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OpenSolaris 2009.06 - man page for csh (opensolaris section 1)

csh(1)					  User Commands 				   csh(1)

       csh - shell command interpreter with a C-like syntax

       csh [-bcefinstvVxX] [argument]...

       csh, the C shell, is a command interpreter with a syntax reminiscent of the C language. It
       provides a number of convenient features for interactive use that are not  available  with
       the  Bourne  shell, including filename completion, command aliasing, history substitution,
       job control, and a number of built-in commands. As with the Bourne shell, the C shell pro-
       vides variable, command and filename substitution.

   Initialization and Termination
       When  first  started,  the C shell normally performs commands from the .cshrc file in your
       home directory, provided that it is readable and you either own it or your real	group  ID
       matches	its  group  ID. If the shell is invoked with a name that starts with `-', as when
       started by login(1), the shell runs as a login shell.

       If the shell is a login shell, this is the sequence of  invocations:  First,  commands  in
       /etc/.login are executed. Next, commands from the .cshrc file your home directory are exe-
       cuted. Then the shell executes commands from the .login file in your home  directory;  the
       same permission checks as those for .cshrc are applied to this file. Typically, the .login
       file contains commands to specify the terminal type and environment. (For  an  explanation
       of file interpreters, see Command Execution and exec(2).)

       As  a  login  shell  terminates,  it  performs commands from the .logout file in your home
       directory; the same permission checks as those for .cshrc are applied to this file.

   Interactive Operation
       After startup processing is complete, an interactive C shell begins reading commands  from
       the  terminal,  prompting with hostname% (or hostname# for the privileged user). The shell
       then repeatedly performs the following actions: a line of command input is read and broken
       into  words.  This  sequence  of  words	is placed on the history list and then parsed, as
       described under USAGE. Finally, the shell executes each command in the current line.

   Noninteractive Operation
       When running noninteractively, the shell does not prompt for input from	the  terminal.	A
       noninteractive  C shell can execute a command supplied as an argument on its command line,
       or interpret commands from a file, also known as a script.

       The following options are supported:

       -b    Forced a "break" from option processing. Subsequent command line arguments  are  not
	     interpreted as C shell options. This allows the passing of options to a script with-
	     out confusion. The shell does not run set-user-ID	or  set-group-ID  scripts  unless
	     this option is present.

       -c    Executes  the  first argument, which must be present. Remaining arguments are placed
	     in argv, the argument-list variable, and passed directly to csh.

       -e    Exits if a command terminates abnormally or yields a nonzero exit status.

       -f    Fast start. Reads neither the .cshrc file, nor the .login file (if  a  login  shell)
	     upon startup.

       -i    Forced  interactive. Prompts for command line input, even if the standard input does
	     not appear to be a terminal (character-special device).

       -n    Parses (interprets), but does not execute commands. This option can be used to check
	     C shell scripts for syntax errors.

       -s    Takes commands from the standard input.

       -t    Reads  and  executes  a single command line. A `\' (backslash) can be used to escape
	     each newline for continuation of the command line onto subsequent input lines.

       -v    Verbose. Sets the verbose predefined variable. Command input is echoed after history
	     substitution, but before other substitutions and before execution.

       -V    Sets verbose before reading .cshrc.

       -x    Echo.  Sets  the  echo  variable.	Echoes	commands after all substitutions and just
	     before execution.

       -X    Sets echo before reading .cshrc.

       Except with the options -c, -i, -s, or -t, the first nonoption argument is taken to be the
       name  of  a command or script. It is passed as argument zero, and subsequent arguments are
       added to the argument list for that command or script.

   Filename Completion
       When enabled by setting the variable filec, an interactive C shell  can	complete  a  par-
       tially typed filename or user name. When an unambiguous partial filename is followed by an
       ESC character on the terminal input line, the shell fills in the remaining characters of a
       matching filename from the working directory.

       If  a  partial filename is followed by the EOF character (usually typed as Control-d), the
       shell lists all filenames that match. It then prompts once again, supplying the incomplete
       command line typed in so far.

       When the last (partial) word begins with a tilde (~), the shell attempts completion with a
       user name, rather than a file in the working directory.

       The terminal bell signals errors or multiple matches. This bell signal can be inhibited by
       setting	the variable nobeep. You can exclude files with certain suffixes by listing those
       suffixes in the variable fignore. If, however, the only	possible  completion  includes	a
       suffix in the list, it is not ignored. fignore does not affect the listing of filenames by
       the EOF character.

