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OpenSolaris 2009.06 - man page for ls (opensolaris section 1)

ls(1)								   User Commands							     ls(1)

NAME
ls - list contents of directory
SYNOPSIS
/usr/bin/ls [-aAbcCdeEfFghHilLmnopqrRsStuvVx1@] [-/ c | v] [-% atime | crtime | ctime | mtime | all] [file]... /usr/xpg4/bin/ls [-aAbcCdeEfFghHilLmnopqrRsStuvVx1@] [-/ c | v] [-% atime | crtime | ctime | mtime | all] [file]... /usr/xpg6/bin/ls [-aAbcCdeEfFghHilLmnopqrRsStuvVx1@] [-/ c | v] [-% atime | crtime | ctime | mtime | all] [file]...
DESCRIPTION
For each file that is a directory, ls lists the contents of the directory. For each file that is an ordinary file, ls repeats its name and any other information requested. The output is sorted alphabetically by default. When no argument is given, the current directory (.) is listed. When several arguments are given, the arguments are first sorted appropriately, but file arguments appear before directories and their contents. There are three major listing formats. The default format for output directed to a terminal is multi-column with entries sorted down the columns. The -1 option allows single column output and -m enables stream output format. In order to determine output formats for the -C, -x, and -m options, ls uses an environment variable, COLUMNS, to determine the number of character positions available on one output line. If this variable is not set, the terminfo(4) database is used to determine the number of columns, based on the environment variable, TERM. If this information cannot be obtained, 80 columns are assumed. The mode printed when the -e, -E, -g, -l, -n, -o, -v, -V, or -@ option is in effect consists of eleven characters. The first character can be one of the following: d The entry is a directory. D The entry is a door. l The entry is a symbolic link. b The entry is a block special file. c The entry is a character special file. p The entry is a FIFO (or "named pipe") special file. P The entry is an event port. s The entry is an AF_UNIX address family socket. - The entry is an ordinary file. The next 9 characters are interpreted as three sets of three bits each. The first set refers to the owner's permissions; the next to per- missions of others in the user-group of the file; and the last to all others. Within each set, the three characters indicate permission to read, to write, and to execute the file as a program, respectively. For a directory, execute permission is interpreted to mean permission to search the directory for a specified file. The character after permissions is an ACL or extended attributes indicator. This character is an @ if extended attributes are associated with the file and the -@ option is in effect. Otherwise, this character is a plus sign (+) char- acter if a non-trivial ACL is associated with the file or a space character if not. If -/ and/or -% are in effect, then the extended system attributes are printed when filesystem supports extended system attributes. The display looks as follows: $ls -/ c file -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 0 May 10 14:17 file {AHRSadim-u} $ls -/ v file -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 0 May 10 14:17 file {archive,hidden,readonly,system,appendonly\ nodump,immutable, av_modified,\ noav_quarantined,nounlink} $ls -l -% all file -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 0 May 10 14:17 file timestamp: atime Jun 25 12:56:44 2007 timestamp: ctime May 10 14:20:23 2007 timestamp: mtime May 10 14:17:56 2007 timestamp: crtime May 10 14:17:56 2007 See the option descriptions of the -/ and -% option for details. ls -l (the long list) prints its output as follows for the POSIX locale: -rwxrwxrwx+ 1 smith dev 10876 May 16 9:42 part2 Reading from right to left, you see that the current directory holds one file, named part2. Next, the last time that file's contents were modified was 9:42 A.M. on May 16. The file contains 10,876 characters, or bytes. The owner of the file, or the user, belongs to the group dev (perhaps indicating ``development''), and his or her login name is smith. The number, in this case 1, indicates the number of links to file part2 (see cp(1)). The plus sign indicates that there is an ACL associated with the file. If the -@ option has been specified, the presence of extended attributes supersede the presence of an ACL and the plus sign is replaced with an 'at' sign (@). Finally, the dash and letters tell you that user, group, and others have permissions to read, write, and execute part2. The execute (x) symbol occupies the third position of the three-character sequence. A - in the third position would have indicated a denial of execution permissions. The permissions are indicated as follows: r The file is readable. w The file is writable. x The file is executable. - The indicated permission is not granted. s The set-user-ID or set-group-ID bit is on, and the corresponding user or group execution bit is also on. S Undefined bit-state (the set-user-ID or set-group-id bit is on and the user or group execution bit is off). For group permissions, this applies only to non-regular files. t The 1000 (octal) bit, or sticky bit, is on (see chmod(1)), and execution is on. T The 1000 bit is turned on, and execution is off (undefined bit-state). /usr/bin/ls l Mandatory locking occurs during access (on a regular file, the set-group-ID bit is on and the group execution bit is off). /usr/xpg4/bin/ls and /usr/xpg6/bin/ls L Mandatory locking occurs during access (on a regular file, the set-group-ID bit is on and the group execution bit is off). For user and group permissions, the third position is sometimes occupied by a character other than x or -. s or S also can occupy this position, referring to the state of the set-ID bit, whether it be the user's or the group's. The ability to assume the same ID as the user during execution is, for example, used during login when you begin as root but need to assume the identity of the user you login as. In the case of the sequence of group permissions, l can occupy the third position. l refers to mandatory file and record locking. This per- mission describes a file's ability to allow other files to lock its reading or writing permissions during access. For others permissions, the third position can be occupied by t or T. These refer to the state of the sticky bit and execution permissions.
