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OpenSolaris 2009.06 - man page for environ (opensolaris section 5)

environ(5)		       Standards, Environments, and Macros		       environ(5)

       environ - user environment

       When  a	process  begins execution, one of the exec family of functions makes available an
       array of strings called the environment; see exec(2). By convention,  these  strings  have
       the  form variable=value, for example, PATH=/sbin:/usr/sbin. These environmental variables
       provide a way to make information about a program's environment available to programs.

       A name may be placed in the environment by the export command and name=value arguments  in
       sh(1),  or by one of the exec functions. It is unwise to conflict with certain shell vari-
       ables such as MAIL, PS1, PS2, and IFS that are frequently exported by .profile files;  see

       The  following  environmental variables can be used by applications and are expected to be
       set in the target run-time environment.


	   The name of the user's login directory, set by login(1) from the  password  file;  see


	   The	string used to specify internationalization information that allows users to work
	   with different national conventions. The setlocale(3C) function checks the LANG  envi-
	   ronment  variable  when  it is called with "" as the locale argument.  LANG is used as
	   the default locale if the corresponding environment variable for a particular category
	   is  unset  or  null. If, however,  LC_ALL is set to a valid, non-empty value, its con-
	   tents are used to override both the LANG and the other LC_*	variables.  For  example,
	   when  invoked as setlocale(LC_CTYPE, ""), setlocale() will query the LC_CTYPE environ-
	   ment variable first to see if it is set and non-null. If LC_CTYPE is not set or  null,
	   then setlocale() will check the LANG environment variable to see if it is set and non-
	   null. If both LANG and LC_CTYPE are unset or NULL, the default "C" locale will be used
	   to set the LC_CTYPE category.

	   Most  commands  will  invoke setlocale(LC_ALL, "") prior to any other processing. This
	   allows the command to be used with  different  national  conventions  by  setting  the
	   appropriate environment variables.

	   The following environment variables correspond to each category of setlocale(3C):


	       If set to a valid, non-empty string value, override the values of LANG and all the
	       other LC_*variables.


	       This category specifies the character collation sequence being used.  The informa-
	       tion  corresponding  to	this  category	is  stored  in a database  created by the
	       localedef(1)  command.	 This  environment  variable  affects	strcoll(3C)   and


	       This category specifies character classification, character conversion, and widths
	       of multibyte characters. When LC_CTYPE is set to a valid value, the calling  util-
	       ity  can  display  and  handle text and file names containing valid characters for
	       that locale;   Extended Unix Code (EUC) characters where any individual	character
	       can  be 1, 2, or 3 bytes wide; and EUC characters of 1, 2, or 3 column widths. The
	       default "C" locale corresponds to the 7-bit ASCII character set;  only  characters
	       from  ISO  8859-1  are  valid.  The  information corresponding to this category is
	       stored in a database created by the localedef() command.  This  environment  vari-
	       able  is  used  by ctype(3C), mblen(3C), and many commands, such as cat(1), ed(1),
	       ls(1), and vi(1).


	       This category specifies the language of the message database being used. For exam-
	       ple,  an  application  may  have  one  message  database with French messages, and
	       another database with German  messages.	Message  databases  are  created  by  the
	       mkmsgs(1)  command.  This  environment  variable  is  used by exstr(1), gettxt(1),
	       srchtxt(1), gettxt(3C), and gettext(3C).


	       This category specifies the monetary symbols and delimiters used for a  particular
	       locale.	 The  information  corresponding to this category is stored in a database
	       created by the localedef(1) command. This environment variable is used by  locale-


	       This category specifies the decimal and thousands delimiters. The information cor-
	       responding to this category is stored in a database  created  by  the  localedef()
	       command.  The  default C locale corresponds to "." as the decimal delimiter and no
	       thousands  delimiter.  This  environment  variable  is  used  by   localeconv(3C),
	       printf(3C), and strtod(3C).


	       This  category  specifies  date and time formats. The information corresponding to
	       this category is stored in a database specified	in  localedef().  The  default	C
	       locale  corresponds  to	U.S.  date and time formats. This environment variable is
	       used by many commands and functions; for  example:  at(1),  calendar(1),  date(1),
	       strftime(3C), and getdate(3C).


	   Controls  which  standard  format  message components fmtmsg selects when messages are
	   displayed to stderr; see  fmtmsg(1) and  fmtmsg(3C).


	   A colon-separated list of network identifiers. A network  identifier  is  a	character
	   string  used  by the Network Selection component of the system to provide application-
	   specific default network search paths. A network identifier must consist  of  non-null
	   characters  and must have a length of at least 1. No maximum length is specified. Net-
	   work identifiers are normally chosen by the system administrator. A network identifier
	   is also the first field in any /etc/netconfig file entry. NETPATH thus provides a link
	   into the /etc/netconfig file and the information about a  network  contained  in  that
	   network's entry. /etc/netconfig is maintained by the system administrator. The library
	   routines described in getnetpath(3NSL) access the NETPATH environment variable.


	   Contains a sequence of templates which catopen(3C) and gettext(3C) use when attempting
	   to  locate message catalogs. Each template consists of an optional prefix, one or more
	   substitution fields, a filename and an optional suffix. For example:


	   defines that catopen() should look for all message catalogs	in  the  directory  /sys-
	   tem/nlslib,	where  the  catalog  name  should  be constructed from the name parameter
	   passed to catopen(), %N, with the suffix .cat.

	   Substitution fields consist of a % symbol, followed by a  single-letter  keyword.  The
	   following keywords are currently defined:


	       The value of the name parameter passed to catopen().


	       The value of LANG or LC_MESSAGES.


	       The language element from LANG or LC_MESSAGES.


	       The territory element from LANG or LC_MESSAGES.


