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OpenSolaris 2009.06 - man page for tar (opensolaris section 1)

tar(1)					  User Commands 				   tar(1)

NAME
       tar - create tape archives and add or extract files

SYNOPSIS
       tar c[BDeEFhilnopPqTvw@/[0-7]][bfk][X...] [blocksize]
	    [tarfile] [size] [exclude-file]...
	    {file | -I include-file | -C directory file}...

       tar r[BDeEFhilnqTvw@/[0-7]][bfk] [blocksize] [tarfile]
	    [size]
	    {file | -I include-file | -C directory file}...

       tar t[BeFhilnqTv[0-7]][fk][X...] [tarfile] [size]
	    [exclude-file]... {file | -I include-file}...

       tar u[BDeEFhilnqTvw@/[0-7]][bfk] [blocksize] [tarfile]
	    [size] file...

       tar x[BeFhilmnopqTvw@/[0-7]][fk][X...] [tarfile] [size]
	    [exclude-file]... [file]...

DESCRIPTION
       The  tar command archives and extracts files to and from a single file called a tarfile. A
       tarfile is usually a magnetic tape, but it can be any file. tar's actions  are  controlled
       by  the	key  argument.	The key is a string of characters containing exactly one function
       letter (c, r, t , u, or x) and zero  or	more  function	modifiers  (letters  or  digits),
       depending  on the function letter used. The key string contains no SPACE characters. Func-
       tion modifier arguments are listed on the command line in the same order as  their  corre-
       sponding function modifiers appear in the key string.

       The -I include-file, -C directory file, and file arguments specify which files or directo-
       ries are to be archived or extracted. In all cases, appearance of a directory name  refers
       to  the	files  and  (recursively)  subdirectories  of that directory. Arguments appearing
       within braces ({ }) indicate that one of the arguments must be specified.

OPERANDS
       The following operands are supported:

       -C directory file

	   Performs a chdir (see cd(1)) operation on directory and performs the c (create)  or	r
	   (replace)  operation  on file. Use short relative path names for file. If file is ".",
	   archive all files in directory. This operand enables  archiving  files  from  multiple
	   directories not related by a close common parent.

       -I include-file

	   Opens  include-file containing a list of files, one per line, and treats it as if each
	   file appeared separately on the command line. Be careful  of  trailing  white  spaces.
	   Also  beware  of  leading white spaces, since, for each line in the included file, the
	   entire line (apart from the newline) is used to match against the  initial  string  of
	   files  to include. In the case where excluded files (see X function modifier) are also
	   specified, they take precedence over all included files. If a  file	is  specified  in
	   both the exclude-file and the include-file (or on the command line), it is excluded.

       file

	   A  path  name  of a regular file or directory to be archived (when the c, r or u func-
	   tions are specified), extracted (x) or listed (t). When file is the	path  name  of	a
	   directory,  the action applies to all of the files and (recursively) subdirectories of
	   that directory.

	   When a file is archived, and the E flag (see Function Modifiers) is not specified, the
	   filename  cannot  exceed 256 characters. In addition, it must be possible to split the
	   name between parent directory names so that the prefix is no longer than  155  charac-
	   ters and the name is no longer than 100 characters. If E is specified, a name of up to
	   PATH_MAX characters can be specified.

	   For example, a file whose basename is longer than 100 characters could not be archived
	   without  using  the E flag. A file whose directory portion is 200 characters and whose
	   basename is 50 characters could be archived (without using E) if a  slash  appears  in
	   the directory name somewhere in character positions 151-156.

   Function Letters
       The function portion of the key is specified by one of the following letters:

       c

	   Create. Writing begins at the beginning of the tarfile, instead of at the end.

       r

	   Replace.  The  named  files are written at the end of the tarfile. A file created with
	   extended headers must be updated with extended headers (see E flag under Function Mod-
	   ifiers).  A	file  created  without	extended headers cannot be modified with extended
	   headers.

       t

	   Table of Contents. The names of the specified files are listed each time they occur in
	   the	tarfile. If no file argument is specified, the names of all files and any associ-
	   ated extended attributes in the tarfile are listed.	With  the  v  function	modifier,
	   additional information for the specified files is displayed.

       u

	   Update.  The named files are written at the end of the tarfile if they are not already
	   in the tarfile, or if they have been modified since last written to that  tarfile.  An
	   update  can	be  rather slow. A tarfile created on a 5.x system cannot be updated on a
	   4.x system. A file created with extended headers must be updated with extended headers
	   (see  E flag under Function Modifiers). A file created without extended headers cannot
	   be modified with extended headers.

       x

	   Extract or restore. The named files are extracted from the tarfile and written to  the
	   directory  specified  in the tarfile, relative to the current directory. Use the rela-
	   tive path names of files and directories to be extracted.

