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REFER(1)										 REFER(1)

NAME
       refer - preprocess bibliographic references for groff

SYNOPSIS
       refer [ -benvCPRS ] [ -an ] [ -cfields ] [ -fn ] [ -ifields ] [ -kfield ] [ -lm,n ]
	     [ -pfilename ] [ -sfields ] [ -tn ] [ -Bfield.macro ] [ filename... ]

       It is possible to have whitespace between a command line option and its parameter.

DESCRIPTION
       This file documents the GNU version of refer, which is part of the groff document  format-
       ting system.  refer copies the contents of filename... to the standard output, except that
       lines between .[ and .] are interpreted as citations, and lines between .R1  and  .R2  are
       interpreted as commands about how citations are to be processed.

       Each  citation  specifies  a reference.	The citation can specify a reference that is con-
       tained in a bibliographic database by giving a set of keywords that  only  that	reference
       contains.   Alternatively it can specify a reference by supplying a database record in the
       citation.  A combination of these alternatives is also possible.

       For each citation, refer can produce a mark in the text.  This mark consists of some label
       which can be separated from the text and from other labels in various ways.  For each ref-
       erence it also outputs groff commands that can be used by a macro  package  to  produce	a
       formatted  reference  for  each citation.  The output of refer must therefore be processed
       using a suitable macro package.	The -ms and -me macros are both suitable.   The  commands
       to format a citation's reference can be output immediately after the citation, or the ref-
       erences may be accumulated, and the commands output at some later point.   If  the  refer-
       ences are accumulated, then multiple citations of the same reference will produce a single
       formatted reference.

       The interpretation of lines between .R1 and .R2 as commands is a new feature of GNU refer.
       Documents  making  use of this feature can still be processed by Unix refer just by adding
       the lines

	      .de R1
	      .ig R2
	      ..
       to the beginning of the document.  This will cause troff to ignore everything between  .R1
       and  .R2.  The effect of some commands can also be achieved by options.	These options are
       supported mainly for compatibility with Unix refer.  It is usually more convenient to  use
       commands.

       refer  generates .lf lines so that filenames and line numbers in messages produced by com-
       mands that read refer output will be correct; it also interprets lines beginning with  .lf
       so  that filenames and line numbers in the messages and .lf lines that it produces will be
       accurate even if the input has been preprocessed by a command such as soelim(1).

OPTIONS
       Most options are equivalent to commands (for a description of these commands see the  Com-
       mands subsection):

       -b     no-label-in-text; no-label-in-reference

       -e     accumulate

       -n     no-default-database

       -C     compatible

       -P     move-punctuation

       -S     label "(A.n|Q) ', ' (D.y|D)"; bracket-label " (" ) "; "

       -an    reverse An

       -cfields
	      capitalize fields

       -fn    label %n

       -ifields
	      search-ignore fields

       -k     label L~%a

       -kfield
	      label field~%a

       -l     label A.nD.y%a

       -lm    label A.n+mD.y%a

       -l,n   label A.nD.y-n%a

       -lm,n  label A.n+mD.y-n%a

       -pfilename
	      database filename

       -sspec sort spec

       -tn    search-truncate n

       These  options  are  equivalent to the following commands with the addition that the file-
       names specified on the command line are processed as if they were arguments to the  bibli-
       ography command instead of in the normal way:

       -B     annotate X AP; no-label-in-reference

       -Bfield.macro
	      annotate field macro; no-label-in-reference

       The following options have no equivalent commands:

       -v     Print the version number.

       -R     Don't recognize lines beginning with .R1/.R2.

USAGE
   Bibliographic databases
       The  bibliographic  database is a text file consisting of records separated by one or more
       blank lines.  Within each record fields start with a % at the beginning of a  line.   Each
       field  has  a  one  character name that immediately follows the %.  It is best to use only
       upper and lower case letters for the names of fields.  The name of  the	field  should  be
       followed  by  exactly  one space, and then by the contents of the field.  Empty fields are
       ignored.  The conventional meaning of each field is as follows:

       A      The name of an author.  If the name contains a title such as Jr.	at  the  end,  it
	      should  be  separated  from the last name by a comma.  There can be multiple occur-
	      rences of the A field.  The order is significant.  It is a good idea always to sup-
	      ply an A field or a Q field.

       B      For an article that is part of a book, the title of the book.

       C      The place (city) of publication.