OPTIONS
The following options are supported: /usr/bin/ls, /usr/xpg4/bin/ls, and /usr/xpg6/bin/ls The following options are supported for all three versions: -a Lists all entries, including those that begin with a dot (.), which are normally not listed. -A Lists all entries, including those that begin with a dot (.), with the exception of the working directory (.) and the parent directory (..). -b Forces printing of non-printable characters to be in the octal \ddd notation. -c Uses time of last modification of the i-node (file created, mode changed, and so forth) for sorting (-t) or printing (-l or -n). -C Multi-column output with entries sorted down the columns. This is the default output format. -d If an argument is a directory, lists only its name (not its contents). Often used with -l to get the status of a directory. -e The same as -l, except displays time to the second, and with one format for all files regardless of age: mmm dd hh:mm:ss yyyy. -E The same as -l, except displays time to the nanosecond and with one format for all files regardless of age: yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm:ss.nnnnnnnnn (ISO 8601:2000 format). In addition, this option displays the offset from UTC in ISO 8601:2000 standard format (+hhmm or -hhmm) or no characters if the offset is indeterminable. The offset reflects the appropriate standard or alternate offset in force at the file's displayed date and time, under the current timezone. -f Forces each argument to be interpreted as a directory and list the name found in each slot. This option turns off -l, -t, -s, -S, and -r, and turns on -a. The order is the order in which entries appear in the directory. -g The same as -l, except that the owner is not printed. -h All sizes are scaled to a human readable format, for example, 14K, 234M, 2.7G, or 3.0T. Scaling is done by repetitively dividing by 1024. -H If an argument is a symbolic link that references a directory, this option evaluates the file information and file type of the directory that the link references, rather than those of the link itself. However, the name of the link is displayed, rather than the referenced directory. -i For each file, prints the i-node number in the first column of the report. -l Lists in long format, giving mode, ACL indication, number of links, owner, group, size in bytes, and time of last modification for each file (see above). If the file is a special file, the size field instead contains the major and minor device numbers. If the time of last modification is greater than six months ago, it is shown in the format `month date year' for the POSIX locale. When the LC_TIME locale category is not set to the POSIX locale, a different format of the time field can be used. Files modi- fied within six months show `month date time'. If the file is a symbolic link, the filename is printed followed by "->" and the path name of the referenced file. -L If an argument is a symbolic link, this option evaluates the file information and file type of the file or directory that the link references, rather than those of the link itself. However, the name of the link is displayed, rather than the referenced file or directory. -m Streams output format. Files are listed across the page, separated by commas. -n The same as -l, except that the owner's UID and group's GID numbers are printed, rather than the associated character strings. -o The same as -l, except that the group is not printed. -p Puts a slash (/) after each filename if the file is a directory. -q Forces printing of non-printable characters in file names as the character question mark (?). -r Reverses the order of sort to get reverse alphabetic, oldest first, or smallest file size first as appropriate. -R Recursively lists subdirectories encountered. -s Indicate the total number of file system blocks consumed by each file displayed. -S Sort by file size (in decreasing order) and for files with the same size by file name (in increasing alphabetic order) instead of just by name. -t Sorts by time stamp (latest first) instead of by name. The default is the last modification time. See -c, -u and -%. -u Uses time of last access instead of last modification for sorting (with the -t option) or printing (with the -l option). -v The same as -l, except that verbose ACL information is displayed as well as the -l output. ACL information is displayed even if the file or directory doesn't have an ACL. -V The same as -l, except that compact ACL information is displayed after the -l output. The -V option is only applicable to file systems that support NFSv4 ACLs, such as the Solaris ZFS file system. The format of the displayed ACL is as follows: entry_type : permissions : inheritance_flags : access_type entry_type is displayed as one of the following: user:username Additional user access for username. group:groupname Additional group access for group groupname. owner@ File owner. group@ File group owner. everyone@ Everyone access, including file owner and file group owner. This is not equivalent to the POSIX other class. The following permissions, supported by