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hier(7) [netbsd man page]

HIER(7) 					       BSD Miscellaneous Information Manual						   HIER(7)

hier -- layout of filesystems DESCRIPTION
An outline of the filesystem hierarchy. Naming is very important. The UNIX System relies on filename conventions for much of its power as a system. The following file system lay- out describes generally where things are and what they are, with references to other man pages for more detailed documentation. Not all files will be in every system. / root directory of the system /COPYRIGHT system copyright notice, most often put on CD-ROM distributions. /[a-z]/ user filesystems /altroot/ alternate root filesystem, in case of disaster /bin/ utilities used in both single and multi-user environments /boot* second-stage boot loader(s) for some platforms; see installboot(8) /cdrom/ empty directory commonly used by system administrators as a temporary mount point for CD devices for ISO-9660 file systems /dev/ block, character and other special device files MAKEDEV script for creating device files; see makedev(8) console the computer's console device drum system swap space; see drum(4) fd/ file descriptor files; see fd(4) klog kernel logging device; see syslog(3) kmem kernel virtual memory device; see mem(4) log UNIX domain datagram log socket; see syslogd(8) mem kernel physical memory device; see mem(4) null the null device; see null(4) pts/ mount point for the pseudo-terminal device file system; see mount_ptyfs(8) stderr stdin stdout file descriptor files; see fd(4) tty process' controlling terminal device; see tty(4) zero the zero device; see zero(4) /etc/ system configuration files and scripts amd* configuration files for amd(8) changelist files backed up by the security script crontab schedule used by the cron(8) daemon csh.cshrc csh.login csh.logout system-wide scripts for csh(1) daily script run each day by cron(8) daily.conf configuration file for daily; see daily.conf(5) defaults/ default configuration files read by various /etc/*.conf files disktab disk description file, see disktab(5) dm.conf dungeon master configuration; see dm.conf(5) dumpdates dump history; see dump(8) exports filesystem export information; see mountd(8) fstab filesystem information; see fstab(5) and mount(8) ftpusers users denied ftp(1) access; see ftpd(8) ftpwelcome ftp(1) initial message; see ftpd(8) gettytab terminal configuration database; see gettytab(5) group group permissions file; see group(5) hosts host name database backup for named(8); see hosts(5) hosts.equiv trusted machines with equivalent user ID's hosts.lpd trusted machines with printing privileges inetd.conf Internet server configuration file; see inetd(8) kerberosV/ configuration files for the kerberos version V; see kerberos(8) localtime local timezone information; see ctime(3) mail/ configuration files for sendmail(8) aliases* name alias files sendmail.* sendmail(8) configuration information mail.rc system-wide initialization script for mail(1) man.conf configuration file for man(1); see man.conf(5) master.passwd Main password file, readable only by root; see passwd(5) mk.conf optional file containing make(1) variables, read by pkgsrc and the system sources. monthly script run each month by cron(8) monthly.conf configuration file for monthly; see monthly.conf(5) motd system message of the day mtree/ mtree configuration files; see mtree(8) named.