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NetBSD 6.1.5 - man page for installboot (netbsd section 8)

INSTALLBOOT(8)			   BSD System Manager's Manual			   INSTALLBOOT(8)

NAME
     installboot -- install disk bootstrap software

SYNOPSIS
     installboot [-fnv] [-B s2bno] [-b s1bno] [-m machine] [-o options] [-t fstype] filesystem
		 primary [secondary]
     installboot -c [-fnv] [-m machine] [-o options] [-t fstype] filesystem
     installboot -e [-fnv] [-m machine] [-o options] bootstrap

DESCRIPTION
     The installboot utility installs and removes NetBSD disk bootstrap software into a file sys-
     tem.  installboot can install primary into filesystem, or disable an existing bootstrap in
     filesystem.

     On some architectures the options of an existing installed bootstrap, or those of a boot-
     strap file can be changed.  Installing a new primary bootstrap will reset those options to
     default values.

     Generally, NetBSD disk bootstrap software consists of two parts: a ``primary'' bootstrap
     program usually written into the disklabel area of the file system by installboot, and a
     ``secondary'' bootstrap program that usually resides as an ordinary file in the file system.

     When booting, the primary bootstrap program is loaded and invoked by the machine's PROM or
     BIOS.  After receiving control of the system it loads and runs the secondary bootstrap pro-
     gram, which in turn loads and runs the kernel.  The secondary bootstrap may allow control
     over various boot parameters passed to the kernel.

     Perform the following steps to make a file system bootable:

     1.   Copy the secondary bootstrap (usually /usr/mdec/boot.MACHINE or /usr/mdec/boot) to the
	  root directory of the target file system.

     2.   Use installboot to install the primary bootstrap program (usually
	  /usr/mdec/bootxx_FSTYPE) into filesystem.

	  The following platforms do not require this step if the primary bootstrap already
	  exists and the secondary bootstrap file is just being updated: alpha, amd64, amiga,
	  i386, pmax, sparc64, and vax.

	  The following platform does not require the first step since a single bootstrap file is
	  used.  The single bootstrap is installed like the primary bootstrap on other platforms:
	  next68k.

     The options and arguments recognized by installboot are as follows:

     -B s2bno	 When hard-coding the blocks of secondary into primary, start from block s2bno
		 instead of trying to determine the block numbers occupied by secondary by exam-
		 ining filesystem.  If this option is supplied, secondary should refer to an
		 actual secondary bootstrap (rather than the file name of the one present in
		 filesystem) so that its size can be determined.

     -b s1bno	 Install primary at block number s1bno instead of the default location for the
		 machine and file system type.	[alpha, pmax, vax]

     -c 	 Clear (remove) any existing bootstrap instead of installing one.

     -e 	 Edit the options of an existing bootstrap.  This can be use to change the
		 options in bootxx_xxxfs files, raw disk partitions, and the pxeboot_ia32.bin
		 file.	With -v and without -o, show the current options.  [amd64, i386]

     -f 	 Forces installboot to ignore some errors.

     -m machine  Use machine as the target machine type.  The default machine is determined from
		 uname(3) and then MACHINE.  The following machines are currently supported by
		 installboot:

		       alpha, amd64, amiga, ews4800mips, hp300, hp700, i386, landisk, macppc,
		       news68k, newsmips, next68k, pmax, sparc, sparc64, sun2, sun3, vax, x68k

     -n 	 Do not write to filesystem.

     -o options  Machine specific installboot options, comma separated.

