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OpenSolaris 2009.06 - man page for cpio (opensolaris section 1)

cpio(1) 				  User Commands 				  cpio(1)

NAME
       cpio - copy file archives in and out

SYNOPSIS
       cpio -i [-bBcdfkmPrsStuvV6@/] [-C bufsize] [-E file]
	    [-H header] [-I  [-M message]] [-R id] [pattern]...

       cpio -o [-aABcLPvV@/] [-C bufsize] [-H header]
	    [-O file [-M message]]

       cpio -p [-adlLmPuvV@/] [-R id] directory

DESCRIPTION
       The  cpio  command  copies files into and out of a cpio archive. The cpio archive can span
       multiple volumes. The -i, -o, and -p options select the action to be performed.	The  fol-
       lowing list describes each of the actions. These actions are mutually exclusive.

   Copy In Mode
       cpio -i (copy in) extracts files from the standard input, which is assumed to be the prod-
       uct of a previous cpio -o command. Only files with names that match one	of  the  patterns
       are  selected.  See sh(1) and OPERANDS for more information about pattern. Extracted files
       are conditionally copied into the current directory tree, based on the  options	described
       below.  The  permissions of the files are those of the previous cpio -o command. The owner
       and  group  are	the  same  as  the  current  user,  unless  the  current  user	has   the
       {PRIV_FILE_CHOWN_SELF}  privilege.  See chown(2). If this is the case, owner and group are
       the same as those resulting from the previous cpio -o command.  Notice  that  if  cpio  -i
       tries  to  create  a  file  that  already  exists and the existing file is the same age or
       younger (newer), cpio outputs a warning message and not replace the file.  The  -u  option
       can be used to unconditionally overwrite the existing file.

   Copy Out Mode
       cpio  -o  (copy	out)  reads  a list of file path names from the standard input and copies
       those files to the standard output, together with path name and status information in  the
       form  of  a  cpio  archive. Output is padded to an 8192-byte boundary by default or to the
       user-specified block size (with the -B or -C options) or to  some  device-dependent  block
       size where necessary (as with the CTC tape).

   Pass Mode
       cpio  -p  (pass) reads a list of file path names from the standard input and conditionally
       copies those files into the destination directory tree, based  on  the  options	described
       below.

       cpio assumes four-byte words.

       If,  when writing to a character device (-o) or reading from a character device (-i), cpio
       reaches the end of a medium (such as the end of a diskette), and the -O and -I options are
       not used, cpio prints the following message:

	 To continue, type device/file name when ready.

       To  continue,  you  must  replace  the  medium  and type the character special device name
       (/dev/rdiskette for example) and press RETURN. You might want  to  continue  by	directing
       cpio  to use a different device. For example, if you have two floppy drives you might want
       to switch between them so cpio can proceed while you  are  changing  the  floppies.  Press
       RETURN to cause the cpio process to exit.

OPTIONS
       The following options are supported:

       -i    (copy  in)  Reads	an archive from the standard input and conditionally extracts the
	     files contained in it and places them into the current directory tree.

       -o    (copy out) Reads a list of file path names from the standard input and copies  those
	     files to the standard output in the form of a cpio archive.

       -p    (pass)  Reads  a  list  of file path names from the standard input and conditionally
	     copies those files into the destination directory tree.

       The following options can be appended in any sequence to the -i, -o, or -p options:

       -a	     Resets access times of input files  after	they  have  been  copied,  making
		     cpio's  access  invisible.  Access times are not reset for linked files when
		     cpio -pla is specified.

       -A	     Appends files to an archive. The -A option requires  the  -O  option.  Valid
		     only  with  archives that are files, or that are on floppy diskettes or hard
		     disk partitions. The effect on files that are linked in the existing portion
		     of the archive is unpredictable.

       -b	     Reverses  the  order  of  the  bytes  within each word. Use only with the -i
		     option.

       -B	     Blocks input/output 5120 bytes to the record. The	default  buffer  size  is
		     8192  bytes  when this and the -C options are not used. -B does not apply to
		     the -p (pass) option.

       -c	     Reads or writes header information in ASCII character form for  portability.
		     There are no UID or GID restrictions associated with this header format. Use
		     this option between SVR4-based  machines,	or  the  -H  odc  option  between
		     unknown  machines. The -c option implies the use of expanded device numbers,
		     which are only supported on  SVR4-based  systems.	When  transferring  files
		     between  SunOS  4 or Interactive UNIX and the Solaris 2.6 Operating environ-
		     ment or compatible versions, use -H odc.