   Lexical Structure
       The shell splits input lines into words at space  and  tab  characters,	except	as  noted
       below.  The  characters	&, |, ;, <, >, (, and ) form separate words; if paired, the pairs
       form single words. These shell metacharacters can be made part of other words,  and  their
       special meaning can be suppressed by preceding them with a `\' (backslash). A newline pre-
       ceded by a \ is equivalent to a space character.

       In addition, a string enclosed in matched pairs of single-quotes ('),  double-quotes  ("),
       or  backquotes  (`),  forms a partial word. Metacharacters in such a string, including any
       space or tab characters, do not form separate words. Within pairs of backquote (`) or dou-
       ble-quote  (")  characters,  a  newline preceded by a `\' (backslash) gives a true newline
       character. Additional functions of each type of quote are described, below, under Variable
       Substitution, Command Substitution, and Filename Substitution.

       When  the  shell's input is not a terminal, the character # introduces a comment that con-
       tinues to the end of the input line. Its special meaning is suppressed when preceded by	a
       \ or enclosed in matching quotes.

   Command Line Parsing
       A  simple  command is composed of a sequence of words. The first word (that is not part of
       an I/O redirection) specifies the command to be executed. A simple command, or  a  set  of
       simple  commands  separated  by | or |& characters, forms a pipeline. With |, the standard
       output of the preceding command is redirected to the standard input of  the  command  that
       follows.  With  |&, both the standard error and the standard output are redirected through
       the pipeline.

       Pipelines can be separated by semicolons (;), in which  case  they  are	executed  sequen-
       tially.	Pipelines  that are separated by && or || form conditional sequences in which the
       execution of pipelines on the right depends upon the success or failure, respectively,  of
       the pipeline on the left.

       A  pipeline  or	sequence can be enclosed within parentheses `()' to form a simple command
       that can be a component in a pipeline or sequence.

       A sequence of pipelines can be executed asynchronously or "in the background" by appending
       an  `&'; rather than waiting for the sequence to finish before issuing a prompt, the shell
       displays the job number (see Job Control, below) and associated process	IDs  and  prompts

   History Substitution
       History	substitution  allows  you to use words from previous command lines in the command
       line you are typing. This simplifies spelling corrections and the  repetition  of  compli-
       cated  commands	or  arguments.	Command  lines are saved in the history list, the size of
       which is controlled by the history variable. The most recent command is	retained  in  any
       case.  A  history  substitution	begins	with  a  ! (although you can change this with the
       histchars variable) and occurs anywhere on the command line; history substitutions do  not
       nest. The ! can be escaped with \ to suppress its special meaning.

       Input  lines  containing  history  substitutions  are  echoed  on the terminal after being
       expanded, but before any other substitutions take place or the command gets executed.

   Event Designators
       An event designator is a reference to a command line entry in the history list.


	   Start a history substitution, except when followed by a space character, tab, newline,
	   = or (.


	   Refer  to the previous command. By itself, this substitution repeats the previous com-


	   Refer to command line n.


	   Refer to the current command line minus n.


	   Refer to the most recent command starting with str.


	   Refer to the most recent command containing str.

       !?str? additional

	   Refer to the most recent command containing str and append additional to  that  refer-
	   enced command.

       !{command} additional

	   Refer  to the most recent command beginning with command and append additional to that
	   referenced command.


	   Repeat the previous command line replacing the string previous_word	with  the  string
	   replacement. This is equivalent to the history substitution:


	   To  re-execute  a specific previous command AND make such a substitution, say, re-exe-
	   cuting command #6,


   Word Designators
       A `:' (colon) separates the event specification from the word designator. It can be  omit-
       ted  if	the  word designator begins with a ^, $, *, - or %. If the word is to be selected
       from the previous command, the second ! character can be omitted from the event specifica-
       tion.  For  instance,  !!:1  and !:1 both refer to the first word of the previous command,
       while !!$ and !$ both refer to the last word in the  previous  command.	Word  designators

       #	 The entire command line typed so far.

       0	 The first input word (command).

       n	 The n'th argument.

       ^	 The first argument, that is, 1.

       $	 The last argument.

       %	 The word matched by the ?s search.

       x-y	 A range of words; -y abbreviates 0-y.

       *	 All the arguments, or a null value if there is just one word in the event.

       x*	 Abbreviates x-$.

       x-	 Like x* but omitting word $.

       After  the  optional word designator, you can add one of the following modifiers, preceded
       by a :.

       h	 Remove a trailing pathname component, leaving the head.

       r	 Remove a trailing suffix of the form `.xxx', leaving the basename.

       e	 Remove all but the suffix, leaving the Extension.

       s/l/r/	 Substitute r for l.

       t	 Remove all leading pathname components, leaving the tail.