	       The codeset element from LANG or LC_MESSAGES.


	       A single % character.

	   An  empty  string  is substituted if the specified value is not currently defined. The
	   separators "_" and "." are not included in %t and %c substitutions.

	   Templates defined in NLSPATH are separated by colons (:). A leading colon or two adja-
	   cent colons (::) is equivalent to specifying %N. For example:


	   indicates  to catopen() that it should look for the requested message catalog in name,
	   name.cat and /nlslib/$LANG/name.cat. For gettext(), %N  automatically  maps	to  "mes-

	   If NLSPATH is unset or NULL, catopen() and gettext() call  setlocale(3C), which checks
	   LANG and the  LC_* variables to locate the message catalogs.

	   NLSPATH will normally be set up on a system wide  basis  (in  /etc/profile)	and  thus
	   makes the location and naming conventions associated with message catalogs transparent
	   to both programs and users.


	   The sequence of directory prefixes that sh(1), time(1), nice(1), nohup(1),  and  other
	   utilities apply in searching for a file known by an incomplete path name. The prefixes
	   are separated by colons (:). login(1) sets PATH=/usr/bin. For more detail, see  sh(1).


	   Define severity levels and associate and print strings with them  in  standard  format
	   error messages; see	addseverity(3C), fmtmsg(1), and  fmtmsg(3C).


	   The	kind  of terminal for which output is to be prepared. This information is used by
	   commands, such as vi(1), which may exploit special capabilities of that terminal.


	   Timezone information. The contents of this environment variable are used by the  func-
	   tions  ctime(3C),  localtime(3C), strftime(3C), and mktime(3C) to override the default
	   timezone. The value of TZ has one of the two formats (spaces inserted for clarity):



	     std offset dst offset, rule

	   If TZ is of the first format (that is, if the first character is a colon (:)),  or  if
	   TZ  is not of the second format, then TZ designates a path to a timezone database file
	   relative to /usr/share/lib/zoneinfo/, ignoring a leading colon if one exists.

	   Otherwise, TZ is of the second form, which when expanded is as follows:


	   std and dst

	       Indicate no less than three, nor more than {TZNAME_MAX}, bytes that are the desig-
	       nation  for  the  standard (std) or the alternative (dst, such as Daylight Savings
	       Time) timezone. Only std is required; if dst is missing, then the alternative time
	       does  not  apply in this timezone. Each of these fields can occur in either of two
	       formats, quoted or unquoted:

		   o	  In the quoted form, the first character is the less-than ('<')  charac-
			  ter  and  the  last  character is the greater-than ('>') character. All
			  characters between these quoting characters are alphanumeric characters
			  from	the  portable  character set in the current locale, the plus-sign
			  ('+') character, or the minus-sign ('-') character.  The  std  and  dst
			  fields in this case do not include the quoting characters.

		   o	  In  the  unquoted  form,  all characters in these fields are alphabetic
			  characters from the portable character set in the current locale.
	       The interpretation of these fields is unspecified if either  field  is  less  than
	       three  bytes  (except  for  the	case when dst is missing), more than {TZNAME_MAX}
	       bytes, or if they contain characters other than those specified.


	       Indicate the value one must add to the local time to arrive at Coordinated Univer-
	       sal Time. The offset has the form:


	       The  minutes (mm) and seconds (ss) are optional. The hour (hh) is required and can
	       be a single digit. The offset following std is required. If no offset follows dst,
	       daylight  savings  time	is  assumed to be one hour ahead of standard time. One or
	       more digits can be used. The value is always interpreted as a decimal number.  The
	       hour  must be between 0 and 24, and the minutes (and seconds), if present, must be
	       between 0 and 59. Out of range values can cause unpredictable  behavior.  If  pre-
	       ceded  by a "-", the timezone is east of the Prime Meridian. Otherwise, it is west
	       of the Prime Meridian (which can be indicated by an optional preceding "+" sign).


	       Indicate when to change to and back from daylight savings time,	where  start/time
	       describes  when the change from standard time to daylight savings time occurs, and
	       end/time describes when the change back occurs.	Each time field  describes  when,
	       in current local time, the change is made.

	       The formats of start and end are one of the following:


		   The	Julian day n (1 <= n <= 365). Leap days are not counted.  That is, in all
		   years, February 28 is day 59 and March 1 is day 60. It is impossible to  refer
		   to the occasional February 29.


		   The	zero-based  Julian  day (0 <= n <= 365). Leap days are counted, and it is
		   possible to refer to February 29.


		   The d^th day, (0 <= d <= 6) of week n of month m of the year (1 <= n <=  5,	1
		   <= m <= 12), where week 5 means "the last d-day in month m" which may occur in
		   either the fourth or the fifth week). Week 1 is the first week  in  which  the
		   d^th day occurs. Day zero is Sunday.

	       Implementation  specific  defaults  are	used  for start and end if these optional
	       fields are not specified.

	       The time has the same format as offset except that no leading sign ("-" or  "+"	)
	       is allowed. If time is not specified, the default value is 02:00:00.

       cat(1),	date(1),  ed(1),  fmtmsg(1),  localedef(1),  login(1), ls(1), mkmsgs(1), nice(1),
       nohup(1),  sh(1),  sort(1),  time(1),  vi(1),   exec(2),   addseverity(3C),   catopen(3C),
       ctime(3C),  ctype(3C), fmtmsg(3C), getdate(3C), getnetpath(3NSL), gettext(3C), gettxt(3C),
       localeconv(3C),	mblen(3C),  mktime(3C),  printf(3C),  setlocale(3C),  strcoll(3C),  strf-
       time(3C), strtod(3C), strxfrm(3C), TIMEZONE(4), netconfig(4), passwd(4), profile(4)

SunOS 5.11				   19 Nov 2002				       environ(5)

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