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OpenSolaris 2009.06 - man page for ls (opensolaris section 1)

ls(1)					  User Commands 				    ls(1)

NAME
       ls - list contents of directory

SYNOPSIS
       /usr/bin/ls [-aAbcCdeEfFghHilLmnopqrRsStuvVx1@]
       [-/ c | v] [-% atime | crtime | ctime | mtime | all] [file]...

       /usr/xpg4/bin/ls [-aAbcCdeEfFghHilLmnopqrRsStuvVx1@]
	    [-/ c | v] [-% atime | crtime | ctime | mtime | all] [file]...

       /usr/xpg6/bin/ls [-aAbcCdeEfFghHilLmnopqrRsStuvVx1@]
	    [-/ c | v] [-% atime | crtime | ctime | mtime | all] [file]...

DESCRIPTION
       For  each  file that is a directory, ls lists the contents of the directory. For each file
       that is an ordinary file, ls repeats its name and any  other  information  requested.  The
       output  is sorted alphabetically by default. When no argument is given, the current direc-
       tory (.) is listed. When several arguments are  given,  the  arguments  are  first  sorted
       appropriately, but file arguments appear before directories and their contents.

       There  are three major listing formats. The default format for output directed to a termi-
       nal is multi-column with entries sorted down the columns. The -1 option allows single col-
       umn  output  and -m enables stream output format. In order to determine output formats for
       the -C, -x, and -m options, ls uses an environment variable,  COLUMNS,  to  determine  the
       number  of  character positions available on one output line. If this variable is not set,
       the terminfo(4) database is used to determine the number of columns, based on the environ-
       ment variable, TERM. If this information cannot be obtained, 80 columns are assumed.

       The  mode  printed when the -e, -E, -g, -l, -n, -o, -v, -V, or -@ option is in effect con-
       sists of eleven characters. The first character can be one of the following:

       d       The entry is a directory.

       D       The entry is a door.

       l       The entry is a symbolic link.

       b       The entry is a block special file.

       c       The entry is a character special file.

       p       The entry is a FIFO (or "named pipe") special file.

       P       The entry is an event port.

       s       The entry is an AF_UNIX address family socket.

       -       The entry is an ordinary file.

       The next 9 characters are interpreted as three sets of three  bits  each.  The  first  set
       refers  to the owner's permissions; the next to permissions of others in the user-group of
       the file; and the last to all others. Within each set, the three characters indicate  per-
       mission	to  read,  to  write,  and  to execute the file as a program, respectively. For a
       directory, execute permission is interpreted to mean permission to  search  the	directory
       for  a  specified  file.  The character after permissions is an ACL or extended attributes
       indicator. This character is an @ if extended attributes are associated with the file  and
       the  -@	option	is in effect. Otherwise, this character is a plus sign (+) character if a
       non-trivial ACL is associated with the file or a space character if not.

       If -/ and/or -% are in effect, then  the  extended  system  attributes  are  printed  when
       filesystem supports extended system attributes. The display looks as follows:

	 $ls -/ c  file
	 -rw-r--r--   1 root	 root		0 May 10 14:17 file
			 {AHRSadim-u}

	 $ls -/ v file
	 -rw-r--r--   1 root	 root		0 May 10 14:17 file
			 {archive,hidden,readonly,system,appendonly\
			  nodump,immutable, av_modified,\
			  noav_quarantined,nounlink}

	 $ls -l -% all file
	 -rw-r--r--   1 root	 root		0 May 10 14:17 file
			 timestamp: atime    Jun 25 12:56:44 2007
			 timestamp: ctime    May 10 14:20:23 2007
			 timestamp: mtime    May 10 14:17:56 2007
			 timestamp: crtime   May 10 14:17:56 2007

       See the option descriptions of the -/ and -% option for details.

       ls -l (the long list) prints its output as follows for the POSIX locale:

	 -rwxrwxrwx+ 1 smith dev   10876  May 16 9:42 part2

       Reading	from  right  to  left,	you  see that the current directory holds one file, named
       part2. Next, the last time that file's contents were modified was 9:42 A.M. on May 16. The
       file  contains 10,876 characters, or bytes. The owner of the file, or the user, belongs to
       the group dev (perhaps indicating ``development''), and his or her login  name  is  smith.
       The  number,  in this case 1, indicates the number of links to file part2 (see cp(1)). The
       plus sign indicates that there is an ACL associated with the file. If the  -@  option  has
       been  specified,  the presence of extended attributes supersede the presence of an ACL and
       the plus sign is replaced with an 'at' sign (@). Finally, the dash and  letters	tell  you
       that user, group, and others have permissions to read, write, and execute part2.

       The execute (x) symbol occupies the third position of the three-character sequence. A - in
       the third position would have indicated a denial of execution permissions.

       The permissions are indicated as follows:

       r       The file is readable.

       w       The file is writable.

       x       The file is executable.

       -       The indicated permission is not granted.

       s       The set-user-ID or set-group-ID bit is on, and the  corresponding  user	or  group
	       execution bit is also on.

       S       Undefined  bit-state  (the  set-user-ID	or set-group-id bit is on and the user or
	       group execution bit is off). For group permissions, this applies only to non-regu-
	       lar files.

       t       The 1000 (octal) bit, or sticky bit, is on (see chmod(1)), and execution is on.

       T       The 1000 bit is turned on, and execution is off (undefined bit-state).

   /usr/bin/ls
       l    Mandatory locking occurs during access (on a regular file, the set-group-ID bit is on
	    and the group execution bit is off).

   /usr/xpg4/bin/ls and /usr/xpg6/bin/ls
       L    Mandatory locking occurs during access (on a regular file, the set-group-ID bit is on
	    and the group execution bit is off).

       For  user  and  group permissions, the third position is sometimes occupied by a character
       other than x or -. s or S also can occupy this position, referring to  the  state  of  the
       set-ID  bit, whether it be the user's or the group's. The ability to assume the same ID as
       the user during execution is, for example, used during login when you begin  as	root  but
       need to assume the identity of the user you login as.

       In  the	case  of  the  sequence  of group permissions, l can occupy the third position. l
       refers to mandatory file and record locking. This permission describes a file's ability to
       allow other files to lock its reading or writing permissions during access.

       For  others  permissions, the third position can be occupied by t or T. These refer to the
       state of the sticky bit and execution permissions.

OPTIONS
       The following options are supported:

   /usr/bin/ls, /usr/xpg4/bin/ls, and /usr/xpg6/bin/ls
       The following options are supported for all three versions:

       -a	  Lists all entries, including those that begin with a dot (.),  which	are  nor-
		  mally not listed.

       -A	  Lists  all  entries, including those that begin with a dot (.), with the excep-
		  tion of the working directory (.) and the parent directory (..).

       -b	  Forces printing of non-printable characters to be in the octal \ddd notation.

       -c	  Uses time of last modification of the i-node (file created, mode  changed,  and
		  so forth) for sorting (-t) or printing (-l or -n).

       -C	  Multi-column	output	with entries sorted down the columns. This is the default
		  output format.

       -d	  If an argument is a directory, lists only its name (not  its	contents).  Often
		  used with -l to get the status of a directory.

       -e	  The same as -l, except displays time to the second, and with one format for all
		  files regardless of age: mmm dd hh:mm:ss yyyy.

       -E	  The same as -l, except displays time to the nanosecond and with one format  for
		  all  files regardless of age: yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm:ss.nnnnnnnnn (ISO 8601:2000 for-
		  mat).

		  In addition, this option displays the offset from UTC in ISO 8601:2000 standard
		  format  (+hhmm  or -hhmm) or no characters if the offset is indeterminable. The
		  offset reflects the appropriate standard or alternate offset in  force  at  the
		  file's displayed date and time, under the current timezone.