the NFSv4 ACL model, are displayed by using the -v or -V options: read_data (r) Permission to read the data of a file. list_directory (r) Permission to list the contents of a directory. write_data (w) Permission to modify a file's data. anywhere in the file's offset range. add_file (w) Permission to add a new file to a directory. append_data (p) The ability to modify a file's data, but only starting at EOF. add_subdirectory (p) Permission to create a subdirectory to a directory. read_xattr (R) Ability to read the extended attributes of a file. write_xattr (W) Ability to create extended attributes or write to the extended attribute directory. execute (x) Permission to execute a file. read_attributes (a) The ability to read basic attributes (non-ACLs) of a file. write_attributes (A) Permission to change the times associated with a file or directory to an arbitrary value. delete (d) Permission to delete a file. delete_child (D) Permission to delete a file within a directory. read_acl (c) Permission to read the ACL of a file. write_acl (C) Permission to write the ACL of a file. write_owner (o) Permission to change the owner of a file. synchronize (s) Permission to access file locally at server with synchronize reads and writes. - No permission granted The following inheritance flags, supported by the NFSv4 ACL model, are displayed by using the -v or -V options: file_inherit (f) Inherit to all newly created files. dir_inherit (d) Inherit to all newly created directories. inherit_only (i) When placed on a directory, do not apply to the directory, only to newly created files and directories. This flag requires that either file_inherit and or dir_inherit is also specified. no_propagate (n) Indicates that ACL entries should be inherited to objects in a directory, but inheritance should stop after descending one level. This flag is dependent upon either file_inherit and or dir_inherit also being specified. successful_access (S) Indicates if an alarm or audit record should be initiated upon successful accesses. Used with audit/alarm ACE types. failed_access (F) Indicates if an alarm or audit record should be initiated when access fails. Used with audit/alarm ACE types. inherited (I) ACE was inherited. - No permission granted. access_type is displayed as one of the following types: alarm Permission field that specifies permissions that should trigger an alarm. allow Permission field that specifies allow permissions. audit Permission field that specifies permissions that should be audited. deny Permission field that specifies deny permissions. For example: $ ls -dV /sandbox/dir.1 drwxr-xr-x+ 2 root root 2 Jan 17 15:09 dir.1 user:marks:r-------------:fd-----:allow owner@:--------------:-------:deny owner@:rwxp---A-W-Co-:-------:allow group@:-w-p----------:-------:deny group@:r-x-----------:-------:allow everyone@:-w-p---A-W-Co-:-------:deny everyone@:r-x---a-R-c--s:-------:allow $ ||||||||||||||||:||||||+ inherited access ||||||||||||||:||||||+ failed access ||||||||||||||:|||||+--success access ||||||||||||||:||||+-- no propagate ||||||||||||||:|||+--- inherit only ||||||||||||||:||+---- directory inherit ||||||||||||||:|+----- file inherit |||||||||||||| ||||||||||||||+ sync |||||||||||||+- change owner ||||||||||||+-- write ACL |||||||||||+--- read ACL ||||||||||+---- write extended attributes |||||||||+----- read extended attributes ||||||||+------ write attributes |||||||+------- read attributes ||||||+-------- delete child |||||+--------- delete ||||+---------- append |||+----------- execute ||+------------ write data |+------------- read data -x Multi-column output with entries sorted across rather than down the page. -1 Prints one entry per line of output. -@ The same as -l, except that extended attribute information overrides ACL information. An @ is displayed after the file permis- sion bits for files that have extended attributes. -c | -v The same as -l, and in addition displays the extended system attributes associated with the file when extended system attributes are fully supported by the underlying file system. The option -/ supports two option arguments c (compact mode) and v (verbose mode). appendonly Allows a file to be modified only at offset EOF. Attempts to modify a file at a location other than EOF fails with EPERM. archive Indicates if a file has been modified since it was last backed up. Whenever the modification time (mtime) of a file is changed the archive attribute is set. av_modified ZFS sets the anti-virus attribute which whenever a file's content or size changes or when the file is renamed. av_quarantined Anti-virus software sets to mark a file as quarantined. crtime Timestamp when a file is created. hidden Marks a file as hidden. immutable Prevents the content of a file from being modified. Also prevents all metadata changes, except for access time updates. When placed on a directory, prevents the deletion and creation of files in the directories. Attempts to modify the content of a file or directory marked as immutable fail with EPERM. Attempts to modify any attributes (with the exception of access