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NetBSD 6.1.5 - man page for compat_freebsd (netbsd section 8)

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COMPAT_FREEBSD(8)		   BSD System Manager's Manual			COMPAT_FREEBSD(8)

NAME
     compat_freebsd -- setup procedure for running FreeBSD binaries

DESCRIPTION
     NetBSD supports running FreeBSD binaries.	Most binaries should work, except programs that
     use FreeBSD-specific features.  These include i386-specific calls, such as syscons utili-
     ties.  The FreeBSD compatibility feature is active for kernels compiled with the
     COMPAT_FREEBSD option enabled.

     A lot of programs are dynamically linked.	This means, that you will also need the FreeBSD
     shared libraries that the program depends on, and the runtime linker.  Also, you will need
     to create a ``shadow root'' directory for FreeBSD binaries on your NetBSD system.	This
     directory is named /emul/freebsd.	Any file operations done by FreeBSD programs run under
     NetBSD will look in this directory first.	So, if a FreeBSD program opens, for example,
     /etc/passwd, NetBSD will first try to open /emul/freebsd/etc/passwd, and if that does not
     exist open the 'real' /etc/passwd file.  It is recommended that you install FreeBSD packages
     that include configuration files, etc under /emul/freebsd, to avoid naming conflicts with
     possible NetBSD counterparts.  Shared libraries should also be installed in the shadow tree.

     Generally, you will need to look for the shared libraries that FreeBSD binaries depend on
     only the first few times that you install a FreeBSD program on your NetBSD system.  After a
     while, you will have a sufficient set of FreeBSD shared libraries on your system to be able
     to run newly imported FreeBSD binaries without any extra work.

   Setting up shared libraries
     How to get to know which shared libraries FreeBSD binaries need, and where to get them?
     Basically, there are 2 possibilities (when following these instructions: you will need to be
     root on your NetBSD system to do the necessary installation steps).

     1.   You have access to a FreeBSD system.	In this case you can temporarily install the
	  binary there, see what shared libraries it needs, and copy them to your NetBSD system.
	  Example: you have just ftp-ed the FreeBSD binary of SimCity.	Put it on the FreeBSD
	  system you have access to, and check which shared libraries it needs by running 'ldd
	  sim':

		me@freebsd% ldd /usr/local/lib/SimCity/res/sim
		/usr/local/lib/SimCity/res/sim:
			-lXext.6 => /usr/X11R6/lib/libXext.so.6.0 (0x100c1000)
			-lX11.6 => /usr/X11R6/lib/libX11.so.6.0 (0x100c9000)
			-lc.2 => /usr/lib/libc.so.2.1 (0x10144000)
			-lm.2 => /usr/lib/libm.so.2.0 (0x101a7000)
			-lgcc.261 => /usr/lib/libgcc.so.261.0 (0x101bf000)

	  You would need go get all the files from the last column, and put them under
	  /emul/freebsd.  This means you eventually have these files on your NetBSD system:
	  /emul/freebsd/usr/X11R6/lib/libXext.so.6.0
	  /emul/freebsd/usr/X11R6/lib/libX11.so.6.0
	  /emul/freebsd/usr/lib/libc.so.2.1
	  /emul/freebsd/usr/lib/libm.so.2.0
	  /emul/freebsd/usr/lib/libgcc.so.261.0

	  Note that if you already have a FreeBSD shared library with a matching major revision
	  number to the first column of the ldd output, you won't need to copy the file named in
	  the last column to your system, the one you already have should work.  It is advisable
	  to copy the shared library anyway if it is a newer version, though.  You can remove the
	  old one.  So, if you have these libraries on your system:
	  /emul/freebsd/usr/lib/libc.so.2.0

	  and you find that the ldd output for a new binary you want to install is:

	  -lc.2 => /usr/lib/libc.so.2.1 (0x10144000)

	  You won't need to worry about copying /usr/lib/libc.so.2.1 too, because the program
	  should work fine with the slightly older version.  You can decide to replace the
	  libc.so anyway, and that should leave you with:
	  /emul/freebsd/usr/lib/libc.so.2.1

	  Finally, you must make sure that you have the FreeBSD runtime linker and its config
	  files on your system.  You should copy these files from the FreeBSD system to their
	  appropriate place on your NetBSD system (in the /emul/freebsd tree):
	  usr/libexec/ld.so
	  var/run/ld.so.hints
     2.   You don't have access to a FreeBSD system.  In that case, you should get the extra
	  files you need from various ftp sites.  Information on where to look for the various
	  files is appended below.  For now, let's assume you know where to get the files.

	  Retrieve the following files (from _one_ ftp site to avoid any version mismatches), and
	  install them under /emul/freebsd (i.e.  foo/bar is installed as /emul/freebsd/foo/bar):
	  sbin/ldconfig
	  usr/bin/ldd
	  usr/lib/libc.so.x.y.z
	  usr/libexec/ld.so

	  ldconfig and ldd don't necessarily need to be under /emul/freebsd, you can install them
	  elsewhere in the system too.	Just make sure they don't conflict with their NetBSD
	  counterparts.  A good idea would be to install them in /usr/local/bin as
	  ldconfig-freebsd and ldd-freebsd.

