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NetBSD 6.1.5 - man page for ral (netbsd section 4)

RAL(4)				   BSD Kernel Interfaces Manual 			   RAL(4)

     ral -- Ralink Technology IEEE 802.11a/b/g wireless network driver

     ral* at cardbus?
     ral* at pci?
     ral* at uhub? port ?

     The ral driver supports PCI/CardBus wireless adapters based on the Ralink RT2500, RT2501,
     and RT2600 chipsets.  The ral driver supports USB 2.0 wireless adapters based on the Ralink
     RT2500USB chipset.

     The RT2500 chipset is the first generation of 802.11b/g adapters from Ralink.  It consists
     of two integrated chips, an RT2560 or RT2570(USB) MAC/BBP and an RT2525 or RT2526(USB) radio

     The RT2501 chipset is the second generation of 802.11b/g adapters from Ralink.  It consists
     of two integrated chips, an RT2561 MAC/BBP and an RT2527 radio transceiver.  This chipset
     provides support for the IEEE 802.11e standard with multiple hardware transmission queues
     and allows scatter/gather for efficient DMA operations.

     The RT2600 chipset consists of two integrated chips, an RT2661 MAC/BBP and an RT2529 radio
     transceiver.  This chipset uses the MIMO (multiple-input multiple-output) technology with
     multiple antennas to extend the operating range of the adapter and to achieve higher
     throughput.  MIMO will be the basis of the future IEEE 802.11n standard.

     These are the modes the ral driver can operate in:

     BSS mode	    Also known as infrastructure mode, this is used when associating with an
		    access point, through which all traffic passes.  This mode is the default.

     IBSS mode	    Also known as IEEE ad-hoc mode or peer-to-peer mode.  This is the standard-
		    ized method of operating without an access point.  Stations associate with a
		    service set.  However, actual connections between stations are peer-to-peer.

     Host AP	    In this mode the driver acts as an access point (base station) for other

     monitor mode   In this mode the driver is able to receive packets without associating with
		    an access point.  This disables the internal receive filter and enables the
		    card to capture packets from networks which it wouldn't normally have access
		    to, or to scan for access points.

     ral supports software WEP.  Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) is the de facto encryption stan-
     dard for wireless networks.  It can be typically configured in one of three modes: no
     encryption; 40-bit encryption; or 104-bit encryption.  Unfortunately, due to serious weak-
     nesses in WEP protocol it is strongly recommended that it not be used as the sole mechanism
     to secure wireless communication.	WEP is not enabled by default.

     The transmit speed is user-selectable or can be adapted automatically by the driver depend-
     ing on the received signal strength and on the number of hardware transmission retries.  See
     rssadapt(9) for more information.

     The ral driver can be configured at runtime with ifconfig(8) or on boot with ifconfig.if(5)
     using the following parameters:

     bssid bssid
	     Set the desired BSSID.

     -bssid  Unset the desired BSSID.  The interface will automatically select a BSSID in this
	     mode, which is the default.

     chan n  Set the channel (radio frequency) to be used by the driver based on the given chan-
	     nel ID n.

     -chan   Unset the desired channel to be used by the driver.  The driver will automatically
	     select a channel in this mode, which is the default.

     media media
	     The ral driver supports the following media types:

	     autoselect  Enable autoselection of the media type and options.
	     DS1	 Set 802.11b DS 1Mbps operation.
	     DS2	 Set 802.11b DS 2Mbps operation.
	     DS5	 Set 802.11b DS 5.5Mbps operation.
	     DS11	 Set 802.11b DS 11Mbps operation.
	     OFDM6	 Set 802.11a/g OFDM 6Mbps operation.
	     OFDM9	 Set 802.11a/g OFDM 9Mbps operation.
	     OFDM12	 Set 802.11a/g OFDM 12Mbps operation.
	     OFDM18	 Set 802.11a/g OFDM 18Mbps operation.
	     OFDM24	 Set 802.11a/g OFDM 24Mbps operation.
	     OFDM36	 Set 802.11a/g OFDM 36Mbps operation.
	     OFDM48	 Set 802.11a/g OFDM 48Mbps operation.
	     OFDM54	 Set 802.11a/g OFDM 54Mbps operation.

     mediaopt opts
	     The ral driver supports the following media options:

	     hostap   Select Host AP operation.
	     ibss     Select IBSS operation.
	     monitor  Select monitor mode.