time and, with the proper privileges, the immutable) of a file marked as immutable fails with EPERM. nodump Solaris systems have no special semantics for this attribute. nounlink Prevents a file from being deleted. On a directory, the attribute also prevents any changes to the contents of the directory. That is, no files within the directory can be removed or renamed. The errno EPERM is returned when attempting to unlink or rename files and directories that are marked as nounlink. readonly Marks a file as readonly. Once a file is marked as readonly the content data of the file cannot be modified. Other metadata for the file can still be modified. system Solaris systems have no special semantics for this attribute. The display characters used in compact mode (-/ c) are as follows: Attribute Name Display archive A hidden H readonly R system S appendonly a nodump d immutable i av_modified m av_quarantined q nounlink u The display in verbose mode (/ v) uses full attribute names when it is set and the name prefixed by 'no' when it is not set. The attribute name crtime and all other timestamps are handled by the option -% with the respective timestamp option arguments and also with all option argument. The display positions are as follows: The display in verbose mode (-/ v) uses full attribute names when it is set and the name prefixed by no when it is not set. The attribute name crtime and all other timestamps are handled by the option -% with the respective timestamp option arguments and also with all option argument. The display positions are as follows: {||||||||||} |||||||||+- u (nounlink) ||||||||+-- q (av_quarantined) |||||||+--- m (av_modified) ||||||+---- i (immutable) |||||+----- d (nodump) ||||+------ a (appendonly) |||+------- S (system) ||+-------- R (readonly) |+--------- H (hidden) +---------- A (archive) -% atime | crtime | ctime | mtime | all atime Equivalent to -u. crtime Uses the creation time of the file for sorting or printing. ctime Equivalent to -c. mtime Uses the last modification time of the file contents for sorting or printing. If extended system attributes are not supported or if the user does not have read permission on the file or if the crtime extended attribute is not set, crtime is treated as a synonym for mtime. When option argument -all is specified, all available timestamps are printed which includes -atime, -ctime, -mtime and on the extended sys- tem attribute supporting file systems, -crtime (create time). The option -% all does not effect which timestamp is displayed in long format and does not affect sorting. /usr/bin/ls -F Marks directories with a trailing slash (/), doors with a trailing greater-than sign (>), executable files with a trailing asterisk (*), FIFOs with a trailing vertical bar (|), symbolic links with a trailing "at" sign (@), and AF_UNIX address family sockets with a trailing equals sign (=). Follows symlinks named as operands. Specifying more than one of the options in the following mutually exclusive pairs is not considered an error: -C and -l (ell), -m and -l (ell), -x and -l (ell), -@ and -l (ell). The -l option overrides the other option specified in each pair. Specifying more than one of the options in the following mutually exclusive pairs is not considered an error: -C and -1 (one), -H and -L, -c and -u, and -e and -E, and -t and -S. The last option specifying a specific timestamp (-c, -u, -% atime , -% crtime, -% ctime, and -% mtime) determines the timestamps used for sorting or in long format listings. /usr/xpg4/bin/ls -F Marks directories with a trailing slash (/), doors with a trailing greater-than sign (>), executable files with a trailing asterisk (*), FIFOs with a trailing vertical bar (|), symbolic links with a trailing "at" sign (@), and AF_UNIX address family sockets with a trailing equals sign (=). Follows symlinks named as operands. Specifying more than one of the options in the following mutually exclusive pairs is not considered an error: -C and -l (ell), -m and -l (ell), -x and -l (ell), -@ and -l (ell), -C and -1 (one), -H and -L, -c and -u, and -e and -E, and -t and -S. The last option specifying a specific timestamp (-c, -u, -% atime , -% crtime, -% ctime, and -% mtime) determines the timestamps used for sorting or in long format listings. /usr/xpg6/bin/ls -F Marks directories with a trailing slash (/), doors with a trailing greater-than sign (>), executable files with a trailing asterisk (*), FIFOs with a trailing vertical bar (|), symbolic links with a trailing "at" sign (@), and AF_UNIX address family sockets with a trailing equals sign (=). Does not follow symlinks named as operands unless the -H or -L option is specified. Specifying more than one of the options in the following mutually exclusive pairs is not considered an error: -C and -l (ell), -m and -l (ell), -x and -l (ell), -@ and -l (ell), -C and -1 (one), -H and -L, -c and -u, and -e and -E, -t and -S. The last option specifying a spe- cific timestamp (-c, -u, -% atime , -% crtime, -% ctime, and -% mtime) determines the timestamps used for sorting or in long format list- ings.