       -C bufsize    Blocks input/output bufsize bytes to the record, where bufsize  is  replaced
		     by  a  positive integer. The default buffer size is 8192 bytes when this and
		     -B options are not used. -C does not apply to the -p (pass) option.

       -d	     Creates directories as needed.

       -E file	     Specifies an input file (file) that contains  a  list  of	filenames  to  be
		     extracted from the archive (one filename per line).

       -f	     Copies in all files except those in patterns. See OPERANDS for a description
		     of pattern.

       -H header     Reads or writes header information in header format. Always use this  option
		     or  the -c option when the origin and the destination machines are different
		     types. This option is mutually exclusive with options -c and -6.

		     Valid values for header are:

		     bar	      bar head and format. Used only with the -i  option  (  read
				      only).

		     crc | CRC	      ASCII header with expanded device numbers and an additional
				      per-file checksum. There are no  UID  or	GID  restrictions
				      associated with this header format.

		     odc	      ASCII  header  with  small  device  numbers.  This  is  the
				      IEEE/P1003 Data Interchange Standard cpio header	and  for-
				      mat.  It	has the widest range of portability of any of the
				      header formats. It is the official format for  transferring
				      files  between POSIX-conforming systems (see standards(5)).
				      Use this format to communicate with SunOS 4 and Interactive
				      UNIX.  This header format allows UIDs and GIDs up to 262143
				      to be stored in the header.

		     tar | TAR	      tar header and format. This is an older tar  header  format
				      that allows UIDs and GIDs up to 2097151 to be stored in the
				      header. It is provided for the reading of  legacy  archives
				      only, that is, in conjunction with option -i.

				      Specifying  this archive format with option -o has the same
				      effect as specifying the "ustar" format: the output archive
				      is in ustar format, and must be read using -H ustar.

		     ustar | USTAR    IEEE/P1003 Data Interchange Standard tar header and format.
				      This header format allows UIDs and GIDs up to 2097151 to be
				      stored in the header.

		     Files  with  UIDs	and GIDs greater than the limit stated above are archived
		     with the UID and GID of 60001. To transfer a large file (8 Gb  --	1  byte),
		     the header format can be tar|TAR, ustar|USTAR, or odc only.

       -I file	     Reads  the  contents  of  file  as an input archive, instead of the standard
		     input. If file is a character special device, and	the  current  medium  has
		     been completely read, replace the medium and press RETURN to continue to the
		     next medium. This option is used only with the -i option.

       -k	     Attempts to skip corrupted file headers and I/O errors that might be encoun-
		     tered.  If  you want to copy files from a medium that is corrupted or out of
		     sequence, this option lets you read only those files with good headers.  For
		     cpio  archives that contain other cpio archives, if an error is encountered,
		     cpio can terminate prematurely. cpio finds the next good header,  which  can
		     be  one  for  a  smaller  archive,  and terminate when the smaller archive's
		     trailer is encountered. Use only with the -i option.

       -l	     In pass mode, makes hard links between the source and  destination  whenever
		     possible.	If  the -L option is also specified, the hard link is to the file
		     referred to by the symbolic link. Otherwise, the hard link is  to	the  sym-
		     bolic link itself. Use only with the -p option.

       -L	     Follows  symbolic	links.	If a symbolic link to a directory is encountered,
		     archives the directory referred to by the link, using the name of the  link.
		     Otherwise,  archives the file referred to by the link, using the name of the
		     link.

       -m	     Retains previous file modification  time.	This  option  is  ineffective  on
		     directories that are being copied.

       -M message    Defines  a  message  to  use when switching media. When you use the -O or -I
		     options and specify a character special device, you can use this  option  to
		     define the message that is printed when you reach the end of the medium. One
		     %d can be placed in message to print the sequence number of the next  medium
		     needed to continue.

       -O file	     Directs  the output of cpio to file, instead of the standard output. If file
		     is a character special device and the current medium is  full,  replace  the
		     medium  and  type a carriage return to continue to the next medium. Use only
		     with the -o option.

       -P	     Preserves ACLs. If the option is used for output, existing ACLs are  written
		     along with other attributes, except for extended attributes, to the standard
		     output. ACLs are created as special files with a special file type.  If  the
		     option  is  used  for  input,  existing  ACLs are extracted along with other
		     attributes from standard input. The option recognizes the special file type.
		     Notice that errors occurs if a cpio archive with ACLs is extracted by previ-
		     ous versions of cpio. This option should not be used with the -c option,  as
		     ACL  support might not be present on all systems, and hence is not portable.
		     Use ASCII headers for portability.