     -mediaopt opts
	     Disable the specified media options on the driver and return it to the default mode
	     of operation (BSS).

     mode mode
	     The ral driver supports the following modes:

	     11a  Force 802.11a operation.
	     11b  Force 802.11b operation.
	     11g  Force 802.11g operation.

     nwid id
	     Set the network ID.  The id can either be any text string up to 32 characters in
	     length, or a series of hexadecimal digits up to 64 digits.  An empty id string
	     allows the interface to connect to any available access points.  By default the ral
	     driver uses an empty string.  Note that network ID is synonymous with Extended Ser-
	     vice Set ID (ESSID).

     nwkey key
	     Enable WEP encryption using the specified key.  The key can either be a string, a
	     series of hexadecimal digits (preceded by '0x'), or a set of keys of the form
	     ``n:k1,k2,k3,k4'', where 'n' specifies which of the keys will be used for transmit-
	     ted packets, and the four keys, ``k1'' through ``k4'', are configured as WEP keys.
	     If a set of keys is specified, a comma (',') within the key must be escaped with a
	     backslash.  Note that if multiple keys are used, their order must be the same within
	     the network.  ral is capable of using both 40-bit (5 characters or 10 hexadecimal
	     digits) or 104-bit (13 characters or 26 hexadecimal digits) keys.

     -nwkey  Disable WEP encryption.  This is the default mode of operation.

     The following firmware files are potentially loaded when an interface is brought up:


     RT2500 adapters do not require a firmware to operate.

     The following PCI adapters should work:

     A-Link WL54H.  Amigo AWI-926W.  AMIT WL531P.  AOpen AOI-831.  ASUS  WL-130g.   ASUS  WIFI-G-
     AAY.   Atlantis Land A02-PCI-W54.	Belkin F5D7000 v3.  Canyon CN-WF511.  CNet CWP-854.  Com-
     pex WLP54G.  Conceptronic	C54Ri.	 Corega  CG-WLPCI54GL.	 Digitus  DN-7006G-RA.	 Dynalink
     WLG25PCI.	 E-Tech  WGPI02.   Edimax EW-7128g.  Eminent EM3037.  Encore ENLWI-G-RLAM.  Eusso
     UGL2454-VPR.  Fiberline WL-400P.  Foxconn WLL-3350.  Gigabyte GN-WPKG.  Hama WLAN	PCI  Card
     54  Mbps.	 Hawking HWP54GR.  Hercules HWGPCI-54.	iNexQ CR054g-009 (R03).  JAHT WN-4054PCI.
     KCORP LifeStyle KLS-660.  LevelOne WNC-0301  v2.	Linksys  WMP54G  v4.   Micronet  SP906GK.
     Minitar  MN54GPC-R.   MSI	MS-6834.  MSI PC54G2.  OvisLink EVO-W54PCI.  PheeNet HWL-PCIG/RA.
     Pro-Nets PC80211G.  Repotec RP-WP0854.  SATech SN-54P.  Signamax 065-1798.  Sitecom  WL-115.
     SparkLAN  WL-660R.  Surecom EP-9321-g.  Sweex LC700030.  TekComm NE-9321-g.  Tonze PC-6200C.
     Unex CR054g-R02.  Zinwell ZWX-G361.  Zonet ZEW1600.

     The following CardBus adapters should work:

     A-Link WL54PC.  Alfa AWPC036.  Amigo AWI-914W.  AMIT WL531C.  ASUS WL-107G.   Atlantis  Land
     A02-PCM-W54.   Belkin  F5D7010  v2.  Canyon CN-WF513.  CC&C WL-2102.  CNet CWC-854.  Concep-
     tronic C54RC.  Corega CG-WLCB54GL.  Digitus  DN-7001G-RA.	 Dynalink  WLG25CARDBUS.   E-Tech
     WGPC02.   E-Tech  WGPC03.	 Edimax EW-7108PCg.  Eminent EM3036.  Encore ENPWI-G-RLAM.  Eusso
     UGL2454-01R.  Fiberline WL-400X.  Gigabyte  GN-WMKG.   Hawking  HWC54GR.	Hercules  HWGPCM-
     CIA-54.   JAHT  WN-4054P(E).   KCORP  LifeStyle  KLS-611.	 LevelOne  WPC-0301 v2.  Micronet
     SP908GK V3.  Minitar MN54GCB-R.  MSI CB54G2.  MSI MS-6835.  Pro-Nets CB80211G.  Repotec  RP-
     WB7108.   SATech  SN-54C.	 Sitecom  WL-112.   SparkLAN  WL-611R.	Surecom EP-9428-g.  Sweex
     LC500050.	TekComm NE-9428-g.  Tonze PW-6200C.  Unex MR054g-R02.  Zinwell	ZWX-G160.   Zonet

     The following Mini PCI adapters should work:

     Amigo  AWI-922W.	Billionton  MIWLGRL.  Gigabyte GN-WIKG.  MSI MP54G2.  MSI MS-6833.  Tonze
     PC-620C.  Zinwell ZWX-G360.

     The following USB 2.0 adapters should work:

     AMIT WL532U.  ASUS WL-167g.  Belkin  F5D7050  v2000.   Buffalo  WLI-U2-KG54.   Buffalo  WLI-
     U2-KG54-AI.   Buffalo  WLI-U2-KG54-YB.   CNet  CWD-854.  Compex WLU54G 2A1100.  Conceptronic
     C54RU.  D-Link DWL-G122 (b1).  Dynalink WLG25USB.	E-Tech WGUS02.	Gigabyte  GN-WBKG.   Her-
     cules HWGUSB2-54.	KCORP LifeStyle KLS-685.  Linksys HU200-TS.  Linksys WUSB54G v4.  Linksys
     WUSB54GP v4.  MSI MS-6861.  MSI MS-6865.  MSI MS-6869.  Nintendo Wi-Fi USB Connector.  Ovis-
     Link  Evo-W54USB.	 SerComm  UB801R.  SparkLAN WL-685R.  Surecom EP-9001-g.  Sweex LC100060.
     Tonze UW-6200C.  Zinwell ZWX-G261.  Zonet ZEW2500P.

     The following ifconfig.if(5) example creates a host-based access point on boot:

	   inet netmask media autoselect \
		   mediaopt hostap nwid my_net chan 11

     Configure ral0 for WEP, using hex key ``0x1deadbeef1'':

	   # ifconfig ral0 nwkey 0x1deadbeef1

     Return ral0 to its default settings:

	   # ifconfig ral0 -bssid -chan media autoselect \
		   nwid "" -nwkey

     Join an existing BSS network, ``my_net'':

	   # ifconfig ral0 netmask 0xffffff00 nwid my_net

     ral%d: could not read microcode %s  For some reason, the driver was unable to read the
     microcode file from the filesystem.  The file might be missing or corrupted.

     ral%d: could not load 8051 microcode  An error occurred while attempting to upload the
     microcode to the onboard 8051 microcontroller unit.

     ral%d: timeout waiting for MCU to initialize  The onboard 8051 microcontroller unit failed
     to initialize in time.

     ral%d: device timeout  A frame dispatched to the hardware for transmission did not complete
     in time.  The driver will reset the hardware.  This should not happen.

     arp(4), cardbus(4), ifmedia(4), intro(4), netintro(4), pci(4), usb(4), ifconfig.if(5),
     hostapd(8), ifconfig(8)

     Ralink Technology: http://www.ralinktech.com

     The ral driver first appeared in OpenBSD 3.7 and in NetBSD 3.0.  Support for the RT2501 and
     RT2600 chipsets was added in OpenBSD 3.9 and in NetBSD 4.0.

     The ral driver was written by Damien Bergamini <damien@openbsd.org>.

     Some PCI ral adapters seem to strictly require a system supporting PCI 2.2 or greater and
     will likely not work in systems based on older revisions of the PCI specification.  Check
     the board's PCI version before purchasing the card.

     The USB ral driver supports automatic control of the transmit speed in BSS mode only.
     Therefore the use of a USB ral adapter in Host AP mode is discouraged.

BSD					December 13, 2009				      BSD

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