       &	 Repeat the previous substitution.

       g	 Apply the change to the first occurrence of a match in each word,  by	prefixing
		 the above (for example, g&).

       p	 Print the new command but do not execute it.

       q	 Quote the substituted words,escaping further substitutions.

       x	 Like q, but break into words at each space character, tab or newline.

       Unless  preceded by a g, the modification is applied only to the first string that matches
       l; an error results if no string matches.

       The left-hand side of substitutions are not regular expressions,  but  character  strings.
       Any character can be used as the delimiter in place of /. A backslash quotes the delimiter
       character. The character &, in the right hand side, is replaced by the text from the left-
       hand-side.  The & can be quoted with a backslash. A null l uses the previous string either
       from a l or from a contextual scan string s from !?s. You can omit the rightmost delimiter
       if  a  newline  immediately  follows r; the rightmost ? in a context scan can similarly be

       Without an event specification, a history reference refers either to the previous command,
       or to a previous history reference on the command line (if any).

   Quick Substitution
       ^l^r^	This is equivalent to the history substitution:


       The C shell maintains a list of aliases that you can create, display, and modify using the
       alias and unalias commands. The shell checks the first word in each command to see  if  it
       matches	the  name  of  an existing alias. If it does, the command is reprocessed with the
       alias definition replacing its name; the history substitution mechanism is made	available
       as  though  that  command were the previous input line. This allows history substitutions,
       escaped with a backslash in the definition, to be replaced with actual command line  argu-
       ments  when  the  alias	is  used. If no history substitution is called for, the arguments
       remain unchanged.

       Aliases can be nested. That is, an alias definition can contain the name of another alias.
       Nested aliases are expanded before any history substitutions is applied. This is useful in
       pipelines such as

	 alias lm 'ls -l \!* | more'

       which when called, pipes the output of ls(1) through more(1).

       Except for the first word, the name of the alias can not appear in its definition, nor  in
       any  alias referred to by its definition. Such loops are detected, and cause an error mes-

   I/O Redirection
       The following metacharacters indicate that the subsequent word is the name of  a  file  to
       which the command's standard input, standard output, or standard error is redirected; this
       word is variable, command, and filename expanded separately from the rest of the command.

       <	      Redirect the standard input.

       <<word	      Read the standard input, up to a line that  is  identical  with  word,  and
		      place  the  resulting  lines in a temporary file. Unless word is escaped or
		      quoted, variable and command substitutions are performed	on  these  lines.
		      Then,  the  pipeline  is	invoked  with  the temporary file as its standard
		      input. word is not subjected to variable, filename,  or  command	substitu-
		      tion,  and  each	line  is compared to it before any substitutions are per-
		      formed by the shell.

       > >! >& >&!    Redirect the standard output to a file. If the file does not exist,  it  is
		      created.	If  it	does  exist, it is overwritten; its previous contents are

		      When set, the variable noclobber prevents destruction of existing files. It
		      also  prevents  redirection to terminals and /dev/null, unless one of the !
		      forms is used. The & forms redirect both standard output and  the  standard
		      error (diagnostic output) to the file.

       >> >>& >>! >>&!		  Append  the  standard  output. Like >, but places output at the
				  end of the file rather than overwriting  it.	If  noclobber  is
				  set,	it  is	an error for the file not to exist, unless one of
				  the ! forms is used. The & forms append both the standard error
				  and standard output to the file.

   Variable Substitution
       The C shell maintains a set of variables, each of which is composed of a name and a value.
       A variable name consists of up to 128 letters and digits, and starts  with  a  letter.  An
       underscore  (_)	is  considered a letter). A variable's value is a space-separated list of
       zero or more words. If the shell supports a variable name upto 128 characters the variable
       SUNW_VARLEN  is defined. If a variable name of up to 128 characters is not supported, then
       an older version of the shell is being used, and the shell variable name length has a max-
       imum length of 20.

       To refer to a variable's value, precede its name with a `$'. Certain references (described
       below) can be used to select specific words from the value, or to display  other  informa-
       tion  about  the variable. Braces can be used to insulate the reference from other charac-
       ters in an input-line word.

       Variable substitution takes place after the input line is analyzed, aliases are	resolved,
       and  I/O redirections are applied. Exceptions to this are variable references in I/O redi-
       rections (substituted at the time the redirection is made), and	backquoted  strings  (see
       Command Substitution).

       Variable substitution can be suppressed by preceding the $ with a \, except within double-
       quotes where it always occurs. Variable	substitution  is  suppressed  inside  of  single-
       quotes. A $ is escaped if followed by a space character, tab or newline.