* namedb/ named configuration files and databases; see named(8) netgroup network groups; see netgroup(5) netstart network startup script networks network name data base; see networks(5) passwd World readable password file generated from master.passwd; see passwd(5), pwd_mkdb(8) phones remote host phone number data base; see phones(5) printcap system printer configuration; see printcap(5) protocols protocol name database; see protocols(5) pwd.db database form of passwd file; see pwd_mkdb(8) rc master system startup script invoked by init(8); see rc(8) rc.conf configuration file for system startup and shutdown scripts; see rc.conf(5) rc.d/ directory containing per-subsystem startup and shutdown scripts; see rc(8) rc.local locally editable system startup script rc.shutdown master system shutdown script invoked by shutdown(8); see rc(8) remote remote host description file; see remote(5) security daily (in)security script run by cron(8) security.conf configuration file for security; see security.conf(5) services service name data base; see services(5) shells list of permitted shells; see shells(5) sliphome/ SLIP login/logout scripts; see sliplogin(8) spwd.db database form of master.passwd file; see pwd_mkdb(8) syslog.conf syslogd(8) configuration file; see syslog.conf(5) termcap terminal type database; see termcap(3) ttys terminal initialization information; see ttys(5) weekly script run each week by cron(8) weekly.conf configuration file for weekly; see weekly.conf(5) /home/ mount point for the automounter; see amd(8) /kern/ mount point for the kern file system; see mount_kernfs(8) /lib/ dynamic linked libraries used by dynamic linked programs (such as those in /bin/ and /sbin/) that cannot rely upon /usr/lib/ being available. /libexec/ system utilities (such as the dynamic linker) required by programs and libraries that cannot rely upon /usr/libexec/ being avail- able. /mnt/ empty directory commonly used by system administrators as a temporary mount point /netbsd pure kernel executable (the operating system loaded into memory at boot time). /proc/ mount point for the process file system; see mount_procfs(8) /rescue/ statically linked rescue tools, for use in system recovery /root/ home directory for the super-user .cshrc super-user start-up file .login super-user start-up file .profile super-user start-up file .rhosts super-user id mapping between machines /sbin/ system programs and administration utilities used in both single-user and multi-user environments /stand/ programs used in a standalone environment /tmp/ temporary files, usually a mfs(8) memory-based filesystem (the contents of /tmp are usually not preserved across a system reboot) /usr/ contains the majority of the system utilities and files X11R6/ X11 files X11R7/ X11 files bin/ X11 binaries include/ X11 include files lib/ X11 libraries bin/ common utilities, programming tools, and applications games/ the important stuff include/ standard C include files arpa/ include files for Internet service protocols atf/ include files for the Automated Testing Framework; see atf(7) g++/ include files for the C++ compiler machine/ machine specific include files net/ netatalk/ C include files for AppleTalk protocols miscellaneous network include files; see atalk(4) netinet/ include files for Internet standard protocols; see inet(4) netinet6/ include files for Internet protocol version 6; see inet6(4) netiso/ include files for ISO standard protocols; see iso(4) netkey/ include files for secret key management, used for security protocols; see ipsec(4) netnatm/ C include files for native mode ATM nfs/ C include files for NFS (Network File System) protocols/ C include files for Berkeley service protocols sys/ system C include files (kernel data structures) ufs/ C include files for UFS (The U-word File System) lib/ archive, profiled, position independent archive, and shared libraries lua/ 5.1/ Lua 5.1 modules libdata/ miscellaneous utility data files libexec/ system daemons & system utilities (executed by other programs) mdec/ boot blocks, etc. obj/ architecture-specific target tree produced by building the /usr/src tree; normally a symbolic link or mounted filesystem pkg/ packages maintained by groups other than the NetBSD Project. bin/ contributed binaries include/ contributed include files lib/ contributed libraries libdata/ contributed data files libexec/ contributed daemons sbin/ contributed system utilities pkgsrc/ build descriptions ("packages") for the NetBSD packages system. distfiles/ Where unchanged source archives are fetched to/stored packages/ Where compiled binary packages are stored There are also several