       -r	     Interactively renames files. If the user types a carriage return alone,  the
		     file  is  skipped.  If  the  user	types  a  ``.'', the original pathname is
		     retained. Not available with cpio -p.

       -R id	     Reassigns ownership and group information for each file  to  user	 ID.  (ID
		     must  be  a  valid  login ID from the passwd database.) This option is valid
		     only when id is the invoking user or the super-user.  See NOTES.

       -s	     Swaps bytes within each half word.

       -S	     Swaps halfwords within each word.

       -t	     Prints a table of contents of the input. If any file in the  table  of  con-
		     tents  has extended attributes, these are also listed. No files are created.
		     -t and -V are mutually exclusive.

       -u	     Copies unconditionally. Normally, an older file is not replaced a newer file
		     with the same name, although an older directory updates a newer directory.

       -v	     Verbose.  Prints a list of file and extended attribute names. When used with
		     the -t option, the table of contents looks like the output of an ls -l  com-
		     mand (see ls(1)).

       -V	     Special  verbose.	Prints	a  dot	for  each file read or written. Useful to
		     assure the user that cpio is working without printing out all file names.

       -6	     Processes a UNIX System Sixth Edition archive format file. Use only with the
		     -i option. This option is mutually exclusive with -c and -H.

       -@	     Includes  extended  attributes  in  archive. By default, cpio does not place
		     extended attributes in the archive. With this flag, cpio looks for  extended
		     attributes on the files to be placed in the archive and add them, as regular
		     files, to the archive. The extended attribute files go  in  the  archive  as
		     special  files  with special file types. When the -@ flag is used with -i or
		     -p, it instructs cpio to restore extended attribute data along with the nor-
		     mal  file	data.  Extended attribute files can only be extracted from an ar-
		     chive as part of a normal	file  extract.	Attempts  to  explicitly  extract
		     attribute records are ignored.

       -/	     Includes  extended  system  attributes in archive. By default, cpio does not
		     place extended system attributes in the archive. With this flag, cpio  looks
		     for  extended system attributes on the files to be placed in the archive and
		     add them, as regular files, to the archive. The extended attribute files  go
		     in the archive as special files with special file types. When the -/ flag is
		     used with -i or -p, it instructs cpio to restore extended	system	attribute
		     data  along  with	the normal file data. Extended system attribute files can
		     only be extracted from an archive as part of a normal file extract. Attempts
		     to explicitly extract attribute records are ignored.

OPERANDS
       The following operands are supported:

       directory    A path name of an existing directory to be used as the target of cpio -p.

       pattern	    Expressions making use of a pattern-matching notation similar to that used by
		    the shell (see sh(1)) for filename pattern matching, and similar  to  regular
		    expressions. The following metacharacters are defined:

		    *	     Matches any string, including the empty string.

		    ?	     Matches any single character.

		    [...]    Matches  any  one	of  the enclosed characters. A pair of characters
			     separated by `-' matches any symbol between the pair (inclusive), as
			     defined by the system default collating sequence. If the first char-
			     acter following the opening `[' is a `!', the results  are  unspeci-
			     fied.

		    !	     The  ! (exclamation point) means not. For example, the !abc* pattern
			     would exclude all files that begin with abc.

		    In pattern, metacharacters ?, *, and [...] match the slash (/) character, and
		    backslash (\) is an escape character. Multiple cases of pattern can be speci-
		    fied and if no pattern is specified, the default for pattern is *  (that  is,
		    select all files).

		    Each pattern must be enclosed in double quotes. Otherwise, the name of a file
		    in the current directory might be used.

USAGE
       See largefile(5) for the description of the  behavior  of  cpio	when  encountering  files
       greater than or equal to 2 Gbyte ( 2^31 bytes).

EXAMPLES
       The following examples show three uses of cpio.

       Example 1 Using standard input

	 example% ls | cpio -oc > ../newfile

       When  standard  input  is  directed through a pipe to cpio -o, as in the example above, it
       groups the files so they can be directed (>) to a single file (../newfile). The -c  option
       insures	that  the file is portable to other machines (as would the -H option). Instead of
       ls(1), you could use find(1), echo(1), cat(1), and so on, to pipe a list of names to cpio.
       You could direct the output to a device instead of a file.

       Example 2 Extracting files into directories

	 example% cat newfile | cpio -icd "memo/a1" "memo/b*"

       In  this  example,  cpio  -i uses the output file of cpio -o (directed through a pipe with
       cat), extracts those files that match the patterns (memo/a1, memo/b*), creates directories
       below the current directory as needed (-d option), and places the files in the appropriate
       directories. The -c option is used if the input file was created with a	portable  header.
       If no patterns were given, all files from newfile would be placed in the directory.