OPERANDS
The following operand is supported: file A path name of a file to be written. If the file specified is not found, a diagnostic message is output on standard error.
USAGE
See largefile(5) for the description of the behavior of ls when encountering files greater than or equal to 2 Gbyte ( 2^31 bytes).
EXAMPLES
Example 1 Viewing File Permissions The following example shows how to display detailed information about a file. % ls -l file.1 -rw-r--r-- 1 gozer staff 206663 Mar 14 10:15 file.1 The permissions string above (-rw-r--r--) describes that the file owner has read and write permissions, the owning group has read permis- sions, and others have read permissions. The following example shows how to display detailed information about a directory. % ls -ld test.dir drwxr-xr-x 2 gozer staff 2 Mar 14 10:17 test.dir The permissions string above (drwxr-xr-x) describes that the directory owner has read, write, and search permissions, the owning group has read and search permissions, and others have read and search permissions. Another example of listing file permissions is as follows: % ls -l file.2 -rw-rwl--- 1 gozer staff 206663 Mar 14 10:47 file.2 The permissions string above (-rw-rwl---) describes that the file owner has read and write permissions, the owning group has read and write permissions, and the file can be locked during access. Example 2 Displaying ACL Information on Files and Directories The following example shows how to display verbose ACL information on a ZFS file. % ls -v file.1 -rw-r--r-- 1 marks staff 206663 Mar 14 10:15 file.1 0:owner@:execute:deny 1:owner@:read_data/write_data/append_data/write_xattr/write_attributes /write_acl/write_owner:allow 2:group@:write_data/append_data/execute:deny 3:group@:read_data:allow 4:everyone@:write_data/append_data/write_xattr/execute/write_attributes /write_acl/write_owner:deny 5:everyone@:read_data/read_xattr/read_attributes/read_acl/synchronize :allow The following example shows how to display compact ACL information on a ZFS directory. % ls -dV test.dir drwxr-xr-x 2 marks staff 2 Mar 14 10:17 test.dir owner@:--------------:------:deny owner@:rwxp---A-W-Co-:------:allow group@:-w-p----------:------:deny group@:r-x-----------:------:allow everyone@:-w-p---A-W-Co-:------:deny everyone@:r-x---a-R-c--s:------:allow The following example illustrates the ls -v behavior when listing ACL information on a UFS file. $ ls -v file.3 -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 2703 Mar 14 10:59 file.3 0:user::rw- 1:group::r-- #effective:r-- 2:mask:r-- 3:other:r-- Example 3 Printing the Names of All Files The following example prints the names of all files in the current directory, including those that begin with a dot (.), which normally do not print: example% ls -a Example 4 Providing File Information The following example provides file information: example% ls -aisn This command provides information on all files, including those that begin with a dot (a), the i-number, the memory address of the i-node associated with the file--printed in the left-hand column (i); the size (in blocks) of the files, printed in the column to the right of the i-numbers (s); finally, the report is displayed in the numeric version of the long list, printing the UID (instead of user name) and GID (instead of group name) numbers associated with the files. When the sizes of the files in a directory are listed, a total count of blocks, including indirect blocks, is printed. Example 5 Providing Extended System Attributes Information example% ls -/ c file (extended system attribute in compact mode) -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 0 May 10 14:17 file {AHRSadim-u} In this example, av_quarantined is not set. example% ls -/ v file (extended system attribute in verbose mode) -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 0 May 10 14:17 file {archive,hidden,readonly,system,appendonly\ nodump,immutable,av_modified,\ noav_quarantined,nounlink} example% ls -/ v file (no extended system attribute) -rw-r--r-- 1 root staff 0 May 16 14:48 file {} example% ls -/ c file (extended system attribute supported file system) -rw-r--r-- 1 root staff 3 Jun 4 22:04 file {A------m--} archive and