	   Absolute path names contained in the tar archive are unpacked using the absolute  path
	   names, that is, the leading forward slash (/) is not stripped off.

	   If  a  named  file matches a directory whose contents has been written to the tarfile,
	   this directory is recursively extracted. The owner, modification time,  and	mode  are
	   restored (if possible); otherwise, to restore owner, you must be the super-user. Char-
	   acter-special and block-special devices (created by mknod(1M)) can only  be	extracted
	   by the super-user. If no file argument is specified, the entire content of the tarfile
	   is extracted. If the tarfile contains several files with the same name, each  file  is
	   written to the appropriate directory, overwriting the previous one. Filename substitu-
	   tion wildcards cannot be used for extracting files from the	archive.  Rather,  use	a
	   command of the form:

	     tar xvf ... /dev/rmt/0 `tar tf ... /dev/rmt/0 | \
		  grep 'pattern' `

       When  extracting tapes created with the r or u functions, directory modification times can
       not be set correctly. These same functions cannot be used with many  tape  drives  due  to
       tape drive limitations such as the absence of backspace or append capabilities.

       When using the r, u, or x functions or the X function modifier, the named files must match
       exactly the corresponding files in the tarfile. For example, to	extract  ./thisfile,  you
       must  specify  ./thisfile,  and	not  thisfile.	The t function displays how each file was
       archived.

   Function Modifiers
       The characters below can be used in conjunction with the letter that selects  the  desired
       function.

       b blocksize

	   Blocking  Factor.  Use when reading or writing to raw magnetic archives (see f below).
	   The blocksize argument specifies the number of 512-byte tape blocks to be included  in
	   each  read  or write operation performed on the tarfile. The minimum is 1, the default
	   is 20. The maximum value is a function of the  amount  of  memory  available  and  the
	   blocking requirements of the specific tape device involved (see mtio(7I) for details.)
	   The maximum cannot exceed INT_MAX/512(4194303).

	   When a tape archive is  being  read,  its  actual  blocking	factor	is  automatically
	   detected,  provided	that it is less than or equal to the nominal blocking factor (the
	   value of the blocksize argument, or the default value if the b modifier is not  speci-
	   fied).  If  the  actual blocking factor is greater than the nominal blocking factor, a
	   read error results. See Example 5 in EXAMPLES.

       B

	   Block. Force tar to perform multiple reads (if necessary) to read exactly enough bytes
	   to fill a block. This function modifier enables tar to work across the Ethernet, since
	   pipes and sockets return partial blocks even when more data is  coming.  When  reading
	   from standard input, "-", this function modifier is selected by default to ensure that
	   tar can recover from short reads.

       D

	   Data change warnings. Used with c, r, or u function letters. Ignored with t or x func-
	   tion  letters.  If  the size of a file changes while the file is being archived, treat
	   this condition as a warning instead of as an error. A warning message is  still  writ-
	   ten, but the exit status is not affected.

       e

	   Error.  Exit  immediately  with a positive exit status if any unexpected errors occur.
	   The SYSV3 environment variable overrides the default behavior. (See ENVIRONMENT  VARI-
	   ABLES section below.)

       E

	   Write a tarfile with extended headers. (Used with c, r, or u function letters. Ignored
	   with t or x function letters.) When a tarfile is written with  extended  headers,  the
	   modification  time  is  maintained with a granularity of microseconds rather than sec-
	   onds. In addition, filenames no longer than PATH_MAX  characters  that  could  not  be
	   archived  without  E,  and  file  sizes greater than 8GB, are supported. The E flag is
	   required whenever the larger files and/or files with longer names,  or  whose  UID/GID
	   exceed 2097151, are to be archived, or if time granularity of microseconds is desired.

       f

	   File.  Use  the  tarfile  argument  as  the	name  of  the tarfile. If f is specified,
	   /etc/default/tar is not searched. If f is omitted, tar uses the  device  indicated  by
	   the	TAPE environment variable, if set. Otherwise, tar uses the default values defined
	   in /etc/default/tar. The number matching the archiveN string is  used  as  the  output
	   device with the blocking and size specifications from the file. For example,

	     tar -c 2/tmp/*

	   writes the output to the device specified as archive2 in /etc/default/tar.