       -f	  Forces  each	argument to be interpreted as a directory and list the name found
		  in each slot. This option turns off -l, -t, -s, -S, and -r, and  turns  on  -a.
		  The order is the order in which entries appear in the directory.

       -g	  The same as -l, except that the owner is not printed.

       -h	  All  sizes are scaled to a human readable format, for example, 14K, 234M, 2.7G,
		  or 3.0T. Scaling is done by repetitively dividing by 1024.

       -H	  If an argument is a symbolic link that  references  a  directory,  this  option
		  evaluates  the  file	information  and file type of the directory that the link
		  references, rather than those of the link itself. However, the name of the link
		  is displayed, rather than the referenced directory.

       -i	  For each file, prints the i-node number in the first column of the report.

       -l	  Lists  in  long  format,  giving  mode, ACL indication, number of links, owner,
		  group, size in bytes, and time of last modification for each file (see  above).
		  If  the  file  is a special file, the size field instead contains the major and
		  minor device numbers. If the time of last  modification  is  greater	than  six
		  months  ago,	it is shown in the format `month date year' for the POSIX locale.
		  When the LC_TIME locale category is not set to the POSIX  locale,  a	different
		  format  of  the  time  field can be used. Files modified within six months show
		  `month date time'. If the file is a symbolic link, the filename is printed fol-
		  lowed by "->" and the path name of the referenced file.

       -L	  If  an  argument is a symbolic link, this option evaluates the file information
		  and file type of the file or directory that the link	references,  rather  than
		  those  of  the  link itself. However, the name of the link is displayed, rather
		  than the referenced file or directory.

       -m	  Streams output format. Files are listed across the page, separated by commas.

       -n	  The same as -l, except that  the  owner's  UID  and  group's	GID  numbers  are
		  printed, rather than the associated character strings.

       -o	  The same as -l, except that the group is not printed.

       -p	  Puts a slash (/) after each filename if the file is a directory.

       -q	  Forces  printing  of	non-printable  characters  in file names as the character
		  question mark (?).

       -r	  Reverses the order of sort to get reverse alphabetic, oldest first, or smallest
		  file size first as appropriate.

       -R	  Recursively lists subdirectories encountered.

       -s	  Indicate  the  total	number	of  file system blocks consumed by each file dis-
		  played.

       -S	  Sort by file size (in decreasing order) and for files with  the  same  size  by
		  file name (in increasing alphabetic order) instead of just by name.

       -t	  Sorts  by time stamp (latest first) instead of by name. The default is the last
		  modification time. See -c, -u and -%.

       -u	  Uses time of last access instead of last modification for sorting (with the  -t
		  option) or printing (with the -l option).

       -v	  The same as -l, except that verbose ACL information is displayed as well as the
		  -l output. ACL information is displayed even if the file or  directory  doesn't
		  have an ACL.

       -V	  The  same  as -l, except that compact ACL information is displayed after the -l
		  output.

		  The -V option is only applicable to file systems that support NFSv4 ACLs,  such
		  as the Solaris ZFS file system.

		  The format of the displayed ACL is as follows:

		    entry_type : permissions : inheritance_flags : access_type

		  entry_type is displayed as one of the following:

		  user:username      Additional user access for username.

		  group:groupname    Additional group access for group groupname.

		  owner@	     File owner.

		  group@	     File group owner.

		  everyone@	     Everyone  access, including file owner and file group owner.
				     This is not equivalent to the POSIX other class.