       Variables  can  be created, displayed, or destroyed using the set and unset commands. Some
       variables are maintained or used by the shell. For instance, the argv variable contains an
       image  of the shell's argument list. Of the variables used by the shell, a number are tog-
       gles; the shell does not care what their value is, only whether they are set or not.

       Numerical values can be operated on as numbers (as with	the  @	built-in  command).  With
       numeric	operations,  an  empty	value is considered to be zero. The second and subsequent
       words of multiword values are ignored. For instance, when the verbose variable is  set  to
       any value (including an empty value), command input is echoed on the terminal.

       Command	and  filename  substitution is subsequently applied to the words that result from
       the variable substitution, except when suppressed by double-quotes,  when  noglob  is  set
       (suppressing filename substitution), or when the reference is quoted with the :q modifier.
       Within double-quotes, a reference is expanded to form (a portion of) a quoted string; mul-
       tiword  values  are expanded to a string with embedded space characters. When the :q modi-
       fier is applied to the reference, it is expanded to a list of space-separated words,  each
       of which is quoted to prevent subsequent command or filename substitutions.

       Except as noted below, it is an error to refer to a variable that is not set.

       $var		These  are  replaced  by words from the value of var, each separated by a
       ${var}		space character. If var is an environment variable, its value is returned
			(but `:' modifiers and the other forms given below are not available).

       $var[index]	These  select  only  the  indicated words from the value of var. Variable
       ${var[index]}	substitution is applied to index, which can consist of (or result  in)	a
			either	single	number,  two  numbers separated by a `-', or an asterisk.
			Words are indexed starting from 1; a `*' selects all words. If the  first
			number	of  a  range is omitted (as with $argv[-2]), it defaults to 1. If
			the last number of a range is omitted (as with $argv[1-]), it defaults to
			$#var (the word count). It is not an error for a range to be empty if the
			second argument is omitted (or within range).

       $#name		These give the number of words in the variable.

       $0		This substitutes the name of the file from which command input	is  being
			read  except for setuid shell scripts. An error occurs if the name is not

       $n		Equivalent to $argv[n].

       $*		Equivalent to $argv[*].

       The modifiers :e, :h, :q, :r, :t, and :x can be applied (see History Substitution), as can
       :gh,  :gt,  and	:gr.  If  {} (braces) are used, then the modifiers must appear within the
       braces. The current implementation allows only one such modifier per expansion.

       The following references can not be modified with : modifiers.

       $?var	  Substitutes the string 1 if var is set or 0 if it is not set.

       $?0	  Substitutes 1 if the current input filename is known or 0 if it is not.

       $$	  Substitutes the process number of the (parent) shell.

       $<	  Substitutes a line from the standard	input,	with  no  further  interpretation
		  thereafter. It can be used to read from the keyboard in a C shell script.

   Command and Filename Substitutions
       Command	and  filename  substitutions are applied selectively to the arguments of built-in
       commands. Portions of expressions that are not evaluated are not expanded. For  non-built-
       in  commands,  filename	expansion of the command name is done separately from that of the
       argument list; expansion occurs in a subshell, after I/O redirection is performed.

   Command Substitution
       A command enclosed by backquotes (`...`) is performed by a subshell. Its  standard  output
       is  broken  into  separate  words at each space character, tab and newline; null words are
       discarded. This text replaces the backquoted string on the current  command  line.  Within
       double-quotes,  only newline characters force new words; space and tab characters are pre-
       served. However, a final newline is ignored. It is therefore possible for a  command  sub-
       stitution to yield a partial word.

   Filename Substitution
       Unquoted  words	containing  any of the characters *, ?, [ or {, or that begin with ~, are
       expanded (also known as globbing) to an alphabetically sorted list of filenames,  as  fol-

       *		       Match any (zero or more) characters.

       ?		       Match any single character.

       [...]		       Match  any single character in the enclosed list(s) or range(s). A
			       list is a string of characters. A range is  two	characters  sepa-
			       rated by a dash (-), and includes all the characters in between in
			       the ASCII collating sequence (see ascii(5)).

       {str, str, ... }        Expand to each string (or filename-matching pattern) in the comma-
			       separated list. Unlike the pattern-matching expressions above, the
			       expansion of this construct is not  sorted.  For  instance,  {b,a}
			       expands	to  `b' `a', (not `a' `b'). As special cases, the charac-
			       ters { and }, along with the string {}, are passed undisturbed.