	   If the name of the tarfile is "-", tar writes to the standard output or reads from the
	   standard input, whichever is appropriate. tar can be used as the head  or  tail  of	a
	   pipeline. tar can also be used to move hierarchies with the command:

	     example% cd fromdir; tar cf - .| (cd todir; tar xfBp -)

       F

	   With one F argument, tar excludes all directories named SCCS and RCS from the tarfile.
	   With two arguments, FF, tar excludes all directories named SCCS  and  RCS,  all  files
	   with .o as their suffix, and all files named errs, core, and a.out. The SYSV3 environ-
	   ment variable overrides the	default  behavior.  (See  ENVIRONMENT  VARIABLES  section
	   below.)

       h

	   Follow  symbolic links as if they were normal files or directories. Normally, tar does
	   not follow symbolic links.

       i

	   Ignore directory checksum errors.

       k size

	   Requires tar to use the size argument as the size of an archive in kilobytes. This  is
	   useful  when  the  archive  is  intended for a fixed size device such as floppy disks.
	   Large files are then split across volumes if they do not fit in the specified size.

       l

	   Link. Output error message if unable to resolve all links to the files being archived.
	   If l is not specified, no error messages are printed.

       m

	   Modify.  The  modification  time  of the file is the time of extraction. This function
	   modifier is valid only with the x function.

       n

	   The file being read is a non-tape device. Reading of the archive is faster  since  tar
	   can randomly seek around the archive.

       o

	   Ownership.  Assign  to extracted files the user and group identifiers of the user run-
	   ning the program, rather than those on tarfile. This is the default behavior for users
	   other  than	root.  If  the	o  function modifier is not set and the user is root, the
	   extracted files takes on the group and user identifiers of the files on  tarfile  (see
	   chown(1) for more information). The o function modifier is only valid with the x func-
	   tion.

       p

	   Restore the named files to their original modes, and ACLs if applicable, ignoring  the
	   present  umask(1).  This  is  the default behavior if invoked as super-user with the x
	   function letter specified. If super-user, SETUID,  and  sticky  information	are  also
	   extracted,  and  files are restored with their original owners and permissions, rather
	   than owned by root. When this function modifier is used with the c function, ACLs  are
	   created  in the tarfile along with other information. Errors occur when a tarfile with
	   ACLs is extracted by previous versions of tar.

       P

	   Suppress the addition of a trailing "/" on directory entries in the archive.

       q

	   Stop after extracting the first occurrence of the named file. tar  normally	continues
	   reading the archive after finding an occurrence of a file.

       T

	   This modifier is only available if the system is configured with Trusted Extensions.

	   When this modifier is used with the function letter c, r, or u for creating, replacing
	   or updating a tarfile, the sensitivity label associated with each  archived	file  and
	   directory is stored in the tarfile.

	   Specifying T implies the function modifier p.

	   When  used  with the function letter x for extracting a tarfile, the tar program veri-
	   fies that the file's sensitivity label specified in the archive equals the sensitivity
	   label  of  the destination directory. If not, the file is not restored. This operation
	   must be invoked from the global zone. If the archived file has a relative pathname, it
	   is  restored to the corresponding directory with the same label, if available. This is
	   done by prepending to the current destination directory the root pathname of the  zone
	   whose label equals the file. If no such zone exists, the file is not restored.