		  The following permissions, supported by the NFSv4 ACL model, are  displayed  by
		  using the -v or -V options:

		  read_data (r) 	  Permission to read the data of a file.

		  list_directory (r)	  Permission to list the contents of a directory.

		  write_data (w)	  Permission  to  modify  a  file's data. anywhere in the
					  file's offset range.

		  add_file (w)		  Permission to add a new file to a directory.

		  append_data (p)	  The ability to modify a file's data, but only  starting
					  at EOF.

		  add_subdirectory (p)	  Permission to create a subdirectory to a directory.

		  read_xattr (R)	  Ability to read the extended attributes of a file.

		  write_xattr (W)	  Ability  to  create extended attributes or write to the
					  extended attribute directory.

		  execute (x)		  Permission to execute a file.

		  read_attributes (a)	  The ability to read basic attributes	(non-ACLs)  of	a
					  file.

		  write_attributes (A)	  Permission  to  change the times associated with a file
					  or directory to an arbitrary value.

		  delete (d)		  Permission to delete a file.

		  delete_child (D)	  Permission to delete a file within a directory.

		  read_acl (c)		  Permission to read the ACL of a file.

		  write_acl (C) 	  Permission to write the ACL of a file.

		  write_owner (o)	  Permission to change the owner of a file.

		  synchronize (s)	  Permission to access file locally at server  with  syn-
					  chronize reads and writes.

		  -			  No permission granted

		  The  following  inheritance  flags,  supported by the NFSv4 ACL model, are dis-
		  played by using the -v or -V options:

		  file_inherit (f)	   Inherit to all newly created files.

		  dir_inherit (d)	   Inherit to all newly created directories.

		  inherit_only (i)	   When placed on a directory, do not apply to the direc-
					   tory,  only	to  newly  created files and directories.
					   This flag requires that  either  file_inherit  and  or
					   dir_inherit is also specified.

		  no_propagate (n)	   Indicates  that  ACL  entries  should  be inherited to
					   objects in a directory, but	inheritance  should  stop
					   after  descending  one  level.  This flag is dependent
					   upon either file_inherit and or dir_inherit also being
					   specified.

		  successful_access (S)    Indicates if an alarm or audit record should be initi-
					   ated upon successful accesses. Used	with  audit/alarm
					   ACE types.

		  failed_access (F)	   Indicates if an alarm or audit record should be initi-
					   ated when access fails.   Used  with  audit/alarm  ACE
					   types.

		  inherited (I) 	   ACE was inherited.

		  -			   No permission granted.

		  access_type is displayed as one of the following types:

		  alarm    Permission  field  that  specifies  permissions that should trigger an
			   alarm.

		  allow    Permission field that specifies allow permissions.

		  audit    Permission field that specifies permissions that should be audited.

		  deny	   Permission field that specifies deny permissions.

		  For example:

		    $ ls -dV /sandbox/dir.1
		      drwxr-xr-x+  2 root     root	     2 Jan 17 15:09 dir.1
				      user:marks:r-------------:fd-----:allow
					  owner@:--------------:-------:deny
					  owner@:rwxp---A-W-Co-:-------:allow
					  group@:-w-p----------:-------:deny
					  group@:r-x-----------:-------:allow
				       everyone@:-w-p---A-W-Co-:-------:deny
				       everyone@:r-x---a-R-c--s:-------:allow
		    $
					       ||||||||||||||||:||||||+ inherited access
						 ||||||||||||||:||||||+ failed access
						 ||||||||||||||:|||||+--success access
						 ||||||||||||||:||||+-- no propagate
						 ||||||||||||||:|||+--- inherit only
						 ||||||||||||||:||+---- directory inherit
						 ||||||||||||||:|+----- file inherit
						 ||||||||||||||
						 ||||||||||||||+ sync
						 |||||||||||||+- change owner
						 ||||||||||||+-- write ACL
						 |||||||||||+--- read ACL
						 ||||||||||+---- write extended attributes
						 |||||||||+----- read extended attributes
						 ||||||||+------ write attributes
						 |||||||+------- read attributes
						 ||||||+-------- delete child
						 |||||+--------- delete
						 ||||+---------- append
						 |||+----------- execute
						 ||+------------ write data
						 |+------------- read data

       -x	  Multi-column output with entries sorted across rather than down the page.