       ~[user]		       Your home directory, as indicated by the  value	of  the  variable
			       home,  or  that	of  user,  as indicated by the password entry for

       Only the patterns *, ? and [...] imply pattern matching; an error results if  no  filename
       matches	a pattern that contains them. The `.' (dot character), when it is the first char-
       acter in a filename or pathname component, must be matched explicitly. The / (slash)  must
       also be matched explicitly.

   Expressions and Operators
       A number of C shell built-in commands accept expressions, in which the operators are simi-
       lar to those of C and have the same precedence. These expressions typically appear in  the
       @,  exit,  if,  set and while commands, and are often used to regulate the flow of control
       for executing commands. Components of an expression are separated by white space.

       Null or missing values are considered 0. The result of all expressions is a string,  which
       can represent decimal numbers.

       The following C shell operators are grouped in order of precedence:

       (...)		  grouping

       >~		  one's complement

       !		  logical negation

       * / %		  multiplication, division, remainder. These are right associative, which
			  can lead to unexpected results. Combinations should be grouped  explic-
			  itly with parentheses.

       + -		  addition, subtraction (also right associative)

       << >>		  bitwise shift left, bitwise shift right

       < > <= >=	  less	than,  greater than, less than or equal to, greater than or equal

       == != =~ !~	  equal to, not equal to, filename-substitution pattern match  (described
			  below), filename-substitution pattern mismatch

       &		  bitwise AND

       ^		  bitwise XOR (exclusive or)

       |		  bitwise inclusive OR

       &&		  logical AND

       ||		  logical OR

       The  operators: ==, !=, =~, and !~ compare their arguments as strings; other operators use
       numbers. The operators =~ and !~ each check whether or not a string to the left matches	a
       filename  substitution  pattern	on the right. This reduces the need for switch statements
       when pattern-matching between strings is all that is required.

       Also available are file inquiries:

       -rfilename     Return true, or 1 if the user has read access. Otherwise it returns  false,
		      or 0.

       -wfilename     True if the user has write access.

       -xfilename     True  if	the user has execute permission (or search permission on a direc-

       -efilename     True if filename exists.

       -ofilename     True if the user owns filename.

       -z filename    True if filename is of zero length (empty).

       -ffilename     True if filename is a plain file.

       -dfilename     True if filename is a directory.

       If filename does not exist or is inaccessible, then all inquiries return false.

       An inquiry as to the success of a command is also available:

       { command}    If command runs successfully, the expression evaluates to	true,  1.  Other-
		     wise,  it	evaluates to false, 0. Note: Conversely, command itself typically
		     returns 0 when it runs successfully, or some other value if it encounters	a
		     problem.  If  you	want  to get at the status directly, use the value of the
		     status variable rather than this expression.

   Control Flow
       The shell contains a number of commands to regulate the flow of	control  in  scripts  and
       within  limits,	from  the terminal. These commands operate by forcing the shell either to
       reread input (to loop), or to skip input under certain conditions (to branch).

       Each occurrence of a foreach, switch, while, if...then  and  else  built-in  command  must
       appear as the first word on its own input line.

       If the shell's input is not seekable and a loop is being read, that input is buffered. The
       shell performs seeks within the internal buffer to accomplish the rereading implied by the
       loop.  (To  the	extent	that  this allows, backward goto commands succeeds on nonseekable

   Command Execution
       If the command is a C shell built-in command, the shell executes it  directly.  Otherwise,
       the  shell  searches for a file by that name with execute access. If the command name con-
       tains a /, the shell takes it as a pathname, and searches for it. If the command name does
       not  contain a /, the shell attempts to resolve it to a pathname, searching each directory
       in the path variable for the command. To speed the search, the shell uses its  hash  table
       (see  the rehash built-in command) to eliminate directories that have no applicable files.
       This hashing can be disabled with the -c or -t, options, or the unhash built-in command.

       As a special case, if there is no / in the name of the script and there is  an  alias  for
       the  word  shell,  the expansion of the shell alias is prepended (without modification) to
       the command line. The system attempts to execute the first word	of  this  special  (late-
       occurring)  alias, which should be a full pathname. Remaining words of the alias's defini-
       tion, along with the text of the input line, are treated as arguments.

