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MTREE(8)			   BSD System Manager's Manual				 MTREE(8)

NAME
     mtree -- map a directory hierarchy

SYNOPSIS
     mtree [-CcDdeLlMPrSUuWx] [-i | -m] [-E tags] [-f spec] [-I tags] [-K keywords] [-k keywords]
	   [-N dbdir] [-p path] [-R keywords] [-s seed] [-X exclude-file]

DESCRIPTION
     The mtree utility compares a file hierarchy against a specification, creates a specification
     for a file hierarchy, or modifies a specification.

     The default action, if not overridden by command line options, is to compare the file hier-
     archy rooted in the current directory against a specification read from the standard input.
     Messages are written to the standard output for any files whose characteristics do not match
     the specification, or which are missing from either the file hierarchy or the specification.

     The options are as follows:

     -C 		Convert a specification into a format that's easier to parse with various
			tools.	The input specification is read from standard input or from the
			file given by -f spec.	In the output, each file or directory is repre-
			sented using a single line (which might be very long).	The full path
			name (beginning with ``./'') is always printed as the first field; -k,
			-K, and -R can be used to control which other keywords are printed; -E
			and -I can be used to control which files are printed; -S option can be
			used to sort the output.

     -c 		Print a specification for the file hierarchy originating at the current
			working directory (or the directory provided by -p path) to the standard
			output.  The output is in a style using relative path names.

     -D 		As per -C, except that the path name is always printed as the last field
			instead of the first.

     -d 		Ignore everything except directory type files.

     -E tags		Add the comma separated tags to the ``exclusion'' list.  Non-directories
			with tags which are in the exclusion list are not printed with -C and -D.

     -e 		Don't complain about files that are in the file hierarchy, but not in the
			specification.

     -f spec		Read the specification from file, instead of from the standard input.

     -I tags		Add the comma separated tags to the ``inclusion'' list.  Non-directories
			with tags which are in the inclusion list are printed with -C and -D.  If
			no inclusion list is provided, the default is to display all files.

     -i 		If specified, set the schg and/or sappnd flags.

     -K keywords	Add the specified (whitespace or comma separated) keywords to the current
			set of keywords.  If 'all' is specified, add all of the other keywords.

     -k keywords	Use the type keyword plus the specified (whitespace or comma separated)
			keywords instead of the current set of keywords.  If 'all' is specified,
			use all of the other keywords.	If the type keyword is not desired, sup-
			press it with -R type.

     -L 		Follow all symbolic links in the file hierarchy.

     -l 		Do ``loose'' permissions checks, in which more stringent permissions will
			match less stringent ones.  For example, a file marked mode 0444 will
			pass a check for mode 0644.  ``Loose'' checks apply only to read, write
			and execute permissions -- in particular, if other bits like the sticky
			bit or suid/sgid bits are set either in the specification or the file,
			exact checking will be performed.  This option may not be set at the same
			time as the -u or -U option.

     -M 		Permit merging of specification entries with different types, with the
			last entry take precedence.

     -m 		If the schg and/or sappnd flags are specified, reset these flags.  Note
			that this is only possible with securelevel less than 1 (i.e., in single
			user mode or while the system is running in insecure mode).  See init(8)
			for information on security levels.

     -N dbdir		Use the user database text file master.passwd and group database text
			file group from dbdir, rather than using the results from the system's
			getpwnam(3) and getgrnam(3) (and related) library calls.

     -P 		Don't follow symbolic links in the file hierarchy, instead consider the
			symbolic link itself in any comparisons.  This is the default.

     -p path		Use the file hierarchy rooted in path, instead of the current directory.

     -R keywords	Remove the specified (whitespace or comma separated) keywords from the
			current set of keywords.  If 'all' is specified, remove all of the other
			keywords.

     -r 		Remove any files in the file hierarchy that are not described in the
			specification.

     -S 		When reading a specification into an internal data structure, sort the
			entries.  Sorting will affect the order of the output produced by the -C
			or -D options, and will also affect the order in which missing entries
			are created or reported when a directory tree is checked against a speci-
			fication.

			The sort order is the same as that used by the -c option, which is that
			entries within the same directory are sorted in the order used by
			strcmp(3), except that entries for subdirectories sort after other
			entries.  By default, if the -S option is not used, entries within the
			same directory are collected together (separated from entries for other
			directories), but not sorted.