       D      The  date  of  publication.  The year should be specified in full.  If the month is
	      specified, the name rather than the number of the month should be  used,	but  only
	      the  first  three  letters  are  required.   It is a good idea always to supply a D
	      field; if the date is unknown, a value such as in press or unknown can be used.

       E      For an article that is part of a book, the name of an editor of  the  book.   Where
	      the  work has editors and no authors, the names of the editors should be given as A
	      fields and , (ed) or , (eds) should be appended to the last author.

       G      US Government ordering number.

       I      The publisher (issuer).

       J      For an article in a journal, the name of the journal.

       K      Keywords to be used for searching.

       L      Label.

       N      Journal issue number.

       O      Other information.  This is usually printed at the end of the reference.

       P      Page number.  A range of pages can be specified as m-n.

       Q      The name of the author, if the author is not a person.  This will only be  used  if
	      there are no A fields.  There can only be one Q field.

       R      Technical report number.

       S      Series name.

       T      Title.   For an article in a book or journal, this should be the title of the arti-
	      cle.

       V      Volume number of the journal or book.

       X      Annotation.

       For all fields except A and E, if there is more than one occurrence of a particular  field
       in a record, only the last such field will be used.

       If  accent  strings are used, they should follow the character to be accented.  This means
       that the AM macro must be used with the -ms macros.  Accent strings should not be  quoted:
       use one \ rather than two.

   Citations
       The format of a citation is
	      .[opening-text
	      flags keywords
	      fields
	      .]closing-text

       The  opening-text,  closing-text  and flags components are optional.  Only one of the key-
       words and fields components need be specified.

       The keywords component says to search the bibliographic databases  for  a  reference  that
       contains all the words in keywords.  It is an error if more than one reference if found.

       The fields components specifies additional fields to replace or supplement those specified
       in the reference.  When references are being accumulated and  the  keywords  component  is
       non-empty,  then  additional  fields should be specified only on the first occasion that a
       particular reference is cited, and will apply to all citations of that reference.

       The opening-text and closing-text component specifies strings to be used  to  bracket  the
       label  instead  of the strings specified in the bracket-label command.  If either of these
       components is non-empty, the strings specified in the bracket-label command  will  not  be
       used; this behaviour can be altered using the [ and ] flags.  Note that leading and trail-
       ing spaces are significant for these components.

       The flags component is a list of non-alphanumeric characters each of  which  modifies  the
       treatment  of  this particular citation.  Unix refer will treat these flags as part of the
       keywords and so will ignore them since they are non-alphanumeric.  The following flags are
       currently recognized:

       #      This  says  to  use the label specified by the short-label command, instead of that
	      specified by the label command.  If no short label has been specified,  the  normal
	      label  will be used.  Typically the short label is used with author-date labels and
	      consists of only the date and possibly a disambiguating letter; the #  is  supposed
	      to be suggestive of a numeric type of label.

       [      Precede opening-text with the first string specified in the bracket-label command.

       ]      Follow closing-text with the second string specified in the bracket-label command.

       One  advantages	of using the [ and ] flags rather than including the brackets in opening-
       text and closing-text is that you can change the style of bracket  used	in  the  document
       just by changing the bracket-label command.  Another advantage is that sorting and merging
       of citations will not necessarily be inhibited if the flags are used.

       If a label is to be inserted into the text, it will be attached to the line preceding  the
       .[ line.  If there is no such line, then an extra line will be inserted before the .[ line
       and a warning will be given.

       There is no special notation for making a citation to multiple  references.   Just  use	a
       sequence  of citations, one for each reference.	Don't put anything between the citations.
       The labels for all the citations will be attached to the line preceding	the  first  cita-
       tion.   The  labels  may  also  be  sorted or merged.  See the description of the <> label
       expression, and of the sort-adjacent-labels and abbreviate-label-ranges command.  A  label
       will not be merged if its citation has a non-empty opening-text or closing-text.  However,
       the labels for a citation using the ] flag and without any closing-text	immediately  fol-
       lowed by a citation using the [ flag and without any opening-text may be sorted and merged
       even though the first citation's opening-text or the  second  citation's  closing-text  is
       non-empty.  (If you wish to prevent this just make the first citation's closing-text \&.)

   Commands
       Commands  are  contained  between  lines  starting with .R1 and .R2.  Recognition of these
       lines can be prevented by the -R option.  When a .R1 line is  recognized  any  accumulated
       references  are flushed out.  Neither .R1 nor .R2 lines, nor anything between them is out-
       put.