       When a pathname is found that has proper  execute  permissions,	the  shell  forks  a  new
       process	and  passes it, along with its arguments, to the kernel using the execve() system
       call (see exec(2)). The kernel then attempts to overlay the new process with  the  desired
       program.  If the file is an executable binary (in a.out(4) format) the kernel succeeds and
       begins executing the new process. If the file is a text file and  the  first  line  begins
       with  #!,  the  next word is taken to be the pathname of a shell (or command) to interpret
       that script. Subsequent words on the first line are taken as options for that  shell.  The
       kernel  invokes	(overlays)  the indicated shell, using the name of the script as an argu-

       If neither of the above conditions holds, the kernel  cannot  overlay  the  file  and  the
       execve() call fails (see exec(2)). The C shell then attempts to execute the file by spawn-
       ing a new shell, as follows:

	   o	  If the first character of the file is a #, a C shell is invoked.

	   o	  Otherwise, a Bourne shell is invoked.

   Signal Handling
       The shell normally ignores QUIT signals. Background jobs are immune to  signals	generated
       from the keyboard, including hangups (HUP). Other signals have the values that the C shell
       inherited from its environment. The shell's handling of interrupt  and  terminate  signals
       within  scripts	can  be controlled by the onintr built-in command. Login shells catch the
       TERM signal. Otherwise, this signal is passed on to child processes. In no case are inter-
       rupts allowed when a login shell is reading the .logout file.

   Job Control
       The shell associates a numbered job with each command sequence to keep track of those com-
       mands that are running in the background or have been stopped with TSTP signals (typically
       Control-z).  When  a  command or command sequence (semicolon separated list) is started in
       the background using the & metacharacter, the shell displays a line with the job number in
       brackets and a list of associated process numbers:

	 [1] 1234

       To  see	the  current  list  of jobs, use the jobs built-in command. The job most recently
       stopped (or put into the background if none are stopped) is referred to as the current job
       and  is	indicated  with a `+'. The previous job is indicated with a `-'. When the current
       job is terminated or moved to the foreground, this job takes its place  (becomes  the  new
       current job).

       To manipulate jobs, refer to the bg, fg, kill, stop, and % built-in commands.

       A  reference to a job begins with a `%'. By itself, the percent-sign refers to the current

       % %+ %%	   The current job.

       %-	   The previous job.

       %j	   Refer to job j as in: `kill -9 %j'. j can be a job number, or  a  string  that
		   uniquely  specifies	the  command line by which it was started; `fg %vi' might
		   bring a stopped vi job to the foreground, for instance.

       %?string    Specify the job for which the command line uniquely contains string.

       A job running in the background stops when it attempts to read from  the  terminal.  Back-
       ground  jobs  can  normally  produce  output,  but  this can be suppressed using the `stty
       tostop' command.

   Status Reporting
       While running interactively, the shell tracks the status of each job and reports  whenever
       the  job  finishes or becomes blocked. It normally displays a message to this effect as it
       issues a prompt, in order to avoid disturbing the appearance of your input. When set,  the
       notify  variable  indicates  that  the  shell  is to report status changes immediately. By
       default, the notify command marks the current process; after starting  a  background  job,
       type notify to mark it.

       Built-in  commands  are	executed  within the C shell. If a built-in command occurs as any
       component of a pipeline except the last, it is executed in a subshell.

       :			 Null command. This  command  is  interpreted,	but  performs  no

       alias [ name [ def ] ]	 Assign  def  to  the alias name. def is a list of words that can
				 contain escaped history-substitution  metasyntax.  name  is  not
				 allowed  to  be alias or unalias. If def is omitted, the current
				 definition for the alias name is displayed. If both name and def
				 are omitted, all aliases are displayed with their definitions.

       bg [ %job ... ]		 Run the current or specified jobs in the background.

       break			 Resume  execution after the end of the nearest enclosing foreach
				 or while loop. The remaining commands on the  current	line  are
				 executed.  This allows multilevel breaks to be written as a list
				 of break commands, all on one line.

       breaksw			 Break from a switch, resuming after the endsw.

       case label:		 A label in a switch statement.

       cd [dir ]		 Change the shell's working directory to  directory  dir.  If  no
       chdir [dir ]		 argument  is given, change to the home directory of the user. If
				 dir is a relative pathname not found in the  current  directory,
				 check for it in those directories listed in the cdpath variable.
				 If dir is the name of a shell variable whose value starts with a
				 /, change to the directory named by that value.

       continue 		 Continue  execution of the next iteration of the nearest enclos-
				 ing while or foreach loop.

       default: 		 Labels the default case  in  a  switch  statement.  The  default
				 should come after all case labels. Any remaining commands on the
				 command line are first executed.

       dirs [-l]		 Print the directory stack, most recent to the	left.  The  first
				 directory  shown is the current directory. With the -l argument,
				 produce an unabbreviated printout; use of the ~ notation is sup-

       echo [-n] list		 The  words  in  list are written to the shell's standard output,
				 separated by space characters. The output is terminated  with	a
				 newline  unless  the -n option is used. csh, by default, invokes
				 its built-in echo, if echo is called without the  full  pathname
				 of  a Unix command, regardless of the configuration of your PATH
				 (see echo(1)).