	   Limited  support  is  provided for extracting labeled archives from Trusted Solaris 8.
	   Only sensitivity labels, and multi-level  directory	specifications	are  interpreted.
	   Privilege  specifications  and  audit attribute flags are silently ignored. Multilevel
	   directory specifications including symbolic links to single level directories are  are
	   mapped  into  zone-relative pathnames if a zone with the same label is available. This
	   support is intended to facilitate migration of home directories. Architectural differ-
	   ences preclude the extraction of arbitrarily labeled files from Trusted Solaris 8 into
	   identical pathnames in Trusted Extensions. Files  cannot  be  extracted  unless  their
	   archived label matches the destination label.

       v

	   Verbose.  Output  the  name	of  each file preceded by the function letter. With the t
	   function, v provides additional information about the tarfile entries. The listing  is
	   similar to the format produced by the -l option of the ls(1) command.

       w

	   What.  Output  the  action to be taken and the name of the file, then await the user's
	   confirmation. If the response is affirmative, the action is performed; otherwise,  the
	   action is not performed. This function modifier cannot be used with the t function.

       X

	   Exclude.  Use  the  exclude-file argument as a file containing a list of relative path
	   names for files (or directories) to be excluded from the tarfile when using the  func-
	   tions  c,  x,  or t. Be careful of trailing white spaces. Also beware of leading white
	   spaces, since, for each line in the excluded file, the entire  line	(apart	from  the
	   newline) is used to match against the initial string of files to exclude. Lines in the
	   exclude file are matched exactly, so an entry like "/var" does not  exclude	the  /var
	   directory if tar is backing up relative pathnames. The entry should read "./var" under
	   these circumstances. The tar command does  not  expand  shell  metacharacters  in  the
	   exclude  file,  so specifying entries like "*.o" does not have the effect of excluding
	   all files with names suffixed with ".o". If a complex list of files is to be excluded,
	   the	exclude  file  should be generated by some means such as the find(1) command with
	   appropriate conditions.

	   Multiple X arguments can be used, with one exclude-file  per  argument.  In	the  case
	   where  included  files  (see -I include-file operand) are also specified, the excluded
	   files take precedence over all included files. If a file  is  specified  in	both  the
	   exclude-file and the include-file (or on the command line), it is excluded.

       @

	   Include  extended  attributes  in  archive.	By  default,  tar does not place extended
	   attributes in the archive. With this flag, tar looks for extended  attributes  on  the
	   files  to be placed in the archive and add them to the archive. Extended attributes go
	   in the archive as special files with a special type label. When this modifier is  used
	   with  the  x  function, extended attributes are extracted from the tape along with the
	   normal file data. Extended attribute files can only be extracted from  an  archive  as
	   part  of  a	normal file extract. Attempts to explicitly extract attribute records are
	   ignored.

       /

	   Include extended system attributes in archive. By default, tar does not place extended
	   system  attributes  in  the	archive.  With	this  flag, tar looks for extended system
	   attributes on the files to be placed in the archive and  adds  them	to  the  archive.
	   Extended  system  attributes  go  in  the archive as special files with a special type
	   label. When this modifier is used with the x function, extended system attributes  are
	   extracted  from  the  tape  along with the normal file data. Extended system attribute
	   files can only be extracted from an archive as part of a normal file extract. Attempts
	   to explicitly extract attribute records are ignored.

       [0-7]

	   Select  an  alternative  drive  on  which the tape is mounted. The default entries are
	   specified in /etc/default/tar. If no digit or f function modifier  is  specified,  the
	   entry in /etc/default/tar with digit "0" is the default.

USAGE
       See  largefile(5)  for  the  description  of  the  behavior of tar when encountering files
       greater than or equal to 2 Gbyte ( 2^31 bytes).

       The automatic determination of the actual blocking factor can be fooled when reading  from
       a pipe or a socket (see the B function modifier below).

       1/4"  streaming tape has an inherent blocking factor of one 512-byte block. It can be read
       or written using any blocking factor.

       This function modifier works for archives on disk files and block special  devices,  among
       others, but is intended principally for tape devices.

       For information on tar header format, see archives.h(3HEAD).

EXAMPLES
       Example 1 Creating an archive of your home directory

       The  following  is  an  example using tar to create an archive of your home directory on a
       tape mounted on drive /dev/rmt/0:

	 example% cd
	 example% tar cvf /dev/rmt/0 .
	 messages from tar

       The c function letter means create the archive. The v function modifier	outputs  messages
       explaining  what tar is doing. The f function modifier indicates that the tarfile is being
       specified (/dev/rmt/0 in this example). The dot (.) at the end of the command  line  indi-
       cates the current directory and is the argument of the f function modifier.

