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NetBSD 6.1.5 - man page for usb (netbsd section 4)

USB(4)				   BSD Kernel Interfaces Manual 			   USB(4)

NAME
     usb -- Universal Serial Bus driver

SYNOPSIS
     ehci*   at cardbus? function ?
     ehci*   at pci? dev ? function ?
     ohci*   at cardbus? function ?
     ohci*   at pci? dev ? function ?
     slhci*  at isa? port ? irq ?
     slhci*  at pcmcia? function ?
     uhci*   at cardbus? function ?
     uhci*   at pci? dev ? function ?
     usb*    at ehci? flags X
     usb*    at ohci? flags X
     usb*    at uhci? flags X
     usb*    at slhci? flags X
     uhub*   at usb?
     uhub*   at uhub? port ? configuration ? interface ? vendor ? product ? release ?
     XX*     at uhub? port ? configuration ? interface ? vendor ? product ? release ?

     options USBVERBOSE

     #include <dev/usb/usb.h>
     #include <dev/usb/usbhid.h>

DESCRIPTION
     NetBSD provides machine-independent bus support and drivers for USB devices.

     The NetBSD usb driver has three layers (like scsi(4) and pcmcia(4)): the controller, the
     bus, and the device layer.  The controller attaches to a physical bus (like pci(4)).  The
     USB bus attaches to the controller and the root hub attaches to the bus.  Further devices,
     which may include further hubs, attach to other hubs.  The attachment forms the same tree
     structure as the physical USB device tree.  For each USB device there may be additional
     drivers attached to it.

     The uhub device controls USB hubs and must always be present since there is at least a root
     hub in any USB system.

     The flags argument to the usb device affects the order in which the device detection happens
     during cold boot.	Normally, only the USB host controller and the usb device are detected
     during the autoconfiguration when the machine is booted.  The rest of the devices are
     detected once the system becomes functional and the kernel thread for the usb device is
     started.  Sometimes it is desirable to have a device detected early in the boot process,
     e.g., the console keyboard.  To achieve this use a flags value of 1.

     NetBSD supports the following machine-independent USB drivers:

   Storage devices
	umass(4)      USB Mass Storage Devices, e.g., external disk drives

   Wired network interfaces
	aue(4)	      ADMtek AN986/ADM8511 Pegasus family 10/100 USB Ethernet device
	axe(4)	      ASIX Electronics AX88172/AX88178/AX88772 10/100/Gigabit USB Ethernet device
	cdce(4)       USB Communication Device Class Ethernet device
	cue(4)	      CATC USB-EL1201A USB Ethernet device
	kue(4)	      Kawasaki LSI KL5KUSB101B USB Ethernet device
	udav(4)       Davicom DM9601 10/100 USB Ethernet device
	url(4)	      Realtek RTL8150L 10/100 USB Ethernet device

   Wireless network interfaces
	atu(4)	      Atmel AT76C50x IEEE 802.11b wireless network device
	ral(4)	      Ralink Technology USB IEEE 802.11b/g wireless network device
	rum(4)	      Ralink Technology USB IEEE 802.11a/b/g wireless network device
	ubt(4)	      USB Bluetooth dongles
	upgt(4)       Conexant/Intersil PrismGT SoftMAC USB 802.11b/g wireless network device
	urtwn(4)      Realtek RTL8188CU/RTL8192CU USB IEEE 802.11b/g/n wireless network device
	zyd(4)	      ZyDAS ZD1211/ZD1211B USB IEEE 802.11b/g wireless network device

   Serial and parallel interfaces
	ubsa(4)       Belkin USB serial adapter
	uchcom(4)     WinChipHead CH341/340 based USB serial adapter
	ucom(4)       USB tty support
	ucycom(4)     Cypress microcontroller based USB serial adapter
	uftdi(4)      FT8U100AX USB serial adapter
	ugensa(4)     USB generic serial adapter
	uhmodem(4)    USB Huawei 3G wireless modem device
	uipaq(4)      iPAQ USB units
	ukyopon(4)    USB Kyocera AIR-EDGE PHONE device
	ulpt(4)       USB printer support
	umct(4)       MCT USB-RS232 USB serial adapter
	umodem(4)     USB modem support
	uplcom(4)     Prolific PL-2303 USB serial adapter
	uslsa(4)      Silicon Laboratories CP2101/CP2102 based USB serial adapter
	uvisor(4)     USB Handspring Visor
	uvscom(4)     SUNTAC Slipper U VS-10U USB serial adapter

   Audio devices
	uaudio(4)     USB audio devices
	umidi(4)      USB MIDI devices
	urio(4)       Diamond Multimedia Rio MP3 players

