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wd(4) [netbsd man page]

WD(4)							   BSD Kernel Interfaces Manual 						     WD(4)

NAME
wd -- WD100x compatible hard disk driver SYNOPSIS
wd* at atabus? drive ? flags 0x0000 wd* at umass? options WD_SOFTBADSECT DESCRIPTION
The wd driver supports hard disks that emulate the Western Digital WD100x. This includes standard MFM, RLL, ESDI, IDE, EIDE, and SATA drives. The flags are used only with controllers that support DMA operations and mode settings (like some pciide controllers). The lowest order nib- ble (rightmost digit) of the flags defines the PIO mode, the next four bits define the DMA mode and the third nibble defines the UltraDMA mode. For each set of four bits, the 3 lower bits define the mode to use and the last bit must be set to 1 for this setting to be used. For DMA and UDMA, 0xf (1111) means 'disable'. For example, a flags value of 0x0fac (1111 1010 1100) means 'use PIO mode 4, DMA mode 2, disable UltraDMA'. 0x0000 means "use whatever the drive claims to support." The kernel configuration option ``options WD_SOFTBADSECT'' enables a software managed bad-sector list which will prevent further accesses to sectors where an unrecoverable read error occurred. A user interface is provided by dkctl(8). Unlike the (historical) mechanisms provided by bad144(8) and badsect(8) the software list does neither support sector replacement nor is it saved across reboots. SEE ALSO
ata(4), intro(4), pciide(4), scsi(4), umass(4), wdc(4), atactl(8), dkctl(8) BUGS
The optional software bad sector list does not interoperate well with sector remapping features of modern disks. To let the disk remap a sector internally, the software bad sector list must be flushed or disabled before. BSD
August 30, 2004 BSD

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BAD144(8)						    BSD System Manager's Manual 						 BAD144(8)

NAME
bad144 -- read/write DEC standard 144 bad sector information SYNOPSIS
bad144 [-c] [-f] [-v] disk [sno [bad ...]] bad144 -a [-c] [-f] [-v] disk [bad ...] DESCRIPTION
bad144 can be used to inspect the information stored on a disk that is used by the disk drivers to implement bad sector forwarding. The bad144 tool is only installed on supported platforms. Available options: -a The argument list consists of new bad sectors to be added to an existing list. The new sectors are sorted into the list, which must have been in order. Replacement sectors are moved to accommodate the additions; the new replacement sectors are cleared. -c Forces an attempt to copy the old sector to the replacement, and may be useful when replacing an unreliable sector. -f (vax only) For a RP06, RM03, RM05, Fujitsu Eagle, or SMD disk on a MASSBUS, the -f option may be used to mark the new bad sectors as ``bad'' by reformatting them as unusable sectors. This option is required unless the sectors have already been marked bad, or the system will not be notified that it should use the replacement sector. This option may be used while running multiuser; it is no longer necessary to perform format operations while running single-user. -v The entire process is described as it happens in gory detail if -v (verbose) is given. The format of the information is specified by DEC standard 144, as follows. The bad sector information is located in the first 5 even num- bered sectors of the last track of the disk pack. There are five identical copies of the information, described by the dkbad structure. Replacement sectors are allocated starting with the first sector before the bad sector information and working backwards towards the begin- ning of the disk. A maximum of 126 bad sectors are supported. The position of the bad sector in the bad sector table determines the replacement sector to which it corresponds. The bad sectors must be listed in ascending order. The bad sector information and replacement sectors are conventionally only accessible through the ``c'' file system partition of the disk. If that partition is used for a file system, the user is responsible for making sure that it does not overlap the bad sector information or any replacement sectors. Thus, one track plus 126 sectors must be reserved to allow use of all of the possible bad sector replacements. The bad sector structure is as follows: struct dkbad { int32_t bt_csn; /* cartridge serial number */ u_int16_t bt_mbz; /* unused; should be 0 */ u_int16_t bt_flag; /* -1 => alignment cartridge */ struct bt_bad { u_int16_t bt_cyl; /* cylinder number of bad sector */ u_int16_t bt_trksec; /* track and sector number */ } bt_bad[126]; }; Unused slots in the bt_bad array are filled with all bits set, a putatively illegal value. bad144 is invoked by giving a device name (e.g. wd0, hk0, hp1, etc.). With no optional arguments it reads the first sector of the last track of the corresponding disk and prints out the bad sector information. It issues a warning if the bad sectors are out of order. bad144 may also be invoked with a serial number for the pack and a list of bad sectors. It will write the supplied information into all copies of the bad-sector file, replacing any previous information. Note, however, that bad144 does not arrange for the specified sectors to be marked bad in this case. This procedure should only be used to restore known bad sector information which was destroyed. It is no longer necessary to reboot to allow the kernel to reread the bad-sector table from the drive. SEE ALSO
badsect(8) HISTORY
The bad144 command appeared in 4.1BSD. BUGS
It should be possible to format disks on-line under 4BSD. It should be possible to mark bad sectors on drives of all type. On an 11/750, the standard bootstrap drivers used to boot the system do not understand bad sectors, handle ECC errors, or the special SSE (skip sector) errors of RM80-type disks. This means that none of these errors can occur when reading the file /netbsd to boot. Sectors 0-15 of the disk drive must also not have any of these errors. The drivers which write a system core image on disk after a crash do not handle errors; thus the crash dump area must be free of errors and bad sectors. BSD
June 6, 1993 BSD

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