       Display the table of contents of the tarfile with the following command:

	 example% tar tvf /dev/rmt/0

       The output is similar to the following for the POSIX locale:

	 rw-r--r--   1677/40	2123	Nov  7 18:15 1985    ./test.c
	 ...
	 example%

       The columns have the following meanings:

	   o	  column 1 is the access permissions to ./test.c

	   o	  column 2 is the user-id/group-id of ./test.c

	   o	  column 3 is the size of ./test.c in bytes

	   o	  column 4 is the modification date of ./test.c. When the LC_TIME category is not
		  set to the POSIX locale, a different format and date order field can be used.

	   o	  column 5 is the name of ./test.c

       To extract files from the archive:

	 example% tar xvf /dev/rmt/0
	 messages from tar
	 example%

       If there are multiple archive files on a tape, each is separated from the following one by
       an  EOF	marker.  To have tar read the first and second archives from a tape with multiple
       archives on it, the non-rewinding version of the tape device name must be used with the	f
       function modifier, as follows:

	 example% tar xvfp /dev/rmt/0n read first archive from tape
	 messages from tar
	 example% tar xvfp /dev/rmt/0n read second archive from tape
	 messages from tar
	 example%

       Notice  that  in  some  earlier	releases,  the above scenario did not work correctly, and
       intervention with mt(1) between tar invocations was necessary. To emulate the  old  behav-
       ior,  use  the  non-rewind  device  name containing the letter b for BSD behavior. See the
       Close Operations section of the mtio(7I) manual page.

       Example 2 Archiving files from /usr/include and from /etc to default tape drive 0

       To archive files from /usr/include and from /etc to default tape drive 0:

	 example% tar c -C /usr include -C /etc .

       The table of contents from the resulting tarfile would produce output like the following:

	 include/
	 include/a.out.h
	 and all the other files in /usr/include ...
	 ./chown and all the other files in /etc

       To extract all files in the include directory:

	 example% tar xv include
	 x include/, 0 bytes, 0 tape blocks \
	     and all files under include ...

       Example 3 Transferring files across the network

       The following is an example using tar to transfer files across the network. First, here is
       how to archive files from the local machine (example) to a tape on a remote system (host):

	 example% tar cvfb - 20 files| \
	     rsh host dd of=/dev/rmt/0 obs=20b
	 messages from tar
	 example%

       In  the example above, we are creating a tarfile with the c key letter, asking for verbose
       output from tar with the v function modifier, specifying the name of  the  output  tarfile
       using  the f function modifier (the standard output is where the tarfile appears, as indi-
       cated by the `-' sign), and specifying the blocksize(20) with the b function modifier. If
       you  want to change the blocksize, you must change the blocksize arguments both on the tar
       command and on the dd command.

       Example 4 Retrieving files from a tape on the remote system back to the local system

       The following is an example that uses tar to retrieve files from a tape on the remote sys-
       tem back to the local system:

	 example% rsh -n host dd if=/dev/rmt/0 bs=20b | \
	     tar xvBfb - 20 files
	 messages from tar
	 example%

       In the example above, we are extracting from the tarfile with the x key letter, asking for
       verbose output from tar with the v function modifier, telling tar it  is  reading  from	a
       pipe  with  the	B function modifier, specifying the name of the input tarfile using the f
       function modifier (the standard input is where the tarfile appears, as  indicated  by  the
       "-" sign), and specifying the blocksize(20) with the b function modifier.

       Example 5 Creating an archive of the home directory

       The  following  example	creates  an  archive  of the home directory on /dev/rmt/0 with an
       actual blocking factor of 19:

	 example% tar cvfb /dev/rmt/0 19 $HOME

       To recognize this archive's actual blocking factor without using the b function modifier:

	 example% tar tvf /dev/rmt/0
	 tar: blocksize = 19
	 ...

       To recognize this archive's actual blocking factor using a larger nominal blocking factor:

	 example% tar tvf /dev/rmt/0 30
	 tar: blocksize = 19
	 ...