		 Supported options are (with the machines for they are valid in brackets):

		       alphasum  [alpha] Recalculate and restore the Alpha checksum.  This is the
				 default for NetBSD/alpha.

		       append	 [alpha, pmax, vax] Append primary to the end of filesystem,
				 which must be a regular file in this case.

		       bootconf  [amd64, i386] (Don't) read a ``boot.cfg'' file.

		       command=<boot command>
				 [amiga] Modify the default boot command line.

		       console=<console name>
				 [amd64, i386] Set the console device, <console name> must be one
				 of: pc, com0, com1, com2, com3, com0kbd, com1kbd, com2kbd or
				 com3kbd.

		       ioaddr=<ioaddr>
				 [amd64, i386] Set the IO address to be used for the console
				 serial port.  Defaults to the IO address used by the system BIOS
				 for the specified port.

		       keymap=<keymap>
				 [amd64, i386] Set a boot time keyboard translation map.  Each
				 character in <keymap> will be replaced by the one following it.
				 For example, an argument of ``zyz'' would swap the lowercase
				 letters 'y' and 'z'.

		       modules	 [amd64, i386] (Don't) load kernel modules.

		       password=<password>
				 [amd64, i386] Set the password which must be entered before the
				 boot menu can be accessed.

		       resetvideo
				 [amd64, i386] Reset the video before booting.

		       speed=<baud rate>
				 [amd64, i386] Set the baud rate for the serial console.  If a
				 value of zero is specified, then the current baud rate (set by
				 the BIOS) will be used.

		       sunsum	 [alpha, pmax, vax] Recalculate and restore the Sun and
				 NetBSD/sparc compatible checksum.  Note: The existing
				 NetBSD/sparc disklabel should use no more than 4 partitions.

		       timeout=<seconds>
				 [amd64, i386] Set the timeout before the automatic boot begins
				 to the given number of seconds.

     -t fstype	 Use fstype as the type of filesystem.	The default operation is to attempt to
		 auto-detect this setting.  The following file system types are currently sup-
		 ported by installboot:

		       ffs   BSD Fast File System.

		       raid  Mirrored RAIDframe File System.

		       raw   'Raw' image.  Note: if a platform needs to hard-code the block off-
			     set of the secondary bootstrap, it cannot be searched for on this
			     file system type, and must be provided with -B s2bno.

     -v 	 Verbose operation.

     filesystem  The path name of the device or file system image that installboot is to operate
		 on.  It is not necessary for filesystem to be a currently mounted file system.

     primary	 The path name of the ``primary'' boot block to install.  The path name must
		 refer to a file in a file system that is currently mounted.

     secondary	 The path name of the ``secondary'' boot block, relative to the root of the file
		 system in the device or image specified by the filesystem argument.  Note that
		 this may refer to a file in a file system that is not mounted.  Most systems
		 require secondary to be in the ``root'' directory of the file system, so the
		 leading ``/'' is not necessary on secondary.

		 Only certain combinations of platform (-m machine) and file system type (-t
		 fstype) require that the name of the secondary bootstrap is supplied as
		 secondary, so that information such as the disk block numbers occupied by the
		 secondary bootstrap can be stored in the primary bootstrap.  These are:

		       Platform    File systems
		       macppc	   ffs, raw
		       news68k	   ffs, raw
		       newsmips    ffs, raw
		       sparc	   ffs, raid, raw
		       sun2	   ffs, raw
		       sun3	   ffs, raw

     installboot exits 0 on success, and >0 if an error occurs.

ENVIRONMENT
     installboot uses the following environment variables:

     MACHINE  Default value for machine, overriding the result from uname(3).

FILES
     Most NetBSD ports will contain variations of the following files:

     /usr/mdec/bootxx_FSTYPE   Primary bootstrap for file system type FSTYPE.  Installed into the
			       bootstrap area of the file system by installboot.

     /usr/mdec/bootxx_fat16    Primary bootstrap for MS-DOS FAT16 file systems.  This differs
			       from bootxx_msdos in that it doesn't require the filesystem to
			       have been initialised with any 'reserved sectors'.  It also uses
			       the information in the 'Boot Parameter Block' to get the media and
			       filesytem properties.

     /usr/mdec/bootxx_ffsv1    Primary bootstrap for FFSv1 file systems (the 'traditional' file
			       system prior to NetBSD 6.0).  Use dumpfs(8) to confirm the file
			       system format is FFSv1.

     /usr/mdec/bootxx_ffsv2    Primary bootstrap for FFSv2 file systems (the default file system
			       for some platforms as of NetBSD 6.0).  Use dumpfs(8) to confirm
			       the file system format is FFSv2.