       eval argument... 	 Reads the arguments as input  to  the	shell  and  executes  the
				 resulting  command(s).  This is usually used to execute commands
				 generated as the result of command or variable substitution. See
				 tset(1B) for an example of how to use eval.

       exec command		 Execute command in place of the current shell, which terminates.

       exit [(expr)]		 The  calling  shell or shell script exits, either with the value
				 of the status variable  or  with  the	value  specified  by  the
				 expression expr.

       fg [%job ]		 Bring the current or specified job into the foreground.

       foreach var(wordlist)	 The variable var is successively set to each member of wordlist.
       ...			 The sequence of commands between this command and  the  matching
       end			 end  is executed for each new value of var. Both foreach and end
				 must appear alone on separate lines.

				 The built-in command continue can be used to terminate the  exe-
				 cution  of  the  current  iteration of the loop and the built-in
				 command break can be used to terminate execution of the  foreach
				 command.  When  this command is read from the terminal, the loop
				 is read once prompting with ? before any statements in the  loop
				 are executed.

       glob wordlist

	   Perform  filename  expansion  on wordlist. Like echo, but no \ escapes are recognized.
	   Words are delimited by NULL characters in the output.


	   The specified label is a filename and a command expanded to yield a label.  The  shell
	   rewinds  its input as much as possible and searches for a line of the form label: pos-
	   sibly preceded by space or tab characters. Execution  continues  after  the	indicated
	   line.  It  is  an error to jump to a label that occurs between a while or for built-in
	   command and its corresponding end.


	   Print a statistics line indicating how effective the internal hash table for the  path
	   variable  has been at locating commands (and avoiding execs). An exec is attempted for
	   each component of the path where the hash function indicates a  possible  hit  and  in
	   each  component  that  does	not  begin  with a `/'. These statistics only reflect the
	   effectiveness of the path variable, not the cdpath variable.

       history [-hr] [n]

	   Display the history list; if n is given, display only the n most recent events.

	   -r	 Reverse the order of printout to be most recent first rather than oldest first.

	   -h	 Display the history list without leading numbers. This is used to produce  files
		 suitable for sourcing using the -h option to source.

       if (expr )command

	   If  the  specified  expression evaluates to true, the single command with arguments is
	   executed. Variable substitution on command happens early, at the same time it does for
	   the	rest  of the if command. command must be a simple command, not a pipeline, a com-
	   mand list, or a parenthesized command list. Note: I/O redirection occurs even if  expr
	   is false, when command is not executed (this is a bug).

       if (expr) then
       else if (expr2) then

	   If  expr  is  true, commands up to the first else are executed. Otherwise, if expr2 is
	   true, the commands between the else if and the second else  are  executed.  Otherwise,
	   commands  between the else and the endif are executed. Any number of else if pairs are
	   allowed, but only one else. Only one endif is needed, but it is  required.  The  words
	   else  and  endif  must  be the first nonwhite characters on a line. The if must appear
	   alone on its input line or after an else.

       jobs [-l]

	   List the active jobs under job control.

	   -l	 List process IDs, in addition to the normal information.

       kill [sig ] [ pid ] [ %job ] ...
       kill -l

	   Send the TERM (terminate) signal, by default, or the signal specified, to  the  speci-
	   fied  process  ID,  the job indicated, or the current job. Signals are either given by
	   number or by name. There is no default. Typing kill does not send a signal to the cur-
	   rent  job.  If the signal being sent is TERM (terminate) or HUP (hangup), then the job
	   or process is sent a CONT (continue) signal as well.

	   -l	 List the signal names that can be sent.

       limit [-h] [resource [max-use ] ]

	   Limit the consumption by the current process or any process it  spawns,  each  not  to
	   exceed  max-use on the specified resource. The string unlimited requests that the cur-
	   rent limit, if any, be removed. If max-use is omitted, print  the  current  limit.  If
	   resource is omitted, display all limits. Run the sysdef(1M) command to display maximum
	   limits for certain resources in your system (although it does not report stack  size).
	   The	values	reported  are  in hexadecimal, but can be translated into decimal numbers
	   using the bc(1) command.