       -1	  Prints one entry per line of output.

       -@	  The same as -l, except that extended attribute information overrides ACL infor-
		  mation.  An  @  is displayed after the file permission bits for files that have
		  extended attributes.

       -c | -v	  The same as -l, and in addition displays the extended system attributes associ-
		  ated	with  the file when extended system attributes are fully supported by the
		  underlying file system. The option -/ supports two option arguments c  (compact
		  mode) and v (verbose mode).

		  appendonly	    Allows  a file to be modified only at offset EOF. Attempts to
				    modify a file at a location other than EOF fails with EPERM.

		  archive	    Indicates if a file has  been  modified  since  it	was  last
				    backed  up.  Whenever the modification time (mtime) of a file
				    is changed the archive attribute is set.

		  av_modified	    ZFS sets the anti-virus attribute  which  whenever	a  file's
				    content or size changes or when the file is renamed.

		  av_quarantined    Anti-virus software sets to mark a file as quarantined.

		  crtime	    Timestamp when a file is created.

		  hidden	    Marks a file as hidden.

		  immutable	    Prevents the content of a file from being modified. Also pre-
				    vents all metadata changes, except for access  time  updates.
				    When  placed  on  a directory, prevents the deletion and cre-
				    ation of files in the directories.	Attempts  to  modify  the
				    content  of a file or directory marked as immutable fail with
				    EPERM. Attempts to modify any attributes (with the	exception
				    of	 access   time	and,  with  the  proper  privileges,  the
				    immutable) of a file marked as immutable fails with EPERM.

		  nodump	    Solaris systems have no special semantics for this attribute.

		  nounlink	    Prevents a file from  being  deleted.  On  a  directory,  the
				    attribute  also  prevents  any changes to the contents of the
				    directory. That is, no files  within  the  directory  can  be
				    removed or renamed. The errno EPERM is returned when attempt-
				    ing to unlink or rename files and directories that are marked
				    as nounlink.

		  readonly	    Marks  a  file as readonly. Once a file is marked as readonly
				    the content data of the file cannot be modified. Other  meta-
				    data for the file can still be modified.

		  system	    Solaris systems have no special semantics for this attribute.

       The display characters used in compact mode (-/ c) are as follows:

	 Attribute Name     Display
	 archive	    A
	 hidden 	    H
	 readonly	    R
	 system 	    S
	 appendonly	    a
	 nodump 	    d
	 immutable	    i
	 av_modified	    m
	 av_quarantined     q
	 nounlink	    u

       The  display  in  verbose mode (/ v) uses full attribute names when it is set and the name
       prefixed by 'no' when it is not set.

       The attribute name crtime and all other timestamps are handled by the option -%	with  the
       respective timestamp option arguments and also with all option argument. The display posi-
       tions are as follows: The display in verbose mode (-/ v) uses full attribute  names   when
       it  is  set  and the name prefixed by no when it is not set. The attribute name crtime and
       all other timestamps are handled by the option -% with  the  respective	timestamp  option
       arguments and also with all option argument.

       The display positions are as follows:

	 {||||||||||}
	  |||||||||+- u (nounlink)
	  ||||||||+-- q (av_quarantined)
	  |||||||+--- m (av_modified)
	  ||||||+---- i (immutable)
	  |||||+----- d (nodump)
	  ||||+------ a (appendonly)
	  |||+------- S (system)
	  ||+-------- R (readonly)
	  |+--------- H (hidden)
	  +---------- A (archive)

	 -% atime | crtime | ctime | mtime | all

       atime	 Equivalent to -u.

       crtime	 Uses the creation time of the file for sorting or printing.

       ctime	 Equivalent to -c.

       mtime	 Uses the last modification time of the file contents for sorting or printing.

