc(4)
	 fss#	     Files system snapshot devices, see fss(4)
	 gdrom#      Dreamcast ``gigadisc'' CD-ROM drive, see dreamcast/gdrom(4)
	 hk#	     UNIBUS RK06 and RK07, see vax/hk(4)
	 hp#	     MASSBUS RM??, see vax/hp(4)
	 ld#	     Logical disk devices (e.g., hardware RAID), see ld(4)
	 mcd#	     Mitsumi CD-ROM, see mcd(4)
	 md#	     Memory pseudo-disk devices, see md(4)
	 ofdisk#     OpenFirmware disk devices
	 ra#	     MSCP disks (RA??, RD??)
	 rb#	     730 IDC w/ RB80 and/or RB02
	 rd#	     HDC9224 RD disks on VS2000, see hp300/rd(4)
	 rl#	     UNIBUS RL02, see vax/rl(4)
	 rx#	     MSCP floppy disk (RX33/50/...)
	 up#	     Other UNIBUS devices (e.g. on Emulex SC-21V controller), see vax/up(4)
	 vnd#	     ``file'' pseudo-disks, see vnd(4)
	 xbd#	     Xen virtual disks, see xbd(4)
	 xd#	     Xylogic 753/7053 disks, see sparc/xd(4)
	 xy#	     Xylogic 450/451 disks, see sparc/xy(4)

     Pointing devices:
	 wsmouse#    wscons mouse events, see wsmouse(4)
	 lms#	     Logitech bus mouse, see i386/lms(4)
	 mms#	     Microsoft bus mouse, see dreamcast/mms(4), i386/mms(4)
	 qms#	     ``quadrature mouse'', see acorn32/qms(4)
	 pms#	     PS/2 mouse
	 mouse	     Mouse (provides events, for X11)

     Keyboard devices:
	 wskbd#      wscons keyboard events, see wskbd(4)
	 kbd	     Raw keyboard (provides events, for X11), see sparc/kbd(4), sun2/kbd(4),
		     sun3/kbd(4)
	 kbdctl      Keyboard control

     Terminals/Console ports:
	 tty[01]#    Standard serial ports, see tty(4)
	 tty0#	     SB1250 (``sbscn'') serial ports (sbmips), see tty(4)
	 ttyE#	     wscons - Workstation console (``wscons'') glass-tty emulators
	 ttyCZ?      Cyclades-Z multiport serial boards. Each ``unit'' makes 64 ports., see cz(4)
	 ttyCY?      Cyclom-Y multiport serial boards. Each ``unit'' makes 32 ports., see cy(4)
	 ttye#	     ITE bitmapped consoles, see amiga/ite(4)
	 ttyv0	     pccons
	 ttyC?	     NS16550 (``com'') serial ports
	 ttyS#	     SA1110 serial port (hpcarm)
	 ttyTX?      TX39 internal serial ports (hpcmips)
	 ttyB?	     DEC 3000 ZS8530 (``scc'') serial ports (alpha), see scc(4)
	 ttyA#	     Mfc serial ports (amiga)
	 ttyB#	     Msc serial ports (amiga)
	 ttyC#	     Com style serial ports (DraCo, HyperCom) (amiga) On the DraCo, units 0 and 1
		     are the built-in ``modem'' and ``mouse'' ports, if configured.
	 ttyA0	     8530 Channel A (formerly ser02) (atari)
	 ttyA1	     8530 Channel B (formerly mdm02) (atari)
	 ttyB0	     UART on first 68901 (formerly mdm01) (atari)
	 ixpcom      IXP12x0 COM ports
	 epcom	     EP93xx COM ports
	 ttyM?	     HP200/300 4 port serial mux interface (hp300)
	 ttya	     ``ttya'' system console (luna68k)
	 ttyb	     Second system serial port (luna68k)
	 tty#	     Onboard serial ports (mvme68k) On the mvme147 these are: ttyZ1, ttyZ2 and
		     ttyZ3. On the mvme167, and '177: ttyC1, ttyC2 and ttyC3. Note that tty[CZ]0
		     is grabbed by the console device so is not created by default, see tty(4)
	 dc#	     PMAX 4 channel serial interface (kbd, mouse, modem, printer)
	 scc#	     82530 serial interface (pmax), see scc(4)
	 ttyZ#	     Zilog 8530 (``zstty'') serial ports, see zstty(4)
	 tty[abcd]   Built-in serial ports (sparc)
	 tty#	     Z88530 serial controllers (sparc64), see tty(4)
	 ttyh#	     SAB82532 serial controllers (sparc64), see sparc64/sab(4)
	 tty[a-j]    Built-in serial ports (sun2, sun3)
	 ttyC?	     pccons (arc)
	 dz#	     UNIBUS DZ11 and DZ32 (vax), see emips/dz(4), vax/dz(4)
	 dh#	     UNIBUS DH11 and emulations (e.g. Able DMAX, Emulex CS-11) (vax), see
		     vax/dh(4)
	 dmf#	     UNIBUS DMF32 (vax), see vax/dmf(4)
	 dhu#	     UNIBUS DHU11 (vax), see vax/dhu(4)
	 dmz#	     UNIBUS DMZ32 (vax), see vax/dmz(4)
	 dl#	     UNIBUS DL11 (vax), see vax/dl(4)
	 xencons     Xen virtual console