other subdirectories which contain packages of a certain category, e.g., archivers, graphics, ... sbin/ system daemons and system utilities (normally executed by the super-user) share/ architecture-independent text files calendar/ a variety of calendar files; see calendar(1) dict/ word lists; see look(1) and spell(1) words common words web2 words of Webster's 2nd International papers/ reference databases; see refer(1) special/ custom word lists; see spell(1) doc/ miscellaneous documentation; source for most of the printed 4.3BSD manuals (available from the USENIX associ- ation) games/ text files used by various games i18n/ internationalization databases; see iconv(3) locale/ locale databases and gettext message catalogs; see setlocale(3) and gettext(3) man/ formatted manual pages me/ macros for use with the me(7) macro package misc/ miscellaneous system-wide text files <<<<<<< hier.7 termcap ======= terminfo >>>>>>> 1.101 terminal characteristics database; see <<<<<<< hier.7 termcap(5) ======= terminfo(5) terminfo.cdb database form of terminfo file; see tic(1) >>>>>>> 1.101 mk/ include files for make(1) ms/ macros for use with the ms(7) macro package nls/ message catalogs; see catgets(3) skel/ sample initialization files for new user accounts tabset/ tab description files for a variety of terminals, used in the termcap file; see termcap(5) tmac/ text processing macros; see nroff(1) and troff(1) zoneinfo/ timezone configuration information; see tzfile(5) tests/ test programs; see atf-run(1) for information on how to run them /usr/src/ NetBSD and local source files bin/ source for utilities/files in /bin common/ sources shared between kernel and userland crypto/ cryptographic source, which may have import or export restrictions dist/ third-party 'virgin' source code, referenced by other parts of the source tree (deprecated, use external/ instead) distrib/ tools and data-files for making distributions doc/ documentation about the source tree (i.e., about the tree, not about how to use the built software.) etc/ source (usually example files) for files in /etc external/ source for programs from external third parties (where NetBSD is the not the primary maintainer), grouped by license, and then products per license apache2/ Apache 2.0 license. bsd/ BSD (or equivalent) licensed software, possibly with the ``advertising clause''. cddl/ Common Development and Distribution License (the Sun license which is based on the Mozilla Public License version 1.1). gpl2/ GNU Public License, version 2 (or earlier). gpl3/ GNU Public License, version 3. historical/ Lucent's old license. ibm-public/ IBM's public license. intel-fw-eula/ Intel firmware license with redistribution restricted to OEM. intel-fw-public/ Intel firmware license permitting redistribution with terms similar to BSD licensed soft- ware. intel-public/ Intel license permitting redistribution with terms similar to BSD licensed software. mit/ MIT (X11) style license. zlib/ BSD-like zlib license. games/ source for utilities/files in /usr/games gnu/ source for programs covered by the GNU license (or similar) (deprecated; use external/gpl2/ or external/gpl3/ as appropriate) include/ source for files in /usr/include lib/ source for libraries in /usr/lib libexec/ source for utilities/files in /usr/libexec regress/ various regression tests rescue/ source/makefiles for /rescue sbin/ source for utilities/files in /sbin share/ source for files in /usr/share doc/ papers/ source for various Berkeley technical papers psd/ source for Programmer's Supplementary Documents smm/ source for System Manager's Manual usd/ source for User's Supplementary Documents sys/ kernel source files arch/ architecture-specific support acorn26/ Acorn Archimedes, A-series and R-series systems acorn32/ Acorn RiscPC/A7000 and VLSI RC7500 algor/ Algorithmics Ltd. MIPS evaluations boards alpha/ Digital/Compaq Alpha amd64/ Computers with x86_64 capable CPUs amiga/ Commodore Amiga and MacroSystem DraCo amigappc/ PowerPC based Amiga boards arc/ MIPS-based machines