       If  extended system attributes are not supported or if the user does not have read permis-
       sion on the file or if the crtime extended attribute is not set, crtime is  treated  as	a
       synonym for mtime.

       When  option  argument  -all  is  specified,  all  available  timestamps are printed which
       includes -atime, -ctime, -mtime and on the extended system attribute supporting file  sys-
       tems,  -crtime  (create	time).	The option -% all does not effect which timestamp is dis-
       played in long format and does not affect sorting.

   /usr/bin/ls
       -F    Marks directories with a trailing slash (/), doors with a trailing greater-than sign
	     (>),  executable  files with a trailing asterisk (*), FIFOs with a trailing vertical
	     bar (|), symbolic links with a trailing "at" sign (@), and  AF_UNIX  address  family
	     sockets with a trailing equals sign (=). Follows symlinks named as operands.

       Specifying  more  than one of the options in the following mutually exclusive pairs is not
       considered an error: -C and -l (ell), -m and -l (ell), -x and -l (ell), -@ and  -l  (ell).
       The -l option overrides the other option specified in each pair.

       Specifying  more  than one of the options in the following mutually exclusive pairs is not
       considered an error: -C and -1 (one), -H and -L, -c and -u, and -e and -E, and -t and  -S.
       The  last  option specifying a specific timestamp (-c, -u, -% atime , -% crtime, -% ctime,
       and -% mtime) determines the timestamps used for sorting or in long format listings.

   /usr/xpg4/bin/ls
       -F    Marks directories with a trailing slash (/), doors with a trailing greater-than sign
	     (>),  executable  files with a trailing asterisk (*), FIFOs with a trailing vertical
	     bar (|), symbolic links with a trailing "at" sign (@), and  AF_UNIX  address  family
	     sockets with a trailing equals sign (=). Follows symlinks named as operands.

       Specifying  more  than one of the options in the following mutually exclusive pairs is not
       considered an error: -C and -l (ell), -m and -l (ell), -x and -l (ell), -@ and  -l  (ell),
       -C and -1 (one), -H and -L, -c and -u, and -e and -E, and -t and -S. The last option spec-
       ifying a specific timestamp (-c, -u, -% atime , -% crtime, -% ctime, and -% mtime)  deter-
       mines the timestamps used for sorting or in long format listings.

   /usr/xpg6/bin/ls
       -F    Marks directories with a trailing slash (/), doors with a trailing greater-than sign
	     (>), executable files with a trailing asterisk (*), FIFOs with a  trailing  vertical
	     bar  (|),	symbolic  links with a trailing "at" sign (@), and AF_UNIX address family
	     sockets with a trailing equals sign (=). Does not follow symlinks named as  operands
	     unless the -H or -L option is specified.

       Specifying  more  than one of the options in the following mutually exclusive pairs is not
       considered an error: -C and -l (ell), -m and -l (ell), -x and -l (ell), -@ and  -l  (ell),
       -C  and -1 (one), -H and -L, -c and -u, and -e and -E, -t and -S. The last option specify-
       ing a specific timestamp (-c, -u, -% atime , -% crtime, -% ctime, and -% mtime) determines
       the timestamps used for sorting or in long format listings.

OPERANDS
       The following operand is supported:

       file    A  path	name of a file to be written. If the file specified is not found, a diag-
	       nostic message is output on standard error.

USAGE
       See largefile(5) for the description of the behavior of ls when encountering files greater
       than or equal to 2 Gbyte ( 2^31 bytes).

EXAMPLES
       Example 1 Viewing File Permissions

       The following example shows how to display detailed information about a file.

	 % ls -l file.1
	 -rw-r--r--   1 gozer	 staff	   206663 Mar 14 10:15 file.1

       The permissions string above (-rw-r--r--) describes that the file owner has read and write
       permissions, the owning group has read permissions, and others have read permissions.

       The following example shows how to display detailed information about a directory.

