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NetBSD 6.1.5 - man page for ls (netbsd section 1)

LS(1)				   BSD General Commands Manual				    LS(1)

NAME
     ls -- list directory contents

SYNOPSIS
     ls [-AaBbCcdFfghikLlMmnopqRrSsTtuWwx1] [file ...]

DESCRIPTION
     For each operand that names a file of a type other than directory, ls displays its name as
     well as any requested, associated information.  For each operand that names a file of type
     directory, ls displays the names of files contained within that directory, as well as any
     requested, associated information.

     If no operands are given, the contents of the current directory are displayed.  If more than
     one operand is given, non-directory operands are displayed first; directory and non-direc-
     tory operands are sorted separately and in lexicographical order.

     The following options are available:

     -A      List all entries except for '.' and '..'.	Always set for the super-user.

     -a      Include directory entries whose names begin with a dot ('.').

     -B      Force printing of non-graphic characters in file names as \xxx, where xxx is the
	     numeric value of the character in octal.

     -b      As -B, but use C escape codes whenever possible.

     -C      Force multi-column output; this is the default when output is to a terminal.

     -c      Use time when file status was last changed, instead of time of last modification of
	     the file for sorting (-t) or printing (-l).

     -d      Directories are listed as plain files (not searched recursively) and symbolic links
	     in the argument list are not followed.

     -F      Display a slash ('/') immediately after each pathname that is a directory, an aster-
	     isk ('*') after each that is executable, an at sign ('@') after each symbolic link,
	     a percent sign ('%') after each whiteout, an equal sign ('=') after each socket, and
	     a vertical bar ('|') after each that is a FIFO.

     -f      Output is not sorted.

     -g      The same as -l, except that the owner is not printed.

     -h      Modifies the -s and -l options, causing the sizes to be reported in bytes displayed
	     in a human readable format.  Overrides -k and -M.

     -i      For each file, print the file's file serial number (inode number).

     -k      Modifies the -s option, causing the sizes to be reported in kilobytes.  The right-
	     most of the -k and -h flags overrides the previous flag.  See also -h and -M.

     -L      For each file, if it's a link, evaluate file information and file type of the refer-
	     enced file and not the link itself; however still print the link name, unless used
	     with -l, for example.

     -l      (The lowercase letter ``ell'').  List in long format.  (See below.)  A total sum for
	     all the file sizes is output on a line before the long listing.

     -M      Modifies the -l and -s options, causing the sizes or block counts reported to be
	     separated with commas (or a locale appropriate separator) resulting in a more read-
	     able output.  Overrides -h.  Does not override -k.

     -m      Stream output format; list files across the page, separated by commas.

     -n      The same as -l, except that the owner and group IDs are displayed numerically rather
	     than converting to a owner or group name.

     -o      Include the file flags in a long (-l) output.  If no file flags are set, ``-'' is
	     displayed.  (See chflags(1) for a list of possible flags and their meanings.)

     -p      Display a slash ('/') immediately after each pathname that is a directory.

     -q      Force printing of non-printable characters in file names as the character '?'; this
	     is the default when output is to a terminal.

     -R      Recursively list subdirectories encountered.

     -r      Reverse the order of the sort to get reverse lexicographical order or the smallest
	     or oldest entries first.

     -S      Sort by size, largest file first.

     -s      Display the number of file system blocks actually used by each file, in units of 512
	     bytes or BLOCKSIZE (see ENVIRONMENT) where partial units are rounded up to the next
	     integer value.  If the output is to a terminal, a total sum for all the file sizes
	     is output on a line before the listing.

     -T      When used with the -l (the lowercase letter ``ell'') option, display complete time
	     information for the file, including month, day, hour, minute, second, and year.

     -t      Sort by time modified (most recently modified first) before sorting the operands by
	     lexicographical order.

     -u      Use time of last access, instead of last modification of the file for sorting (-t)
	     or printing (-l).

     -W      Display whiteouts when scanning directories.

     -w      Force raw printing of non-printable characters.  This is the default when output is
	     not to a terminal.

     -x      Multi-column output sorted across the page rather than down the page.

     -1      (The numeric digit ``one'').  Force output to be one entry per line.  This is the
	     default when output is not to a terminal.