   Radio receiver devices
	udsbr(4)      D-Link DSB-R100 USB radio device

   Human Interface Devices
	uhid(4)       Generic driver for Human Interface Devices
	uhidev(4)     Base driver for all Human Interface Devices
	ukbd(4)       USB keyboards that follow the boot protocol
	ums(4)	      USB mouse devices

   Miscellaneous devices
	stuirda(4)    Sigmaltel 4116/4220 USB-IrDA bridge
	uep(4)	      USB eGalax touch-panel
	ugen(4)       USB generic devices
	uirda(4)      USB IrDA bridges
	upl(4)	      Prolific based host-to-host adapters
	uscanner(4)   USB scanner support
	usscanner(4)  SCSI-over-USB scanners
	ustir(4)      SigmaTel STIr4200 USB IrDA bridges
	utoppy(4)     Topfield TF5000PVR range of digital video recorders
	uyap(4)       USB YAP phone firmware loader

INTRODUCTION TO USB
     The USB 1.x is a 12 Mb/s serial bus with 1.5 Mb/s for low speed devices.  USB 2.x handles
     480 Mb/s.	Each USB has a host controller that is the master of the bus; all other devices
     on the bus only speak when spoken to.

     There can be up to 127 devices (apart from the host controller) on a bus, each with its own
     address.  The addresses are assigned dynamically by the host when each device is attached to
     the bus.

     Within each device there can be up to 16 endpoints.  Each endpoint is individually addressed
     and the addresses are static.  Each of these endpoints will communicate in one of four dif-
     ferent modes: control, isochronous, bulk, or interrupt.  A device always has at least one
     endpoint.	This endpoint has address 0 and is a control endpoint and is used to give com-
     mands to and extract basic data, such as descriptors, from the device.  Each endpoint,
     except the control endpoint, is unidirectional.

     The endpoints in a device are grouped into interfaces.  An interface is a logical unit
     within a device; e.g., a compound device with both a keyboard and a trackball would present
     one interface for each.  An interface can sometimes be set into different modes, called
     alternate settings, which affects how it operates.  Different alternate settings can have
     different endpoints within it.

     A device may operate in different configurations.	Depending on the configuration the device
     may present different sets of endpoints and interfaces.

     Each device located on a hub has several config(1) locators:
     port	this is the number of the port on closest upstream hub.
     configuration
		this is the configuration the device must be in for this driver to attach.  This
		locator does not set the configuration; it is iterated by the bus enumeration.
     interface	this is the interface number within a device that an interface driver attaches
		to.
     vendor	this is the 16 bit vendor id of the device.
     product	this is the 16 bit product id of the device.
     release	this is the 16 bit release (revision) number of the device.
     The first locator can be used to pin down a particular device according to its physical
     position in the device tree.  The last three locators can be used to pin down a particular
     device according to what device it actually is.

     The bus enumeration of the USB bus proceeds in several steps:

     1.   Any device specific driver can attach to the device.

     2.   If none is found, any device class specific driver can attach.

     3.   If none is found, all configurations are iterated over.  For each configuration all the
	  interface are iterated over and interface drivers can attach.  If any interface driver
	  attached in a certain configuration the iteration over configurations is stopped.

     4.   If still no drivers have been found, the generic USB driver can attach.

USB CONTROLLER INTERFACE
     Use the following to get access to the USB specific structures and defines.

     #include <dev/usb/usb.h>

     The /dev/usbN can be opened and a few operations can be performed on it.  The poll(2) system
     call will say that I/O is possible on the controller device when a USB device has been con-
     nected or disconnected to the bus.

     The following ioctl(2) commands are supported on the controller device:

     USB_DEVICEINFO struct usb_device_info
	     This command can be used to retrieve some information about a device on the bus.
	     The addr field should be filled before the call and the other fields will be filled
	     by information about the device on that address.  Should no such device exist an
	     error is reported.

	     struct usb_device_info {
		     uint8_t udi_bus;
		     uint8_t udi_addr;
		     usb_event_cookie_t udi_cookie;
		     char	     udi_product[USB_MAX_ENCODED_STRING_LEN];
		     char	     udi_vendor[USB_MAX_ENCODED_STRING_LEN];
		     char	     udi_release[8];
		     char	     udi_serial[USB_MAX_ENCODED_STRING_LEN];
		     uint16_t	     udi_productNo;
		     uint16_t	     udi_vendorNo;
		     uint16_t	     udi_releaseNo;
		     uint8_t udi_class;
		     uint8_t udi_subclass;
		     uint8_t udi_protocol;
		     uint8_t udi_config;
		     uint8_t udi_speed;
	     #define USB_SPEED_LOW  1
	     #define USB_SPEED_FULL 2
	     #define USB_SPEED_HIGH 3
		     int	     udi_power;
		     int	     udi_nports;
		     char	     udi_devnames[USB_MAX_DEVNAMES][USB_MAX_DEVNAMELEN];
		     uint8_t udi_ports[16];
	     #define USB_PORT_ENABLED 0xff
	     #define USB_PORT_SUSPENDED 0xfe
	     #define USB_PORT_POWERED 0xfd
	     #define USB_PORT_DISABLED 0xfc
	     };

	     The product, vendor, release, and serial fields contain self-explanatory descrip-
	     tions of the device.