	 % ls -ld test.dir
	 drwxr-xr-x   2 gozer	 staff		2 Mar 14 10:17 test.dir

       The permissions string above (drwxr-xr-x) describes that the  directory	owner  has  read,
       write,  and search permissions, the owning group has read and search permissions, and oth-
       ers have read and search permissions.

       Another example of listing file permissions is as follows:

	 % ls -l file.2
	 -rw-rwl---   1 gozer	 staff	   206663 Mar 14 10:47 file.2

       The permissions string above (-rw-rwl---) describes that the file owner has read and write
       permissions,  the  owning group has read and write permissions, and the file can be locked
       during access.

       Example 2 Displaying ACL Information on Files and Directories

       The following example shows how to display verbose ACL information on a ZFS file.

	 % ls -v file.1
	 -rw-r--r--   1 marks	 staff	   206663 Mar 14 10:15 file.1
	      0:owner@:execute:deny
	      1:owner@:read_data/write_data/append_data/write_xattr/write_attributes
		   /write_acl/write_owner:allow
	      2:group@:write_data/append_data/execute:deny
	      3:group@:read_data:allow
	      4:everyone@:write_data/append_data/write_xattr/execute/write_attributes
		   /write_acl/write_owner:deny
	      5:everyone@:read_data/read_xattr/read_attributes/read_acl/synchronize
		   :allow

       The following example shows how to display compact ACL information on a ZFS  directory.

	 % ls -dV test.dir
	 drwxr-xr-x   2 marks	 staff		2 Mar 14 10:17 test.dir
		     owner@:--------------:------:deny
		     owner@:rwxp---A-W-Co-:------:allow
		     group@:-w-p----------:------:deny
		     group@:r-x-----------:------:allow
		     everyone@:-w-p---A-W-Co-:------:deny
		     everyone@:r-x---a-R-c--s:------:allow

       The following example illustrates the ls -v behavior when listing ACL   information  on	a
       UFS file.

	 $ ls -v file.3
	 -rw-r--r--   1 root	 root	     2703 Mar 14 10:59 file.3
	      0:user::rw-
	      1:group::r--		 #effective:r--
	      2:mask:r--
	      3:other:r--

       Example 3 Printing the Names of All Files

       The  following  example	prints the names of all files in the current directory, including
       those that begin with a dot (.), which normally do not print:

	 example% ls -a

       Example 4 Providing File Information

       The following example provides file information:

	 example% ls -aisn

       This command provides information on all files, including those that begin with a dot (a),
       the  i-number,  the  memory address of the i-node associated with the file--printed in the
       left-hand column (i); the size (in blocks) of the files, printed  in  the  column  to  the
       right of the i-numbers (s); finally, the report is displayed in the numeric version of the
       long list, printing the UID (instead of user name) and GID (instead of group name) numbers
       associated with the files.

       When  the sizes of the files in a directory are listed, a total count of blocks, including
       indirect blocks, is printed.

       Example 5 Providing Extended System Attributes Information

	 example% ls -/ c file	  (extended system attribute in compact mode)
	 -rw-r--r--   1 root	 root		0 May 10 14:17 file
				  {AHRSadim-u}

       In this example, av_quarantined is not set.

	 example% ls -/ v file (extended system attribute in verbose mode)
	 -rw-r--r--   1 root	 root		0 May 10 14:17 file
			 {archive,hidden,readonly,system,appendonly\
			  nodump,immutable,av_modified,\
			  noav_quarantined,nounlink}

	 example% ls -/ v file	   (no extended system attribute)
	 -rw-r--r--  1 root    staff	    0 May 16 14:48 file
			{}

	 example% ls -/ c file	      (extended system attribute
				       supported file system)

	 -rw-r--r--  1 root staff	 3 Jun	4 22:04 file
			{A------m--}

       archive and av_modified attributes are set by default on   an  extended	system	attribute
       supported file.