     Terminal multiplexors:
	 dc#	     4 channel serial interface (keyboard, mouse, modem, printer)
	 dh#	     UNIBUS DH11 and emulations (e.g. Able DMAX, Emulex CS-11), see vax/dh(4)
	 dhu#	     UNIBUS DHU11, see vax/dhu(4)
	 dl#	     UNIBUS DL11, see vax/dl(4)
	 dmf#	     UNIBUS DMF32, see vax/dmf(4)
	 dmz#	     UNIBUS DMZ32, see vax/dmz(4)
	 dz#	     UNIBUS DZ11 and DZ32, see emips/dz(4), vax/dz(4)
	 scc#	     82530 serial interface, see scc(4)

     Call units:
	 dn#	     UNIBUS DN11 and emulations (e.g. Able Quadracall), see vax/dn(4)

     Pseudo terminals:
	 ptm	     Pty multiplexor device, and pts directory, see ptm(4)
	 pty#	     Set of 16 master and slave pseudo terminals, see pty(4)
	 opty	     First 16 ptys, to save inodes on install media
	 ipty	     First 2 ptys, for install media use only

     Printers:
	 arcpp#      Archimedes parallel port
	 lpt#	     Stock lp, see lpt(4), acorn32/lpt(4), mvme68k/lpt(4), x86/lpt(4)
	 lpa#	     Interruptless lp
	 par#	     Amiga motherboard parallel port
	 cpi#	     Macintosh Nubus CSI parallel printer card, see mac68k/cpi(4)

     USB devices:
	 usb#	     USB control devices, see usb(4)
	 uhid#	     USB generic HID devices, see uhid(4)
	 ulpt#	     USB printer devices, see ulpt(4)
	 ugen#	     USB generic devices, see ugen(4)
	 urio#	     USB Diamond Rio 500 devices, see urio(4)
	 uscanner#   USB scanners, see uscanner(4)
	 ttyHS#      USB Option N.V. modems
	 ttyU#	     USB modems, see ucom(4)
	 ttyY#	     USB serial adapters

     ISDN devices:
	 isdn	     Communication between userland isdnd and kernel, see isdn(4)
	 isdnctl     Control device, see isdnctl(4)
	 isdnbchan#  Raw b-channel access, see isdnbchan(4)
	 isdntel#    Telephony device, see isdntel(4)
	 isdnteld#   Telephony dialout device
	 isdntrc#    Trace device, see isdntrc(4)