	     The class field contains the device class.

	     The config field shows the current configuration of the device.

	     The lowspeed field is set if the device is a USB low speed device.

	     The power field shows the power consumption in milli-amps drawn at 5 volts, or zero
	     if the device is self powered.

	     If the device is a hub the nports field is non-zero and the ports field contains the
	     addresses of the connected devices.  If no device is connected to a port one of the
	     USB_PORT_* values indicates its status.

     USB_DEVICESTATS struct usb_device_stats
	     This command retrieves statistics about the controller.

	     struct usb_device_stats {
		     u_long  uds_requests[4];
	     };

	     The requests field is indexed by the transfer kind, i.e.  UE_*, and indicates how
	     many transfers of each kind have been completed by the controller.

     USB_REQUEST struct usb_ctl_request
	     This command can be used to execute arbitrary requests on the control pipe.  This is
	     DANGEROUS and should be used with great care since it can destroy the bus integrity.

     The include file <dev/usb/usb.h> contains definitions for the types used by the various
     ioctl(2) calls.  The naming convention of the fields for the various USB descriptors exactly
     follows the naming in the USB specification.  Byte sized fields can be accessed directly,
     but word (16 bit) sized fields must be access by the UGETW(field) and USETW(field, value)
     macros to handle byte order and alignment properly.

     The include file <dev/usb/usbhid.h> similarly contains the definitions for Human Interface
     Devices (HID).

USB EVENT INTERFACE
     All USB events are reported via the /dev/usb device.  This devices can be opened for reading
     and each read(2) will yield an event record (if something has happened).  The poll(2) system
     call can be used to determine if an event record is available for reading.

     The event record has the following definition:

     struct usb_event {
	     int				 ue_type;
     #define USB_EVENT_CTRLR_ATTACH 1
     #define USB_EVENT_CTRLR_DETACH 2
     #define USB_EVENT_DEVICE_ATTACH 3
     #define USB_EVENT_DEVICE_DETACH 4
     #define USB_EVENT_DRIVER_ATTACH 5
     #define USB_EVENT_DRIVER_DETACH 6
	     struct timespec			 ue_time;
	     union {
		     struct {
			     int		 ue_bus;
		     } ue_ctrlr;
		     struct usb_device_info	 ue_device;
		     struct {
			     usb_event_cookie_t  ue_cookie;
			     char		 ue_devname[16];
		     } ue_driver;
	     } u;
     };

     The ue_type field identifies the type of event that is described.	The possible events are
     attach/detach of a host controller, a device, or a device driver.	The union contains infor-
     mation pertinent to the different types of events.

     The ue_bus contains the number of the USB bus for host controller events.

     The ue_device record contains information about the device in a device event event.

     The ue_cookie is an opaque value that uniquely determines which device a device driver has
     been attached to (i.e., it equals the cookie value in the device that the driver attached
     to).  The ue_devname contains the name of the device (driver) as seen in, e.g., kernel mes-
     sages.

     Note that there is a separation between device and device driver events.  A device event is
     generated when a physical USB device is attached or detached.  A single USB device may have
     zero, one, or many device drivers associated with it.

KERNEL THREADS
     For each USB bus, i.e., for each host controller, there is a kernel thread that handles
     attach and detach of devices on that bus.	The thread is named usbN where N is the bus num-
     ber.

     In addition there is a kernel thread, usbtask, which handles various minor tasks that are
     initiated from an interrupt context, but need to sleep, e.g., time-out abort of transfers.

SEE ALSO
     usbhidaction(1), usbhidctl(1), cardbus(4), ehci(4), isa(4), ohci(4), pci(4), pcmcia(4),
     slhci(4), uhci(4), usbdevs(8)

     Universal Serial Bus Specifications Documents, http://www.usb.org/developers/docs/.

HISTORY
     The usb driver appeared in NetBSD 1.4.

BUGS
     There should be a serial number locator, but NetBSD does not have string valued locators.

BSD					 January 22, 2012				      BSD


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