	 example% ls -/ c  -%crtime file

	 -rw-r--r--    root	root	      0 May 10 14:17 file
			{AHRSadim-u}

       This example displays the timestamp as the creation time:

	 example% ls -l -%all file
	 -rw-r--r--   1 root	 root		0 May 10 14:17	  file
			 timestamp: atime    Jun 14 08:47:37 2007
			 timestamp: ctime    May 10 14:20:23 2007
			 timestamp: mtime    May 10 14:17:56 2007
			 timestamp: crtime   May 10 14:17:56 2007

	 example% ls -%crtime -tl file*

	 -rw-r--r--   1 foo	 staff		3 Jun  4 22:04 file1
	 -rw-r--r--   1 root	 root		0 May 10 14:17 file
	 -rw-r--r--   1 foo	 staff		0 May  9 13:49 file.1

       In this example the files are sorted by creation time.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       See  environ(5)	for  descriptions  of the following environment variables that affect the
       execution of ls: LANG, LC_ALL, LC_COLLATE, LC_CTYPE, LC_TIME,  LC_MESSAGES,  NLSPATH,  and
       TZ.

       COLUMNS	  Determines  the  user's  preferred  column  position width for writing multiple
		  text-column output. If this variable contains a string representing  a  decimal
		  integer,  the  ls  utility  calculates how many path name text columns to write
		  (see -C) based on the width provided. If COLUMNS is not set or is  invalid,  80
		  is  used.  The  column  width  chosen  to write the names of files in any given
		  directory is constant. File names are not be truncated to fit into the multiple
		  text-column output.

EXIT STATUS
       0     All information was written successfully.

       >0    An error occurred.

FILES
       /etc/group

	   group IDs for ls -l and ls -g

       /etc/passwd

	   user IDs for ls -l and ls -o

       /usr/share/lib/terminfo/?/*

	   terminal information database

ATTRIBUTES
       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:

   /usr/bin/ls
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |      ATTRIBUTE TYPE	     |	    ATTRIBUTE VALUE	   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |Availability		     |SUNWcsu			   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |CSI			     |Enabled			   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |Interface Stability	     |Committed 		   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |Standard		     |See below.		   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+

       For all options except -A, -b, -e,  -E, -h, -S, -v, -V, -@, -/ and -%, see standards(5).

   /usr/xpg4/bin/ls
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |      ATTRIBUTE TYPE	     |	    ATTRIBUTE VALUE	   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |Availability		     |SUNWxcu4			   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |CSI			     |Enabled			   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |Interface Stability	     |Committed 		   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |Standard		     |See below.		   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+

       For all options except -A, -b, -e,  -E, -h, -S, -v, -V, -@, -/ and -%, see standards(5).

   /usr/xpg6/bin/ls
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |      ATTRIBUTE TYPE	     |	    ATTRIBUTE VALUE	   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |Availability		     |SUNWxcu6			   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |CSI			     |Enabled			   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |Interface Stability	     |Committed 		   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |Standard		     |See below.		   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+

       For all options except -A, -b, -e,  -E, -h, -S, -v, -V, -@, -/ and -%, see standards(5).

SEE ALSO
       chmod(1), cp(1), setfacl(1), fgetattr(3C), terminfo(4), acl(5), attributes(5), environ(5),
       fsattr(5), largefile(5), standards(5)

NOTES
       Unprintable characters in file names can confuse the columnar output options.

       The total block count is incorrect if there are hard links among the files.

       The sort order of ls output is affected by the locale and can be overridden by the LC_COL-
       LATE  environment  variable.  For example, if LC_COLLATE equals C, dot files appear first,
       followed by names beginning with upper-case letters, then followed by names beginning with
       lower-case letters. But if LC_COLLATE equals en_US.ISO8859-1, then leading dots as well as
       case are ignored in determining the sort order.

SunOS 5.11				   10 Feb 2009					    ls(1)


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