     -s seed		Display a single checksum to the standard error output that represents
			all of the files for which the keyword cksum was specified.  The checksum
			is seeded with the specified value.

     -t 		Modify the modified time of existing files, the device type of devices,
			and symbolic link targets, to match the specification.

     -U 		Same as -u except that a mismatch is not considered to be an error if it
			was corrected.

     -u 		Modify the owner, group, permissions, and flags of existing files, the
			device type of devices, and symbolic link targets, to match the specifi-
			cation.  Create any missing directories, devices or symbolic links.
			User, group, and permissions must all be specified for missing directo-
			ries to be created.  Note that unless the -i option is given, the schg
			and sappnd flags will not be set, even if specified.  If -m is given,
			these flags will be reset.  Exit with a status of 0 on success, 2 if the
			file hierarchy did not match the specification, and 1 if any other error
			occurred.

     -W 		Don't attempt to set various file attributes such as the ownership, mode,
			flags, or time when creating new directories or changing existing
			entries.  This option will be most useful when used in conjunction with
			-u or -U.

     -X exclude-file	The specified file contains fnmatch(3) patterns matching files to be
			excluded from the specification, one to a line.  If the pattern contains
			a '/' character, it will be matched against entire pathnames (relative to
			the starting directory); otherwise, it will be matched against basenames
			only.  Comments are permitted in the exclude-list file.

     -x 		Don't descend below mount points in the file hierarchy.

     Specifications are mostly composed of ``keywords'', i.e. strings that that specify values
     relating to files.  No keywords have default values, and if a keyword has no value set, no
     checks based on it are performed.

     Currently supported keywords are as follows:

     cksum	     The checksum of the file using the default algorithm specified by the
		     cksum(1) utility.

     device	     The device number to use for block or char file types.  The argument must be
		     one of the following forms:

		     format,major,minor
			   A device with major and minor fields, for an operating system speci-
			   fied with format.  See below for valid formats.

		     format,major,unit,subunit
			   A device with major, unit, and subunit fields, for an operating system
			   specified with format.  (Currently this is only supported by the bsdos
			   format.)

		     number
			   Opaque number (as stored on the file system).

		     The following values for format are recognized: native, 386bsd, 4bsd, bsdos,
		     freebsd, hpux, isc, linux, netbsd, osf1, sco, solaris, sunos, svr3, svr4,
		     and ultrix.

		     See mknod(8) for more details.

     flags	     The file flags as a symbolic name.  See chflags(1) for information on these
		     names.  If no flags are to be set the string 'none' may be used to override
		     the current default.  Note that the schg and sappnd flags are treated spe-
		     cially (see the -i and -m options).

     ignore	     Ignore any file hierarchy below this file.

     gid	     The file group as a numeric value.

     gname	     The file group as a symbolic name.

     link	     The file the symbolic link is expected to reference.

     md5	     The MD5 cryptographic message digest of the file.

     md5digest	     Synonym for md5.

     mode	     The current file's permissions as a numeric (octal) or symbolic value.

     nlink	     The number of hard links the file is expected to have.

     optional	     The file is optional; don't complain about the file if it's not in the file
		     hierarchy.

     rmd160	     The RMD-160 cryptographic message digest of the file.

     rmd160digest    Synonym for rmd160.

     sha1	     The SHA-1 cryptographic message digest of the file.

     sha1digest      Synonym for sha1.

     sha256	     The 256-bits SHA-2 cryptographic message digest of the file.

     sha256digest    Synonym for sha256.

     sha384	     The 384-bits SHA-2 cryptographic message digest of the file.

     sha384digest    Synonym for sha384.

     sha512	     The 512-bits SHA-2 cryptographic message digest of the file.

     sha512digest    Synonym for sha512.

     size	     The size, in bytes, of the file.

     tags	     Comma delimited tags to be matched with -E and -I.  These may be specified
		     without leading or trailing commas, but will be stored internally with them.

     time	     The last modification time of the file.

     type	     The type of the file; may be set to any one of the following:

		     block   block special device
		     char    character special device
		     dir     directory
		     fifo    fifo
		     file    regular file
		     link    symbolic link
		     socket  socket

     uid	     The file owner as a numeric value.

     uname	     The file owner as a symbolic name.