       Commands are separated by newlines or ;s.  # introduces a comment that extends to the  end
       of  the	line  (but  does not conceal the newline).  Each command is broken up into words.
       Words are separated by spaces or tabs.  A word that begins with " extends to  the  next	"
       that  is  not followed by another ".  If there is no such " the word extends to the end of
       the line.  Pairs of " in a word beginning with " collapse to a single ".  Neither # nor	;
       are  recognized inside "s.  A line can be continued by ending it with \; this works every-
       where except after a #.

       Each command name that is marked with * has an associated negative  command  no-name  that
       undoes  the  effect  of	name.  For example, the no-sort command specifies that references
       should not be sorted.  The negative commands take no arguments.

       In the following description each argument must be a single word; field is used for a sin-
       gle  upper or lower case letter naming a field; fields is used for a sequence of such let-
       ters; m and n are used for a non-negative numbers; string is used for an arbitrary string;
       filename is used for the name of a file.

       abbreviate* fields string1 string2 string3 string4
				Abbreviate  the first names of fields.	An initial letter will be
				separated from another initial letter by string1, from	the  last
				name  by string2, and from anything else (such as a von or de) by
				string3.  These default to a period followed by a  space.   In	a
				hyphenated  first name, the initial of the first part of the name
				will be separated from the hyphen by string4; this defaults to	a
				period.   No attempt is made to handle any ambiguities that might
				result from abbreviation.  Names are abbreviated  before  sorting
				and before label construction.

       abbreviate-label-ranges* string
				Three  or  more  adjacent labels that refer to consecutive refer-
				ences will be abbreviated to a	label  consisting  of  the  first
				label,	followed  by  string followed by the last label.  This is
				mainly useful with numeric  labels.   If  string  is  omitted  it
				defaults to -.

       accumulate*		Accumulate references instead of writing out each reference as it
				is encountered.  Accumulated references will be written out when-
				ever a reference of the form

				       .[
				       $LIST$
				       .]

				is  encountered,  after  all  input files hve been processed, and
				whenever .R1 line is recognized.

       annotate* field string	field is an annotation; print it at the end of the reference as a
				paragraph preceded by the line

				       .string

				If macro is omitted it will default to AP; if field is also omit-
				ted it will default to X.  Only one field can be an annotation.

       articles string...	string... are definite or  indefinite  articles,  and  should  be
				ignored  at  the  beginning of T fields when sorting.  Initially,
				the, a and an are recognized as articles.

       bibliography filename... Write out all the references contained in the bibliographic data-
				bases  filename...   This  command  should come last in a .R1/.R2
				block.

       bracket-label string1 string2 string3
				In the text, bracket each label with  string1  and  string2.   An
				occurrence  of	string2  immediately  followed by string1 will be
				turned into string3.  The default behaviour is

				       bracket-label \*([. \*(.] ", "

       capitalize fields	Convert fields to caps and small caps.

       compatible*		Recognize .R1 and .R2 even when followed  by  a  character  other
				than space or newline.

       database filename...	Search the bibliographic databases filename...	For each filename
				if an index filename.i created by indxbib(1) exists, then it will
				be searched instead; each index can cover multiple databases.

       date-as-label* string	string	is  a label expression that specifies a string with which
				to replace the D field after constructing  the	label.	 See  the
				Label  expressions  subsection for a description of label expres-
				sions.	This command is useful if you do not want explicit labels
				in  the  reference list, but instead want to handle any necessary
				disambiguation by qualifying the date in  some	way.   The  label
				used  in  the  text  would  typically  be some combination of the
				author and date.  In most cases you should also use the no-label-
				in-reference command.  For example,

				       date-as-label D.+yD.y%a*D.-y

				would  attach  a  disambiguating letter to the year part of the D
				field in the reference.

       default-database*	The default database should be searched.  This is the default be-
				haviour,  so the negative version of this command is more useful.
				refer determines whether the default database should be  searched
				on  the  first occasion that it needs to do a search.  Thus a no-
				default-database command must be given before then, in	order  to
				be effective.

       discard* fields		When the reference is read, fields should be discarded; no string
				definitions for fields will be	output.   Initially,  fields  are
				XYZ.

       et-al* string m n	Control  use of et al in the evaluation of @ expressions in label
				expressions.  If the number of authors needed to make the  author
				sequence  unambiguous  is  u and the total number of authors is t
				then the last t-u authors will be  replaced  by  string  provided
				that  t-u  is  not  less  than	m  and t is not less than n.  The
				default behaviour is

				       et-al " et al" 2 3

       include filename 	Include filename and interpret the contents as commands.

