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NetBSD 6.1.5 - man page for inet (netbsd section 4)

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INET(4) 			   BSD Kernel Interfaces Manual 			  INET(4)

NAME
     inet -- Internet protocol family

SYNOPSIS
     #include <sys/types.h>
     #include <netinet/in.h>

DESCRIPTION
     The Internet protocol family is a collection of protocols layered atop the Internet Protocol
     (IP) transport layer, and using the Internet address format.  The Internet family provides
     protocol support for the SOCK_STREAM, SOCK_DGRAM, and SOCK_RAW socket types; the SOCK_RAW
     interface provides access to the IP protocol.

ADDRESSING
     Internet addresses are four byte quantities, stored in network standard format (on the VAX
     these are word and byte reversed).  The include file <netinet/in.h> defines this address as
     a discriminated union.

     Sockets bound to the Internet protocol family use the following addressing structure,

	   struct sockaddr_in {
		   uint8_t	   sin_len;
		   sa_family_t	   sin_family;
		   in_port_t	   sin_port;
		   struct in_addr  sin_addr;
		   int8_t	   sin_zero[8];
	   };

     Sockets may be created with the local address INADDR_ANY to effect ``wildcard'' matching on
     incoming messages.  The address in a connect(2) or sendto(2) call may be given as INADDR_ANY
     to mean ``this host''.  The distinguished address INADDR_BROADCAST is allowed as a shorthand
     for the broadcast address on the primary network if the first network configured supports
     broadcast.

PROTOCOLS
     The Internet protocol family comprises the IP transport protocol, Internet Control Message
     Protocol (ICMP), Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), and User Datagram Protocol (UDP).  TCP
     is used to support the SOCK_STREAM abstraction while UDP is used to support the SOCK_DGRAM
     abstraction.  A raw interface to IP is available by creating an Internet socket of type
     SOCK_RAW.	The ICMP message protocol is accessible from a raw socket.

     The 32-bit Internet address contains both network and host parts.	It is frequency-encoded;
     the most-significant bit is clear in Class A addresses, in which the high-order 8 bits are
     the network number.  Class B addresses use the high-order 16 bits as the network field, and
     Class C addresses have a 24-bit network part.  Sites with a cluster of local networks and a
     connection to the Internet may chose to use a single network number for the cluster; this is
     done by using subnet addressing.  The local (host) portion of the address is further subdi-
     vided into subnet and host parts.	Within a subnet, each subnet appears to be an individual
     network; externally, the entire cluster appears to be a single, uniform network requiring
     only a single routing entry.  Subnet addressing is enabled and examined by the following
     ioctl(2) commands on a datagram socket in the Internet domain; they have the same form as
     the SIOCIFADDR command (see netintro(4)).

     SIOCSIFNETMASK  Set interface network mask.  The network mask defines the network part of
		     the address; if it contains more of the address than the address type would
		     indicate, then subnets are in use.

     SIOCGIFNETMASK  Get interface network mask.

SEE ALSO
     ioctl(2), socket(2), icmp(4), intro(4), ip(4), netintro(4), tcp(4), udp(4)

     Stuart Sechrest, An Introductory 4.4BSD Interprocess Communication Tutorial.  (see
     /usr/share/doc/psd/20.ipctut)

     Samuel J. Leffler, Robert S. Fabry, William N. Joy, Phil Lapsley, Steve Miller, and Chris
     Torek, Advanced 4.4BSD IPC Tutorial.  (see /usr/share/doc/psd/21.ipc)

HISTORY
     The inet protocol interface appeared in 4.2BSD.

BUGS
     The Internet protocol support is subject to change as the Internet protocols develop.  Users
     should not depend on details of the current implementation, but rather the services
     exported.

BSD					   May 15, 2003 				      BSD
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