     The default set of keywords are flags, gid, link, mode, nlink, size, time, type, and uid.

     There are four types of lines in a specification:

     1.   Set global values for a keyword.  This consists of the string '/set' followed by white-
	  space, followed by sets of keyword/value pairs, separated by whitespace.  Keyword/value
	  pairs consist of a keyword, followed by an equals sign ('='), followed by a value,
	  without whitespace characters.  Once a keyword has been set, its value remains
	  unchanged until either reset or unset.

     2.   Unset global values for a keyword.  This consists of the string '/unset', followed by
	  whitespace, followed by one or more keywords, separated by whitespace.  If 'all' is
	  specified, unset all of the keywords.

     3.   A file specification, consisting of a path name, followed by whitespace, followed by
	  zero or more whitespace separated keyword/value pairs.

	  The path name may be preceded by whitespace characters.  The path name may contain any
	  of the standard path name matching characters ('[', ']', '?' or '*'), in which case
	  files in the hierarchy will be associated with the first pattern that they match.
	  mtree uses strsvis(3) (in VIS_CSTYLE format) to encode path names containing non-print-
	  able characters.  Whitespace characters are encoded as '\s' (space), '\t' (tab), and
	  '\n' (new line).  '#' characters in path names are escaped by a preceding backslash '\'
	  to distinguish them from comments.

	  Each of the keyword/value pairs consist of a keyword, followed by an equals sign ('='),
	  followed by the keyword's value, without whitespace characters.  These values override,
	  without changing, the global value of the corresponding keyword.

	  The first path name entry listed must be a directory named '.', as this ensures that
	  intermixing full and relative path names will work consistently and correctly.  Multi-
	  ple entries for a directory named '.' are permitted; the settings for the last such
	  entry override those of the existing entry.

	  A path name that contains a slash ('/') that is not the first character will be treated
	  as a full path (relative to the root of the tree).  All parent directories referenced
	  in the path name must exist.	The current directory path used by relative path names
	  will be updated appropriately.  Multiple entries for the same full path are permitted
	  if the types are the same (unless -M is given, and then the types may differ); in this
	  case the settings for the last entry take precedence.

	  A path name that does not contain a slash will be treated as a relative path.  Specify-
	  ing a directory will cause subsequent files to be searched for in that directory hier-
	  archy.

     4.   A line containing only the string '..' which causes the current directory path (used by
	  relative paths) to ascend one level.

     Empty lines and lines whose first non-whitespace character is a hash mark ('#') are ignored.

     The mtree utility exits with a status of 0 on success, 1 if any error occurred, and 2 if the
     file hierarchy did not match the specification.

FILES
     /etc/mtree  system specification directory

EXAMPLES
     To detect system binaries that have been ``trojan horsed'', it is recommended that mtree be
     run on the file systems, and a copy of the results stored on a different machine, or, at
     least, in encrypted form.	The seed for the -s option should not be an obvious value and the
     final checksum should not be stored on-line under any circumstances!  Then, periodically,
     mtree should be run against the on-line specifications and the final checksum compared with
     the previous value.  While it is possible for the bad guys to change the on-line specifica-
     tions to conform to their modified binaries, it shouldn't be possible for them to make it
     produce the same final checksum value.  If the final checksum value changes, the off-line
     copies of the specification can be used to detect which of the binaries have actually been
     modified.

     The -d and -u options can be used in combination to create directory hierarchies for distri-
     butions and other such things.

SEE ALSO
     chflags(1), chgrp(1), chmod(1), cksum(1), stat(2), fnmatch(3), fts(3), strsvis(3), chown(8),
     mknod(8)

HISTORY
     The mtree utility appeared in 4.3BSD-Reno.  The optional keyword appeared in NetBSD 1.2.
     The -U option appeared in NetBSD 1.3.  The flags and md5 keywords, and -i and -m options
     appeared in NetBSD 1.4.  The device, rmd160, sha1, tags, and all keywords, -D, -E, -I, -l,
     -L, -N, -P, -R, -W, and -X options, and support for full paths appeared in NetBSD 1.6.  The
     sha256, sha384, and sha512 keywords appeared in NetBSD 3.0.  The -S option appeared in
     NetBSD 6.0.

BSD					 January 20, 2010				      BSD
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