       join-authors string1 string2 string3
				This says how authors should be joined together.  When there  are
				exactly  two  authors,	they  will  be joined with string1.  When
				there are more than two authors, all but the  last  two  will  be
				joined with string2, and the last two authors will be joined with
				string3.  If string3 is omitted, it will default to  string1;  if
				string2  is  also  omitted  it will also default to string1.  For
				example,

				       join-authors " and " ", " ", and "

				will restore the default method for joining authors.

       label-in-reference*	When outputting the reference, define the string  [F  to  be  the
				reference's  label.   This is the default behaviour; so the nega-
				tive version of this command is more useful.

       label-in-text*		For each reference output a label in the text.	The label will be
				separated  from the surrounding text as described in the bracket-
				label command.	This is the default behaviour;	so  the  negative
				version of this command is more useful.

       label string		string	is a label expression describing how to label each refer-
				ence.

       separate-label-second-parts string
				When merging two-part labels, separate the  second  part  of  the
				second	label from the first label with string.  See the descrip-
				tion of the <> label expression.

       move-punctuation*	In the text, move any punctuation at the end  of  line	past  the
				label.	It is usually a good idea to give this command unless you
				are using superscripted numbers as labels.

       reverse* string		Reverse the fields whose names are in string.	Each  field  name
				can  be  followed  by  a  number  which says how many such fields
				should be reversed.  If no number is given for a field, all  such
				fields will be reversed.

       search-ignore* fields	While  searching for keys in databases for which no index exists,
				ignore	the  contents  of  fields.   Initially,  fields  XYZ  are
				ignored.

       search-truncate* n	Only  require  the  first  n  characters of keys to be given.  In
				effect when searching for a given key words in the  database  are
				truncated  to  the  maximum of n and the length of the key.  Ini-
				tially n is 6.

       short-label* string	string is a label expression that specifies an alternative  (usu-
				ally  shorter)	style  of label.  This is used when the # flag is
				given in the citation.	When using author-date style labels,  the
				identity  of  the  author  or authors is sometimes clear from the
				context, and so it may be desirable to omit the author or authors
				from  the  label.  The short-label command will typically be used
				to specify a label containing just a date and possibly	a  disam-
				biguating letter.

       sort* string		Sort  references  according to string.	References will automati-
				cally be accumulated.  string should be a list	of  field  names,
				each  followed	by  a number, indicating how many fields with the
				name should be used for sorting.  + can be used to indicate  that
				all  the fields with the name should be used.  Also . can be used
				to indicate the references should be sorted using the (tentative)
				label.	 (The  Label expressions subsection describes the concept
				of a tentative label.)

       sort-adjacent-labels*	Sort labels that are adjacent in  the  text  according	to  their
				position  in  the reference list.  This command should usually be
				given if the abbreviate-label-ranges command has been  given,  or
				if the label expression contains a <> expression.  This will have
				no effect unless references are being accumulated.

   Label expressions
       Label expressions can be evaluated both normally and tentatively.  The  result  of  normal
       evaluation  is  used for output.  The result of tentative evaluation, called the tentative
       label, is used to gather the information that normal evaluation needs to disambiguate  the
       label.	Label expressions specified by the date-as-label and short-label commands are not
       evaluated tentatively.  Normal and tentative evaluation are the	same  for  all	types  of
       expression  other  than	@, *, and % expressions.  The description below applies to normal
       evaluation, except where otherwise specified.

       field
       field n
	      The n-th part of field.  If n is omitted, it defaults to 1.

       'string'
	      The characters in string literally.

       @      All the authors joined as specified by the join-authors command.	The whole of each
	      author's	name will be used.  However, if the references are sorted by author (that
	      is the sort specification starts with A+), then authors' last names  will  be  used
	      instead,	provided that this does not introduce ambiguity, and also an initial sub-
	      sequence of the authors may be used instead of all the authors, again provided that
	      this  does  not  introduce  ambiguity.   The use of only the last name for the i-th
	      author of some reference is considered to be ambiguous if there is some other  ref-
	      erence,  such  that  the first i-1 authors of the references are the same, the i-th
	      authors are not the same, but the i-th authors' last names are the same.	A  proper
	      initial  subsequence of the sequence of authors for some reference is considered to
	      be ambiguous if there is a reference with some other sequence of authors which also
	      has  that subsequence as a proper initial subsequence.  When an initial subsequence
	      of authors is used, the remaining authors are replaced by the string  specified  by
	      the  et-al command; this command may also specify additional requirements that must
	      be met before an initial subsequence can be used.  @  tentatively  evaluates  to	a
	      canonical representation of the authors, such that authors that compare equally for
	      sorting purpose will have the same representation.