     Video devices:
	 bwtwo#      Monochromatic frame buffer, see sparc/bwtwo(4), sun2/bwtwo(4), sun3/bwtwo(4)
	 cgtwo#      8-bit color frame buffer, see sparc/cgtwo(4), sun3/cgtwo(4)
	 cgthree#    8-bit color frame buffer, see sparc/cgthree(4)
	 cgfour#     8-bit color frame buffer, see sparc/cgfour(4), sun3/cgfour(4)
	 cgsix#      Accelerated 8-bit color frame buffer, see sparc/cgsix(4)
	 cgeight#    24-bit color frame buffer, see sparc/cgeight(4)
	 etvme	     Tseng et-compatible cards on VME (atari)
	 ik#	     UNIBUS interface to Ikonas frame buffer, see vax/ik(4)
	 leo	     Circad Leonardo VME-bus true color (atari)
	 ps#	     UNIBUS interface to Picture System 2, see vax/ps(4)
	 qv#	     QVSS (MicroVAX) display
	 tcx#	     Accelerated 8/24-bit color frame buffer, see sparc/tcx(4)

     Maple bus devices:
	 maple	     Maple bus control devices, see dreamcast/maple(4)
	 mlcd#	     Maple bus LCD devices, see dreamcast/mlcd(4)
	 mmem#	     Maple bus storage devices, see dreamcast/mmem(4)

     IEEE1394 bus devices:
	 fw#	     IEEE1394 bus generic node access devices
	 fwmem#      IEEE1394 bus physical memory of the remote node access devices

     Special purpose devices:
	 ad#	     UNIBUS interface to Data Translation A/D converter, see vax/ad(4)
	 agp#	     AGP GART devices, see agp(4)
	 altq	     ALTQ control interface, see altq(4)
	 amr#	     AMI MegaRaid control device, see amr(4)
	 apm	     Power management device, see i386/apm(4)
	 audio#      Audio devices, see audio(4)
	 bell#	     OPM bell device (x68k)
	 bktr	     Brooktree 848/849/878/879 based TV cards, see bktr(4)
	 bpf	     Packet filter, see bpf(4)
	 bthub	     Bluetooth Device Hub control interface, see bthub(4)
	 cfs#	     Coda file system device
	 ch#	     SCSI media changer, see ch(4)
	 cir#	     Consumer IR, see cir(4)
	 clockctl    Clock control for non root users, see clockctl(4)
	 cpuctl      CPU control
	 crypto      Hardware crypto access driver, see crypto(4)
	 dmoverio    Hardware-assisted data movers, see dmoverio(4)
	 dpt#	     DPT/Adaptec EATA RAID management interface, see dpt(4)
	 dpti#	     DPT/Adaptec I2O RAID management interface, see dpti(4)
	 drm#	     Direct Rendering Manager interface, see drm(4)
	 dtv#	     Digital TV interface, see dtv(4)
	 fb#	     PMAX generic framebuffer pseudo-device
	 fd	     File descriptors
	 grf#	     Graphics frame buffer device, see amiga/grf(4)
	 hdaudio#    High Definition audio control device, see hdaudio(4)
	 hil	     HP300 HIL input devices, see hil(4)
	 icp	     ICP-Vortex/Intel RAID control interface, see icp(4)
	 iic#	     IIC bus device, see iic(4)
	 io	     X86 IOPL access for COMPAT_10, COMPAT_FREEBSD, see hp700/io(4), i386/io(4)
	 iop#	     I2O IOP control interface, see iop(4)
	 ipl	     IP Filter
	 irframe#    IrDA physical frame, see irframe(4)
	 ite#	     Terminal emulator interface to HP300 graphics devices, see amiga/ite(4)
	 joy#	     Joystick device, see joy(4)
	 kttcp	     Kernel ttcp helper device, see kttcp(4)
	 lockstat    Kernel locking statistics
	 magma#      Magma multiport serial/parallel cards, see sparc/magma(4)
	 midi#	     MIDI, see midi(4)
	 mlx#	     Mylex DAC960 control interface, see mlx(4)
	 mly#	     Mylex AcceleRAID/eXtremeRAID control interface, see mly(4)
	 np#	     UNIBUS Ethernet co-processor interface, for downloading., see vax/np(4)
	 npf	     NPF packet filter
	 nsmb#	     SMB requester, see nsmb(4)
	 openfirm    OpenFirmware accessor
	 pad#	     Pseudo-audio device driver, see pad(4)
	 pci#	     PCI bus access devices, see pci(4)
	 pf	     PF packet filter
	 putter      Pass-to-Userspace Transporter
	 px#	     PixelStamp Xserver access, see px(4)
	 radio#      Radio devices, see radio(4)
	 random      Random number generator, see rnd(4)
	 rtc#	     RealTimeClock, see atari/rtc(4), evbppc/rtc(4), hp300/rtc(4)
	 satlink#    PlanetConnect satellite receiver driver
	 scsibus#    SCSI busses, see scsi(4)
	 se#	     SCSI Ethernet, see se(4)
	 ses#	     SES/SAF-TE SCSI Devices, see ses(4)
	 speaker     PC speaker, see speaker(4)
	 sram	     Battery backuped memory (x68k)
	 ss#	     SCSI scanner, see ss(4)
	 stic#	     PixelStamp interface chip
	 sysmon      System Monitoring hardware, see envsys(4)
	 tap#	     Virtual Ethernet device, see tap(4)
	 tun#	     Network tunnel driver, see tun(4)
	 twa	     3ware Apache control interface, see twa(4)
	 twe	     3ware Escalade control interface, see twe(4)
	 uk#	     Unknown SCSI device, see uk(4)
	 veriexec    Veriexec fingerprint loader, see veriexec(4)
	 video#      Video capture devices, see video(4)
	 view#	     Generic interface to graphic displays (Amiga)
	 vmegen#     Generic VME access
	 wsfont#     Console font control, see wsfont(4)
	 wsmux#      wscons event multiplexor, see wsmux(4)
	 xenevt      Xen event interface