       Attempt to recognize this archive's actual blocking factor using a nominal blocking factor
       that is too small:

	 example% tar tvf /dev/rmt/0 10
	 tar: tape read error

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       SYSV3

	   This  variable  is used to override the default behavior of tar, provide compatibility
	   with INTERACTIVE UNIX Systems and SCO UNIX installation scripts,  and  should  not  be
	   used  in  new scripts. (It is intended for compatibility purposes only.) When set, the
	   following function modifiers behave differently:

	   F filename

	       Uses filename to obtain a list of command line switches	and  files  on	which  to
	       operate.

	   e

	       Prevents  files	from being split across volumes. If there is insufficient room on
	       one volume, tar prompts for a new volume. If the file does not fit on the new vol-
	       ume, tar exits with an error.

       See  environ(5)	for  descriptions  of the following environment variables that affect the
       execution of tar: LC_COLLATE, LC_CTYPE, LC_MESSAGES, LC_TIME, TZ, and NLSPATH.

       Affirmative responses are processed using the extended regular expression defined for  the
       yesexpr	keyword in the LC_MESSAGES category of the user's locale. The locale specified in
       the LC_COLLATE category defines the behavior of ranges, equivalence  classes,  and  multi-
       character collating elements used in the expression defined for yesexpr. The locale speci-
       fied in LC_CTYPE determines the locale for interpretation of sequences of  bytes  of  text
       data  a	characters,  the behavior of character classes used in the expression defined for
       the yesexpr. See locale(5).

EXIT STATUS
       The following exit values are returned:

       0

	   Successful completion.

       >0

	   An error occurred.

FILES
       /dev/rmt/[0-7][b][n]

       /dev/rmt/[0-7]l[b][n]

       /dev/rmt/[0-7]m[b][n]

       /dev/rmt/[0-7]h[b][n]

       /dev/rmt/[0-7]u[b][n]

       /dev/rmt/[0-7]c[b][n]

       /etc/default/tar

	   Settings might look like this:
	     archive0=/dev/rmt/0
	     archive1=/dev/rmt/0n
	     archive2=/dev/rmt/1
	     archive3=/dev/rmt/1n
	     archive4=/dev/rmt/0
	     archive5=/dev/rmt/0n
	     archive6=/dev/rmt/1
	     archive7=/dev/rmt/1n

       /tmp/tar*

ATTRIBUTES
       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:

       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |      ATTRIBUTE TYPE	     |	    ATTRIBUTE VALUE	   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |Availability		     |SUNWcsu			   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |CSI			     |Enabled			   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |Interface Stability	     |Committed 		   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+

SEE ALSO
       ar(1), basename(1), cd(1), chown(1), cpio(1), csh(1), dirname(1), find(1),  ls(1),  mt(1),
       pax(1),	setfacl(1),  umask(1),	mknod(1M),  archives.h(3HEAD), attributes(5), environ(5),
       fsattr(5), largefile(5), mtio(7I)

DIAGNOSTICS
       Diagnostic messages are output for bad key characters and tape read/write errors, and  for
       insufficient memory to hold the link tables.

NOTES
       There is no way to access the n-th occurrence of a file.

       Tape errors are handled ungracefully.

       The  tar  archive  format  allows  UIDs and GIDs up to 2097151 to be stored in the archive
       header. Files with UIDs and GIDs greater than this value is archived with the UID and  GID
       of 60001.

       If an archive is created that contains files whose names were created by processes running
       in multiple locales, a single locale that uses a full  8-bit  codeset  (for  example,  the
       en_US  locale) should be used both to create the archive and to extract files from the ar-
       chive.

       Neither the r function letter nor the u function letter can be used with quarter-inch  ar-
       chive tapes, since these tape drives cannot backspace.

       Since tar has no options, the standard "--" argument that is normally used in other utili-
       ties to terminate recognition of options is not needed. If used, it is recognized only  as
       the first argument and is ignored.

       Since  -C  directory file and -I include-file are multi-argument operands, any of the fol-
       lowing methods can be used to archive or extract a file named -C or -I:

	   1.	  Specify them using file operands containing a / character on the  command  line
		  (such as /home/joe/-C or ./-I).

	   2.	  Include them in an include file with -I include-file.

	   3.	  Specify the directory in which the file resides:

		    -C directory -C

		  or

		    -C directory -I

	   4.	  Specify the entire directory in which the file resides:

		    -C directory .

SunOS 5.11				   26 Oct 2007					   tar(1)


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