following the Advanced RISC Computing spec arm/ ARM processor general support atari/ Atari TT030, Falcon and Hades bebox/ Be Inc. BeBox cats/ Chalice Technology's CATS and Intel's EBSA-285 evaluation boards cesfic/ CES FIC8234 VME processor board cobalt/ Cobalt Networks' MIPS-based Microserver dreamcast/ Sega Dreamcast game console emips/ Machines based on Extensible MIPS evbarm/ ARM based evaluation boards evbmips/ MIPS based evaluation boards evbppc/ PowerPC based evaluation boards and appliances evbsh3/ SH3/SH4 based evaluation boards ews4800mips/ NEC's MIPS based EWS4800 workstations hp300/ Hewlett-Packard 9000/300 and 400 680x0-based workstations hp700/ Hewlett-Packard 9000/700 HPPA based workstations hpcarm/ StrongARM based WinCE PDA machines hpcmips/ MIPS based WinCE PDA machines hpcsh/ Hitachi SH3/4 based WinCE PDA machines hppa/ HPPA processor general support i386/ 80x86-based IBM PCs and clones ibmnws/ IBM Network Station 1000 iyonix/ Castle Technology's Iyonix ARM based PCs luna68k/ Omron Tateishi Electric's 680x0-based LUNA workstations m68k/ 680x0 processor general support mac68k/ Apple Macintosh with 68k CPU macppc/ Apple Power Macintosh and clones mips/ MIPS processor general support mipsco/ MIPS Computer Systems Inc. family of workstations and servers mmeye/ Brains Inc. SH3 based mmEye multimedia server mvme68k/ Motorola MVME 680x0-based SBCs mvmeppc/ Motorola PowerPC VME SBCs netwinder/ StrongARM based NetWinder machines news68k/ Sony's 680x0-based NEWS workstations newsmips/ Sony's MIPS-based NEWS workstations next68k/ NeXT 68k "black" hardware ofppc/ Open Firmware PowerPC workstations pmax/ Digital MIPS-based DECstations and DECsystems powerpc/ PowerPC processor support prep/ PReP (PowerPC Reference Platform) and CHRP machines sandpoint/ Motorola Sandpoint reference platform sbmips/ Broadcom/SiByte evaluation boards sgimips/ Silicon Graphics' MIPS-based workstations sh3/ SH3/SH4 processor general support shark/ Digital DNARD ("Shark") sparc/ Sun Microsystems SPARC (32-bit) and UltraSPARC (in 32-bit mode) sparc64/ Sun Microsystems UltraSPARC (in native 64-bit mode) sun2/ Sun Microsystems 68010-based Sun 2 architecture sun3/ Sun Microsystems 68020/68030-based Sun 3/3x architecture sun68k/ 680x0-based Sun architecture general support vax/ Digital VAX x68k/ Sharp X680x0 680x0-based workstations x86/ General support for PC/AT compatibles with ia32 or x86_64 CPUs xen/ The Xen virtual machine monitor zaurus/ Sharp C3x00 Arm based PDA compat/ kernel compatibility modules directory common/ common compatibility routines, old 4BSD and NetBSD routines. freebsd/ support for FreeBSD binaries; see compat_freebsd(8) hpux/ support for 68000 HP-UX binaries ibcs2/ support for Intel Binary binaries linux/ support for Linux binaries; see compat_linux(8) m68k4k/ support for 4KB page 68000 binaries netbsd32/ support for NetBSD 32-bit binaries on 64 bit platforms with compatible CPU families osf1/ support for Digital UNIX (formerly OSF/1) binaries ossaudio/ support for OSS audio sunos/ support for SunOS 4.x binaries; see compat_sunos(8) svr4/ support for System V Release 4 binaries; see compat_svr4(8) ultrix/ support for ULTRIX binaries vax1k/ support for older VAX binaries that started on a 1 KB boundary conf/ architecture independent configuration directory crypto/ cryptographic kernel source, which may have import or export restrictions ddb/ in kernel debugger dev/ architecture independent device support fs/ miscellaneous file systems adosfs/ AmigaDOS file-system support; see mount_ados(8) cd9660/ support for the ISO-9660 filesystem; see mount_cd9660(8) filecorefs/ support for the Acorn RISC OS filecore filesystem; see mount_filecore(8) msdosfs/ MS-DOS file system; see mount_msdos(8) ntfs/ NTFS filesystem support; see mount_ntfs(8) ptyfs/ pseudo-terminal device filesystem; see mount_ptyfs(8) smbfs/ SMB/CIFS filesystem support; see mount_smbfs(8) union/ union file system; see mount_union(8) gdbscripts/ support for accessing kernel structures from within the debugger gdb(1). ipkdb/ support for kernel debugging over the network kern/ support for the high kernel (system calls) lib/ kernel libraries libkern/ C library routines used in the kernel libsa/ machine independent stand alone kernel library libz/ compression library miscfs/ miscellaneous file systems deadfs/ kernel only dead file system fdesc/ file descriptor file system; see mount_fdesc(8) fifofs/ POSIX FIFO support genfs/ kernel only generic file system kernfs/ kernel namespace file system; see mount_kernfs(8) nullfs/ loop back file system; see mount_null(8) overlay/ overlay file system; see mount_overlay(8) procfs/ process file system; see mount_procfs(8) specfs/ kernel only special file system syncfs/ kernel trickle sync algorithm umapfs/ user and group re-mapping file system; see mount_umap(8) net/ miscellaneous networking support netatalk/ AppleTalk networking support netinet/ IP networking support netinet6/ IPv6 networking support netiso/ ISO networking support netkey/ Key database for IPsec networking support netnatm/ ATM networking support nfs/ NFS support stand/ kernel standalone support sys/ kernel (and system) include files ufs/ local filesystem support ffs/ the Berkeley Fast File System lfs/ the log-structured file system mfs/ the in-memory file system ufs/ shared UNIX file system support uvm/ UVM virtual memory system tests/ source for test programs in /usr/tests usr.bin/ source for utilities/files in /usr/bin usr.sbin/ source for utilities/files in /usr/sbin /var/ multi-purpose log, temporary, transient, and spool files account/ system accounting files acct execution accounting file; see acct(5) at/ timed command scheduling files; see at(1) backups/ miscellaneous backup files, largely of files found in /etc chroot/ home directories of applications which are run in a chroot(8) ``cage''. crash/ system crash dumps; see savecore(8) cron/ scheduled commands configuration files; see cron(8) db/ miscellaneous automatically generated system-specific database files, and persistent files used in the main- tenance of third party software. pkg default location for metadata related to third party software packages. See pkg_add(1) for more details of the NetBSD Packages Collection, or pkgsrc. games/ miscellaneous game status and log files heimdal/ Kerberos 5 KDC database; see kdc(8) log/ miscellaneous system log files amd.* amd(8) logs daily.out output of the last run of the /etc/daily script ftp.* ftp(1) logs kerberos.* kerberos(8) logs lastlog system last time logged in log; see utmp(5) lpd-errs.* printer daemon error logs; see lpd(8) maillog.* sendmail(8) log files messages.* general system information log monthly.out output of the last run of the /etc/monthly script secure sensitive security information log sendmail(8) statistics timed.* timed(8) logs weekly.out output of the last run of the /etc/weekly script wtmp login/logout log; see utmp(5) mail/ user system mailboxes msgs/ system messages; see msgs(1) preserve/ temporary home of files preserved after an accidental death of ex(1) or vi(1) quotas/ filesystem quota information run/ system information files, rebuilt after each reboot utmp database of current users; see utmp(5) rwho/ rwho data files; see rwhod(8), rwho(1), and ruptime(1) spool/ miscellaneous printer and mail system spooling directories ftp/ commonly ``~ftp'', the anonymous ftp root directory; see ftpd(8) mqueue/ sendmail mail queue; see sendmail(8) news/ Network news archival and spooling directories output/ printer spooling directories postfix/ postfix mail queue; see postfix(1) uucp/ uucp spool directory uucppublic/ commonly ``~uucp'', the uucp public temporary directory; see uucp(1) tmp/ temporary files that are not discarded between system reboots vi.recover/ recovery directory for new vi(1) yp/ Databases and configuration for the NIS (YP) system; see nis(8). SEE ALSO
apropos(1), ls(1), whatis(1), whereis(1), which(1), paths(3) HISTORY
A hier manual page appeared in Version 7 AT&T UNIX. BSD
June 3, 2012 BSD
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