     /usr/mdec/bootxx_lfsv1    Primary bootstrap for LFSv1 file systems.

     /usr/mdec/bootxx_lfsv2    Primary bootstrap for LFSv2 file systems (the default LFS ver-
			       sion).

     /usr/mdec/bootxx_msdos    Primary bootstrap for MS-DOS FAT file systems.

     /usr/mdec/bootxx_ustarfs  Primary bootstrap for TARFS boot images.  This is used by various
			       install media.

     /usr/mdec/boot.MACHINE    Secondary bootstrap for machine type MACHINE.  This should be
			       installed into the file system before installboot is run.

     /usr/mdec/boot	       Synonym for /usr/mdec/boot.MACHINE

     /boot.MACHINE	       Installed copy of secondary bootstrap for machine type MACHINE.

     /boot		       Installed copy of secondary bootstrap.  Searched for by the pri-
			       mary bootstrap if /boot.MACHINE is not found.

   NetBSD/hp700 files
     /usr/mdec/xxboot	       NetBSD/hp700 primary bootstrap for FFSv1, FFSv2, LFSv1, and LFSv2.

     /usr/mdec/cdboot	       NetBSD/hp700 primary bootstrap for ISO 9660 file system.

     /usr/mdec/sdboot	       Synonym for /usr/mdec/xxboot

   NetBSD/macppc files
     /usr/mdec/bootxx	       NetBSD/macppc primary bootstrap.

     /usr/mdec/ofwboot	       NetBSD/macppc secondary bootstrap.

     /ofwboot		       Installed copy of NetBSD/macppc secondary bootstrap.

   NetBSD/next68k files
     /usr/mdec/boot	       NetBSD/next68k bootstrap.

   NetBSD/sparc64 files
     /usr/mdec/bootblk	       NetBSD/sparc64 primary bootstrap.

     /usr/mdec/ofwboot	       NetBSD/sparc64 secondary bootstrap.

     /ofwboot		       Installed copy of NetBSD/sparc64 secondary bootstrap.

EXAMPLES
   common
     Verbosely install the Berkeley Fast File System primary bootstrap on to disk 'sd0':
	   installboot -v /dev/rsd0c /usr/mdec/bootxx_ffs
     Note: the ``whole disk'' partition (c on some ports, d on others) is used here, since the a
     partition probably is already opened (mounted as /), so installboot would not be able to
     access it.

     Remove the primary bootstrap from disk 'sd1':
	   installboot -c /dev/rsd1c

   NetBSD/amiga
     Modify the command line to change the default from "netbsd -ASn2" to "netbsd -S":
	   installboot -m amiga -o command="netbsd -S" /dev/rsd0a /usr/mdec/bootxx_ffs

   NetBSD/ews4800mips
     Install the System V Boot File System primary bootstrap on to disk 'sd0', with the secondary
     bootstrap '/boot' already present in the SysVBFS partition on the disk:
	   installboot /dev/rsd0c /usr/mdec/bootxx_bfs

   NetBSD/i386 and NetBSD/amd64
     Install new boot blocks on an existing FFSv2 mounted root file system on 'wd0', setting the
     timeout to five seconds, after copying a new secondary bootstrap:
	   cp /usr/mdec/boot /boot
	   installboot -v -o timeout=5 /dev/rwd0a /usr/mdec/bootxx_ffsv2
		 Note: Pre NetBSD 6.0 systems used FFSv1 file systems on these platforms; double
		 check with dumpfs(8) to be sure to use the correct secondary bootstrap.