	  Run the FreeBSD ldconfig program with directory arguments in which the FreeBSD runtime
	  linker should look for shared libs.  /usr/lib are standard, you could run like the fol-
	  lowing:

		me@netbsd% mkdir -p /emul/freebsd/var/run
		me@netbsd% touch /emul/freebsd/var/run/ld.so.hints
		me@netbsd% ldconfig-freebsd /usr/X11R6/lib /usr/local/lib

	  Note that argument directories of ldconfig are mapped to /emul/freebsd/XXXX by NetBSD's
	  compat code, and should exist as such on your system.  Make sure
	  /emul/freebsd/var/run/ld.so.hints is existing when you run FreeBSD's ldconfig, if not,
	  you may lose NetBSD's /var/run/ld.so.hints.  FreeBSD ldconfig should be statically
	  linked, so it doesn't need any shared libraries by itself.  It will create the file
	  /emul/freebsd/var/run/ld.so.hints.  You should rerun the FreeBSD version of the ldcon-
	  fig program each time you add a new shared library.

	  You should now be set up for FreeBSD binaries which only need a shared libc.	You can
	  test this by running the FreeBSD ldd on itself.  Suppose that you have it installed as
	  ldd-freebsd, it should produce something like:

		me@netbsd% ldd-freebsd `which ldd-freebsd`
		/usr/local/bin/ldd-freebsd:
			-lc.2 => /usr/lib/libc.so.2.1 (0x1001a000)

	  This being done, you are ready to install new FreeBSD binaries.  Whenever you install a
	  new FreeBSD program, you should check if it needs shared libraries, and if so, whether
	  you have them installed in the /emul/freebsd tree.  To do this, you run the FreeBSD
	  version ldd on the new program, and watch its output.  ldd (see also the manual page
	  for ldd(1)) will print a list of shared libraries that the program depends on, in the
	  form -l<majorname> => <fullname>.

	  If it prints ``not found'' instead of <fullname> it means that you need an extra
	  library.  Which library this is, is shown in <majorname>, which will be of the form
	  XXXX.<N> You will need to find a libXXXX.so.<N>.<mm> on a FreeBSD ftp site, and install
	  it on your system.  The XXXX (name) and <N> (major revision number) should match; the
	  minor number(s) <mm> are less important, though it is advised to take the most recent
	  version.

     3.   In some cases, FreeBSD binary needs access to certain device file.  For example,
	  FreeBSD X server software needs FreeBSD /dev/ttyv0 for ioctls.  In this case, create a
	  symbolic link from /emul/freebsd/dev/ttyv0 to a wscons(4) device file like /dev/ttyE0.
	  You will need to have at least options WSDISPLAY_COMPAT_SYSCONS and probably also
	  options WSDISPLAY_COMPAT_USL in your kernel (see options(4) and wscons(4)).

   Finding the necessary files
     Note: the information below is valid as of the time this document was written (June, 1995),
     but certain details such as names of ftp sites, directories and distribution names may have
     changed by the time you read this.

     The FreeBSD distribution is available on a lot of ftp sites.  Sometimes the files are
     unpacked, and you can get the individual files you need, but mostly they are stored in dis-
     tribution sets, usually consisting of subdirectories with gzipped tar files in them.  The
     primary ftp sites for the distributions are:
	   ftp.freebsd.org:/pub/FreeBSD

     Mirror sites are described on:
	   ftp.freebsd.org:/pub/FreeBSD/MIRROR.SITES

     This distribution consists of a number of tar-ed and gzipped files, Normally, they're con-
     trolled by an install program, but you can retrieve files ``by hand'' too.  The way to look
     something up is to retrieve all the files in the distribution, and ``tar ztvf'' through them
     for the file you need.  Here is an example of a list of files that you might need.

	   Needed		  Files

	   ld.so		  2.0-RELEASE/bindist/bindist.??
	   ldconfig		  2.0-RELEASE/bindist/bindist.??
	   ldd			  2.0-RELEASE/bindist/bindist.??
	   libc.so.2		  2.0-RELEASE/bindist/bindist.??
	   libX11.so.6.0	  2.0-RELEASE/XFree86-3.1/XFree86-3.1-bin.tar.gz
	   libX11.so.6.0	  XFree86-3.1.1/X311bin.tgz
	   libXt.so.6.0 	  2.0-RELEASE/XFree86-3.1/XFree86-3.1-bin.tar.gz
	   libXt.so.6.0 	  XFree86-3.1.1/X311bin.tgz

     The files called ``bindist.??'' are tar-ed, gzipped and split, so you can extract contents
     by ``cat bindist.?? | tar zpxf -''.

     Extract the files from these gzipped tarfiles in your /emul/freebsd directory (possibly
     omitting or afterwards removing files you don't need), and you are done.

BUGS
     The information about FreeBSD distributions may become outdated.

BSD					   June 4, 1995 				      BSD
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