     The -B, -b, -w, and -q options all override each other; the last one specified determines
     the format used for non-printable characters.

     The -1, -C, -g, -l, -m, and -x options all override each other; the last one specified
     determines the format used with the exception that if both -l and -g are specified, -l will
     always override -g, even if -g was specified last.

     The -c and -u options override each other; the last one specified determines the file time
     used.

     By default, ls lists one entry per line to standard output; the exceptions are to terminals
     or when the -C or -m options are specified.

     File information is displayed with one or more <blank> separating the information associated
     with the -i, -s, and -l options.

   The Long Format
     If the -l option is given, the following information is displayed for each file:
	   file mode
	   number of links
	   owner name
	   group name
	   file flags (if -o given)
	   number of bytes in the file
	   abbreviated month file was last modified
	   day-of-month file was last modified
	   hour and minute file was last modified
	   pathname

     In addition, for each directory whose contents are displayed, the total number of 512-byte
     blocks used by the files in the directory is displayed on a line by itself immediately
     before the information for the files in the directory.

     If the owner or group names are not a known owner or group name, or the -n option is given,
     the numeric ID's are displayed.

     If the file is a character special or block special file, the major and minor device numbers
     for the file are displayed in the size field.  If the file is a symbolic link the pathname
     of the linked-to file is preceded by ``->''.

     The file mode printed under the -l option consists of the entry type, owner permissions,
     group permissions, and other permissions.	The entry type character describes the type of
     file, as follows:

	   a	 Archive state 1.
	   A	 Archive state 2.
	   b	 Block special file.
	   c	 Character special file.
	   d	 Directory.
	   l	 Symbolic link.
	   s	 Socket link.
	   p	 FIFO.
	   w	 Whiteout.
	   -	 Regular file.

     The next three fields are three characters each: owner permissions, group permissions, and
     other permissions.  Each field has three character positions:

	   1.	If r, the file is readable; if -, it is not readable.

	   2.	If w, the file is writable; if -, it is not writable.

	   3.	The first of the following that applies:

		      S     If in the owner permissions, the file is not executable and set-user-
			    ID mode is set.  If in the group permissions, the file is not exe-
			    cutable and set-group-ID mode is set.

		      s     If in the owner permissions, the file is executable and set-user-ID
			    mode is set.  If in the group permissions, the file is executable and
			    setgroup-ID mode is set.

		      x     The file is executable or the directory is searchable.

		      -     The file is neither readable, writable, executable, nor set-user-ID
			    nor set-group-ID mode, nor sticky.	(See below.)

		These next two apply only to the third character in the last group (other permis-
		sions).

		      T     The sticky bit is set (mode 1000), but not execute or search permis-
			    sion.  (See chmod(1) or sticky(7).)

		      t     The sticky bit is set (mode 1000), and is searchable or executable.
			    (See chmod(1) or sticky(7).)

     The number of bytes displayed for a directory is a function of the number of dirent(3)
     structures in the directory, not all of which may be allocated to any existing file.

ENVIRONMENT
     The following environment variables affect the execution of ls:

     BLOCKSIZE	If the environment variable BLOCKSIZE is set, and the -h and -k options are not
		specified, the block counts (see -s) will be displayed in units of that size
		block.

     COLUMNS	If this variable contains a string representing a decimal integer, it is used as
		the column position width for displaying multiple-text-column output.  The ls
		utility calculates how many pathname text columns to display based on the width
		provided.  (See -C.)

     TZ 	The timezone to use when displaying dates.  See environ(7) for more information.

EXIT STATUS
     The ls utility exits 0 on success, and >0 if an error occurs.

COMPATIBILITY
     The group field is now automatically included in the long listing for files in order to be
     compatible with the IEEE Std 1003.2 (``POSIX.2'') specification.

SEE ALSO
     chflags(1), chmod(1), stat(2), dirent(3), getbsize(3), sticky(7), symlink(7)

STANDARDS
     The ls utility is expected to be a superset of the IEEE Std 1003.2 (``POSIX.2'') specifica-
     tion.

HISTORY
     An ls utility appeared in Version 5 AT&T UNIX.

BSD					  April 2, 2011 				      BSD


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