     Create a bootable CD-ROM with an ISO 9660 file system for an i386 system with a serial con-
     sole:
	   mkdir cdrom
	   cp sys/arch/i386/compile/mykernel/netbsd cdrom/netbsd
	   cp /usr/mdec/boot cdrom/boot
	   cp /usr/mdec/bootxx_cd9660 bootxx
	   installboot -o console=com0,speed=19200 -m i386 -e bootxx
	   makefs -t cd9660 -o 'bootimage=i386;bootxx,no-emul-boot' boot.iso	  cdrom

     Create a bootable floppy disk with an FFSv1 file system for a small custom kernel (note:
     bigger kernels needing multiple disks are handled with the ustarfs file system):
	   newfs -s 1440k /dev/rfd0a
		 Note: Ignore the warnings that newfs(8) displays; it can not write a disklabel,
		 which is not a problem for a floppy disk.
	   mount /dev/fd0a /mnt
	   cp /usr/mdec/boot /mnt/boot
	   gzip -9 < sys/arch/i386/compile/mykernel/netbsd > /mnt/netbsd.gz
	   umount /mnt
	   installboot -v /dev/rfd0a /usr/mdec/bootxx_ffsv1

     Create a bootable FAT file system on 'wd1a', which should have the same offset and size as a
     FAT primary partition in the Master Boot Record (MBR):
	   newfs_msdos -r 16 /dev/rwd1a
		 Notes: The -r 16 is to reserve space for the primary bootstrap.  newfs_msdos(8)
		 will display an ``MBR type'' such as '1', '4', or '6'; the MBR partition type of
		 the appropriate primary partition should be changed to this value.
	   mount -t msdos /dev/wd1a /mnt
	   cp /usr/mdec/boot /mnt/boot
	   cp path/to/kernel /mnt/netbsd
	   umount /mnt
	   installboot -t raw /dev/rwd1a /usr/mdec/bootxx_msdos

     Make the existing FAT16 filesystem on 'sd0e' bootable.  This can be used to make USB memory
     bootable provided it has 512 byte sectors and that the manufacturer correctly initialised
     the file system.
	   mount -t msdos /dev/sd0e /mnt
	   cp /usr/mdec/boot /mnt/boot
	   cp path/to/kernel /mnt/netbsd
	   umount /mnt
	   installboot /dev/rsd0e /usr/mdec/bootxx_fat16
     It may also be necessary to use fdisk to make the device itself bootable.

     Switch the existing installed bootstrap to use a serial console without reinstalling or
     altering other options such as timeout.
	   installboot -e -o console=com0 /dev/rwd0a

   NetBSD/macppc
     Note the installboot utility is only required for macppc machines with OpenFirmware version
     2 to boot.  OpenFirmware 3 cannot load bootblocks specified in the Apple partition map.

     Install the Berkeley Fast File System primary bootstrap on to disk 'wd0':
	   installboot /dev/rwd0c /usr/mdec/bootxx /ofwboot

     The secondary NetBSD/macppc bootstrap is located in /usr/mdec/ofwboot.

     The primary bootstrap requires the raw ofwboot for the secondary bootstrap, not ofwboot.xcf,
     which is used for the OpenFirmware to load kernels.

   NetBSD/next68k
     Install the bootstrap on to disk 'sd0':
	   installboot /dev/rsd0c /usr/mdec/boot

   NetBSD/pmax
     Install the Berkeley Fast File System primary bootstrap on to disk 'sd0':
	   installboot /dev/rsd0c /usr/mdec/bootxx_ffs

     NetBSD/pmax requires that this file system starts at block 0 of the disk.

     Install the ISO 9660 primary bootstrap in the file /tmp/cd-image:
	   installboot -m pmax /tmp/cd-image /usr/mdec/bootxx_cd9660

     Make an ISO 9660 filesystem in the file /tmp/cd-image and install the ISO 9660 primary boot-
     strap in the filesystem, where the source directory for the ISO 9660 filesystem contains a
     kernel, the primary bootstrap bootxx_cd9660 and the secondary bootstrap boot.pmax:
	   mkisofs -o /tmp/cd-image -a -l -v iso-source-dir
	   ...
	   48 51 iso-source-dir/bootxx_cd9660
	   ...
	   installboot -b `expr 48 \* 4` /tmp/cd-image /usr/mdec/bootxx_cd9660

   NetBSD/sparc
     Install the Berkeley Fast File System primary bootstrap on to disk 'sd0', with the secondary
     bootstrap '/boot' already present:
	   installboot /dev/rsd0c /usr/mdec/bootxx /boot

   NetBSD/sparc64
     Install the primary bootstrap on to disk 'sd0':
	   installboot /dev/rsd0c /usr/mdec/bootblk

     The secondary NetBSD/sparc64 bootstrap is located in /usr/mdec/ofwboot.