     iSCSI communication devices
	 iscsi#      ISCSI driver and /sbin/iscsid communication

ENVIRONMENT
     The following environment variables affect the execution of MAKEDEV:

     MAKEDEV_AS_LIBRARY
	     If this is set, then MAKEDEV will define several shell functions and then return,
	     ignoring all its command line options and arguments.  This is used to enable
	     MAKEDEV.local(8) to use the shell functions defined in MAKEDEV.

FILES
     /dev		 special device files directory
     /dev/MAKEDEV	 script described in this man page
     /dev/MAKEDEV.local  script for site-specific devices

DIAGNOSTICS
     If the script reports an error that is difficult to understand, you can get more debugging
     output by using
	   sh -x MAKEDEV argument.

SEE ALSO
     config(1), pax(1), intro(4), diskless(8), init(8), MAKEDEV.local(8), mknod(8), mount_mfs(8),
     mount_tmpfs(8), mtree(8)

HISTORY
     The MAKEDEV command appeared in 4.2BSD.  The -f, -m, and -s options were added in
     NetBSD 2.0.  The -p, -t, and -M options were added in NetBSD 5.0.	The ability to be used as
     a function library was added in NetBSD 5.0.

BUGS
     The -f option is not compatible with the use of mtree(8) or pax(1).

NOTES
     Not all devices listed in this manpage are supported on all platforms.

     This man page is generated automatically from the same sources as /dev/MAKEDEV, in which the
     device files are not always sorted, which may result in an unusual (non-alphabetical) order.

     In order to allow a diskless NetBSD client to obtain its /dev directory from a file server
     running a foreign operating system, one of the following techniques may be useful to popu-
     late a directory of device nodes on the foreign server:

     o	 If the foreign server is sufficiently similar to NetBSD, run MAKEDEV in an appropriate
	 directory of the foreign server, using the -m flag to refer to a script that converts
	 from command line arguments that would be usable with the NetBSD mknod(8) command to the
	 equivalent commands for the foreign server.

     o	 Run MAKEDEV with the -s flag to generate an mtree(8) specification file; this can be
	 done on any host with a POSIX-compliant shell and a few widely-available utilities.  Use
	 the pax(1) command with the -w -M flags to convert the mtree(8) specification file into
	 an archive in a format that supports device nodes (such as ustar format); this can be
	 done on a NetBSD host, or can be done in a cross-build environment using
	 TOOLDIR/bin/nbpax.  Finally, use apropriate tools on the foreign server to unpack the
	 archive and create the device nodes.

BSD					 January 21, 2012				      BSD
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