       Example 3 Copying or linking files to another directory

	 example% find . -depth -print | cpio -pdlmv newdir

       In  this example, cpio -p takes the file names piped to it and copies or links (-l option)
       those files to another directory, newdir. The -d option	says  to  create  directories  as
       needed.	The  -m  option says to retain the modification time. (It is important to use the
       -depth option of find(1) to generate path names for cpio. This  eliminates  problems  that
       cpio  could  have  trying  to  create  files under read-only directories.) The destination
       directory, newdir, must exist.

       Notice that when you use cpio in conjunction with find, if you  use  the  -L  option  with
       cpio, you must use the -follow option with find and vice versa. Otherwise, there are unde-
       sirable results.

       For multi-reel archives, dismount the old volume, mount the new one, and continue  to  the
       next  tape by typing the name of the next device (probably the same as the first reel). To
       stop, type a RETURN and cpio ends.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       See environ(5) for descriptions of the following environment  variables	that  affect  the
       execution of cpio: LC_COLLATE, LC_CTYPE, LC_MESSAGES, LC_TIME, TZ, and NLSPATH.

       TMPDIR	 cpio  creates	its temporary file in /var/tmp by default. Otherwise, it uses the
		 directory specified by TMPDIR.

EXIT STATUS
       The following exit values are returned:

       0     Successful completion.

       >0    An error occurred.

ATTRIBUTES
       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:

       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |      ATTRIBUTE TYPE	     |	    ATTRIBUTE VALUE	   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |Availability		     |SUNWcsu			   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |CSI			     |Enabled			   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |Interface Stability	     |Committed 		   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+

SEE ALSO
       ar(1), cat(1), echo(1), find(1), ls(1), pax(1), setfacl(1), sh(1), tar(1),  chown(2),  ar-
       chives.h(3HEAD), attributes(5), environ(5), fsattr(5), largefile(5), standards(5)

NOTES
       The  maximum  path  name length allowed in a cpio archive is determined by the header type
       involved. The following table shows the proper value for  each  supported  archive  header
       type.

	  Header type	    Command line options   Maximum path name length
       BINARY		    "-o"		   256
       POSIX		    "-oH odc"		   256
       ASCII		    "-oc"		   1023
       CRC		    "-oH crc"		   1023
       USTAR		    "-oH ustar" 	   255

       When  the  command  line options "-o -H tar" are specified, the archive created is of type
       USTAR. This means that it is an error to read this same archive	using  the  command  line
       options	"-i  -H  tar".	The  archive should be read using the command line options "-i -H
       ustar". The options "-i -H tar" refer to an older tar archive format.

       An error message is output for files whose UID or GID are too large to fit in the selected
       header format. Use -H crc or -c to create archives that allow all UID or GID values.

       Only the super-user can copy special files.

       Blocks are reported in 512-byte quantities.

       If  a  file  has 000 permissions, contains more than 0 characters of data, and the user is
       not root, the file is not saved or restored.

       When cpio is invoked in Copy In or Pass Mode by a user with {PRIV_FILE_CHOWN_SELF}  privi-
       lege,  and  in  particular  on  a  system where {_POSIX_CHOWN_RESTRICTED} is not in effect
       (effectively granting this privilege to all users where	not  overridden),  extracted   or
       copied  files  can  end	up  with  owners  and  groups determined by those of the original
       archived files, which can differ from the invoking user's. This might not be what the user
       intended.  The -R option can be used to retain file ownership, if desired,  if you specify
       the user's id.

       The inode number stored in the header  (/usr/include/archives.h)  is  an  unsigned  short,
       which  is 2 bytes. This limits the range of inode numbers from 0 to 65535. Files which are
       hard linked must fall in this inode range. This could be a problem when	moving	cpio  ar-
       chives between different vendors' machines.

       You must use the same blocking factor when you retrieve or copy files from the tape to the
       hard disk as you did when you copied files from the hard disk to the tape. Therefore,  you
       must specify the -B or -C option.

       During  -p and -o processing, cpio buffers the file list presented on stdin in a temporary
       file.

       The new pax(1) format, with a command that supports it (for example, pax , tar, or  cpio),
       should  be  used  for large files. The cpio command is no longer part of the current POSIX
       standard and is deprecated in favor of pax.

SunOS 5.11				   15 Aug 2008					  cpio(1)


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