   NetBSD/sun2 and NetBSD/sun3
     Install the Berkeley Fast File System primary bootstrap on to disk 'sd0', with the secondary
     bootstrap '/boot' already present:
	   installboot /dev/rsd0c /usr/mdec/bootxx /boot

SEE ALSO
     uname(3), boot(8), disklabel(8), dumpfs(8), fdisk(8), pxeboot(8)

HISTORY
     This implementation of installboot appeared in NetBSD 1.6.

AUTHORS
     The machine independent portion of this implementation of installboot was written by Luke
     Mewburn.  The following people contributed to the various machine dependent back-ends: Simon
     Burge (pmax), Chris Demetriou (alpha), Matthew Fredette (sun2, sun3), Matthew Green
     (sparc64), Ross Harvey (alpha), Michael Hitch (amiga), Paul Kranenburg (sparc), David Laight
     (i386), Christian Limpach (next68k), Luke Mewburn (macppc), Matt Thomas (vax), Izumi Tsutsui
     (news68k, newsmips), and UCHIYAMA Yasushi (ews4800mips).

BUGS
     There are not currently primary bootstraps to support all file systems types which are capa-
     ble of being the root file system.

     If a disk has been converted from FFS to RAID without the contents of the disk erased, then
     the original FFS installation may be auto-detected instead of the RAID installation.  In
     this case, the -t raid option must be provided.

   NetBSD/alpha
     The NetBSD/alpha primary bootstrap program can only load the secondary bootstrap program
     from file systems starting at the beginning (block 0) of disks.  Similarly, the secondary
     bootstrap program can only load kernels from file systems starting at the beginning of
     disks.

     The size of primary bootstrap programs is restricted to 7.5KB, even though some file systems
     (e.g., ISO 9660) are able to accommodate larger ones.

   NetBSD/hp300
     The disk must have a boot partition large enough to hold the bootstrap code.  Currently the
     primary bootstrap must be a LIF format file.

   NetBSD/i386 and NetBSD/amd64
     The bootstrap must be installed in the NetBSD partition that starts at the beginning of the
     mbr partition.  If that is a valid filesystem and contains the /boot program then it will be
     used as the root filesystem, otherwise the 'a' partition will be booted.

     The size of primary bootstrap programs is restricted to 8KB, even though some file systems
     (e.g., ISO 9660) are able to accommodate larger ones.

   NetBSD/macppc
     Due to restrictions in installboot and the secondary bootstrap implementation, file systems
     where kernels exist must start at the beginning of disks.

     Currently, installboot doesn't recognize an existing Apple partition map on the disk and
     always writes a faked map to make disks bootable.

     The NetBSD/macppc bootstrap program can't load kernels from FFSv2 partitions.

   NetBSD/next68k
     The size of bootstrap programs is restricted to the free space before the file system at the
     beginning of the disk minus 8KB.

   NetBSD/pmax
     The NetBSD/pmax secondary bootstrap program can only load kernels from file systems starting
     at the beginning of disks.

     The size of primary bootstrap programs is restricted to 7.5KB, even though some file systems
     (e.g., ISO 9660) are able to accommodate larger ones.

   NetBSD/sun2 and NetBSD/sun3
     The NetBSD/sun2 and NetBSD/sun3 secondary bootstrap program can only load kernels from file
     systems starting at the beginning of disks.

   NetBSD/vax
     The NetBSD/vax secondary bootstrap program can only load kernels from file systems starting
     at the beginning of disks.

     The size of primary bootstrap programs is restricted to 7.5KB, even though some file systems
     (e.g., ISO 9660) are able to accommodate larger ones.

BSD					February 11, 2012				      BSD


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