av_modified attributes are set by default on an extended system attribute supported file. example% ls -/ c -%crtime file -rw-r--r-- root root 0 May 10 14:17 file {AHRSadim-u} This example displays the timestamp as the creation time: example% ls -l -%all file -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 0 May 10 14:17 file timestamp: atime Jun 14 08:47:37 2007 timestamp: ctime May 10 14:20:23 2007 timestamp: mtime May 10 14:17:56 2007 timestamp: crtime May 10 14:17:56 2007 example% ls -%crtime -tl file* -rw-r--r-- 1 foo staff 3 Jun 4 22:04 file1 -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 0 May 10 14:17 file -rw-r--r-- 1 foo staff 0 May 9 13:49 file.1 In this example the files are sorted by creation time.
ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
See environ(5) for descriptions of the following environment variables that affect the execution of ls: LANG, LC_ALL, LC_COLLATE, LC_CTYPE, LC_TIME, LC_MESSAGES, NLSPATH, and TZ. COLUMNS Determines the user's preferred column position width for writing multiple text-column output. If this variable contains a string representing a decimal integer, the ls utility calculates how many path name text columns to write (see -C) based on the width provided. If COLUMNS is not set or is invalid, 80 is used. The column width chosen to write the names of files in any given directory is constant. File names are not be truncated to fit into the multiple text-column output.
EXIT STATUS
0 All information was written successfully. >0 An error occurred.
FILES
/etc/group group IDs for ls -l and ls -g /etc/passwd user IDs for ls -l and ls -o /usr/share/lib/terminfo/?/* terminal information database
ATTRIBUTES
See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes: /usr/bin/ls +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+ | ATTRIBUTE TYPE | ATTRIBUTE VALUE | +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+ |Availability |SUNWcsu | +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+ |CSI |Enabled | +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+ |Interface Stability |Committed | +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+ |Standard |See below. | +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+ For all options except -A, -b, -e, -E, -h, -S, -v, -V, -@, -/ and -%, see standards(5). /usr/xpg4/bin/ls +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+ | ATTRIBUTE TYPE | ATTRIBUTE VALUE | +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+ |Availability |SUNWxcu4 | +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+ |CSI |Enabled | +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+ |Interface Stability |Committed | +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+ |Standard |See below. | +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+ For all options except -A, -b, -e, -E, -h, -S, -v, -V, -@, -/ and -%, see standards(5). /usr/xpg6/bin/ls +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+ | ATTRIBUTE TYPE | ATTRIBUTE VALUE | +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+ |Availability |SUNWxcu6 | +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+ |CSI |Enabled | +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+ |Interface Stability |Committed | +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+ |Standard |See below. | +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+ For all options except -A, -b, -e, -E, -h, -S, -v, -V, -@, -/ and -%, see standards(5).
SEE ALSO
chmod(1), cp(1), setfacl(1), fgetattr(3C), terminfo(4), acl(5), attributes(5), environ(5), fsattr(5), largefile(5), standards(5)
NOTES
Unprintable characters in file names can confuse the columnar output options. The total block count is incorrect if there are hard links among the files. The sort order of ls output is affected by the locale and can be overridden by the LC_COLLATE environment variable. For example, if LC_COL- LATE equals C, dot files appear first, followed by names beginning with upper-case letters, then followed by names beginning with lower- case letters. But if LC_COLLATE equals en_US.ISO8859-1, then leading dots as well as case are ignored in determining the sort order. SunOS 5.11 10 Feb 2009 ls(1)