       %n
       %a
       %A
       %i
       %I     The serial number of the reference formatted according to the  character	following
	      the %.  The serial number of a reference is 1 plus the number of earlier references
	      with same tentative label as this reference.  These expressions tentatively  evalu-
	      ate to an empty string.

       expr*  If there is another reference with the same tentative label as this reference, then
	      expr, otherwise an empty string.	It tentatively evaluates to an empty string.

       expr+n
       expr-n The first (+) or last (-) n upper or lower case letters or digits of  expr.   Troff
	      special  characters  (such  as  \('a) count as a single letter.  Accent strings are
	      retained but do not count towards the total.

       expr.l expr converted to lowercase.

       expr.u expr converted to uppercase.

       expr.c expr converted to caps and small caps.

       expr.r expr reversed so that the last name is first.

       expr.a expr with first names abbreviated.  Note that fields specified  in  the  abbreviate
	      command  are  abbreviated  before any labels are evaluated.  Thus .a is useful only
	      when you want a field to be abbreviated in a label but not in a reference.

       expr.y The year part of expr.

       expr.+y
	      The part of expr before the year, or the whole of expr if it  does  not  contain	a
	      year.

       expr.-y
	      The  part  of  expr  after  the year, or an empty string if expr does not contain a
	      year.

       expr.n The last name part of expr.

       expr1~expr2
	      expr1 except that if the last character of expr1 is - then it will be  replaced  by
	      expr2.

       expr1 expr2
	      The concatenation of expr1 and expr2.

       expr1|expr2
	      If expr1 is non-empty then expr1 otherwise expr2.

       expr1&expr2
	      If expr1 is non-empty then expr2 otherwise an empty string.

       expr1?expr2:expr3
	      If expr1 is non-empty then expr2 otherwise expr3.

       <expr> The  label  is  in  two  parts, which are separated by expr.  Two adjacent two-part
	      labels which have the same first part will be merged by appending the  second  part
	      of  the  second label onto the first label separated by the string specified in the
	      separate-label-second-parts command (initially, a comma followed by a  space);  the
	      resulting  label	will  also be a two-part label with the same first part as before
	      merging, and so additional labels can be merged into it.	Note that it is permissi-
	      ble  for	the  first part to be empty; this maybe desirable for expressions used in
	      the short-label command.

       (expr) The same as expr.  Used for grouping.

       The above expressions are listed in order of precedence (highest first); & and | have  the
       same precedence.

   Macro interface
       Each  reference	starts	with a call to the macro ]-.  The string [F will be defined to be
       the label for this reference, unless the no-label-in-reference  command	has  been  given.
       There  then  follows  a series of string definitions, one for each field: string [X corre-
       sponds to field X.  The number register [P is set to 1 if the P field contains a range  of
       pages.  The [T, [A and [O number registers are set to 1 according as the T, A and O fields
       end with one of the characters .?!.  The [E number register will be set	to 1  if  the  [E
       string  contains more than one name.  The reference is followed by a call to the ][ macro.
       The first argument to this macro gives a number representing the type  of  the  reference.
       If  a  reference contains a J field, it will be classified as type 1, otherwise if it con-
       tains a B field, it will type 3, otherwise if it contains a  G  or  R  field  it  will  be
       type 4,	otherwise  if  contains a I field it will be type 2, otherwise it will be type 0.
       The second argument is a symbolic name for the type: other, journal-article,  book,  arti-
       cle-in-book  or	tech-report.  Groups of references that have been accumulated or are pro-
       duced by the bibliography command are preceded by a call to the ]< macro and followed by a
       call to the ]> macro.

FILES
       /usr/share/dict/papers/Ind  Default database.

       file.i			   Index files.

ENVIRONMENT
       REFER  If set, overrides the default database.

SEE ALSO
       indxbib(1), lookbib(1), lkbib(1)

BUGS
       In label expressions, <> expressions are ignored inside .char expressions.

Groff Version 1.19.2			 February 6, 2006				 REFER(1)
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