	   -h	 Use hard limits instead of the current limits. Hard limits impose a  ceiling  on
		 the  values  of  the current limits. Only the privileged user can raise the hard

	   resource is one of:

	   cputime		  Maximum CPU seconds per process.

	   filesize		  Largest single  file	allowed.  Limited  to  the  size  of  the
				  filesystem. (See df(1M)).

	   datasize (heapsize)	  Maximum  data  size  (including stack) for the process. This is
				  the size of your virtual memory See swap(1M).

	   stacksize		  Maximum stack size for the process. The default stack  size  is
				  2^64	bytes. You can use limit(1) to change this default within
				  a shell.

	   coredumpsize 	  Maximum size of a core dump (file). This limited to the size of
				  the filesystem.

	   descriptors		  Maximum number of file descriptors. Run sysdef().

	   memorysize		  Maximum size of virtual memory.

	   max-use is a number, with an optional scaling factor, as follows:

	   nh	    Hours (for cputime).

	   nk	    n kilobytes. This is the default for all but cputime.

	   nm	    n megabytes or minutes (for cputime).

	   mm:ss    Minutes and seconds (for cputime).

	   Example  of limit: To limit the size of a core file dump to 0 Megabytes, type the fol-

	     limit coredumpsize 0M

       login [username| -p ]

	   Terminate a login shell and invoke login(1). The .logout file  is  not  processed.  If
	   username is omitted, login prompts for the name of a user.

	   -p	 Preserve the current environment (variables).


	   Terminate a login shell.

       nice [+n |-n ] [command ]

	   Increment the process priority value for the shell or for command by n. The higher the
	   priority value, the lower the priority of a process, and  the  slower  it  runs.  When
	   given, command is always run in a subshell, and the restrictions placed on commands in
	   simple if commands apply. If command is omitted, nice increments  the  value  for  the
	   current  shell.  If no increment is specified, nice sets the process priority value to
	   4. The range of process priority values is from -20 to 20. Values of  n  outside  this
	   range set the value to the lower, or to the higher boundary, respectively.

	   +n	 Increment the process priority value by n.

	   -n	 Decrement by n. This argument can be used only by the privileged user.

       nohup [command ]

	   Run command with HUPs ignored. With no arguments, ignore HUPs throughout the remainder
	   of a script. When given, command is always run in a	subshell,  and	the  restrictions
	   placed  on  commands  in simple if statements apply. All processes detached with & are
	   effectively nohup'd.

       notify [%job] ...

	   Notify the user asynchronously when the status of the current job  or  specified  jobs

       onintr [-| label]

	   Control  the action of the shell on interrupts. With no arguments, onintr restores the
	   default action of the shell on interrupts. (The shell  terminates  shell  scripts  and
	   returns  to	the terminal command input level). With the - argument, the shell ignores
	   all interrupts. With a label argument, the shell executes a goto label when an  inter-
	   rupt is received or a child process terminates because it was interrupted.

       popd [+n ]

	   Pop the directory stack and cd to the new top directory. The elements of the directory
	   stack are numbered from 0 starting at the top.

	   +n	 Discard the n'th entry in the stack.

       pushd [+n |dir]

	   Push a directory onto the directory stack. With no arguments,  exchange  the  top  two

	   +n	  Rotate the n'th entry to the top of the stack and cd to it.

	   dir	  Push the current working directory onto the stack and change to dir.


	   Recompute  the  internal  hash table of the contents of directories listed in the path
	   variable to account for new commands added. Recompute the internal hash table  of  the
	   contents  of  directories listed in the cdpath variable to account for new directories

       repeat count command

	   Repeat command count times. command is subject to the same restrictions  as	with  the
	   one-line if statement.

       set [var [= value ] ]
       set var[n] = word

	   With  no  arguments,  set displays the values of all shell variables. Multiword values
	   are displayed as a parenthesized list. With the var argument  alone,  set  assigns  an
	   empty  (null)  value  to  the variable var. With arguments of the form var = value set
	   assigns value to var, where value is one of:

	   word 	 A single word (or quoted string).

	   (wordlist)	 A space-separated list of words enclosed in parentheses.

	   Values are command and filename expanded before being assigned. The form  setvar[n]	=
	   word replaces the n'th word in a multiword value with word.

       setenv [VAR [word ] ]

	   With  no  arguments, setenv displays all environment variables. With the VAR argument,
	   setenv sets the environment variable VAR  to have an empty (null) value.  (By  conven-
	   tion,  environment  variables  are normally given upper-case names.) With both VAR and
	   word arguments, setenv sets the environment variable NAME to  the  value  word,  which
	   must  be  either  a single word or a quoted string. The most commonly used environment
	   variables, USER, TERM, and PATH, are automatically imported to and exported	from  the
	   csh variables user, term, and path. There is no need to use setenv for these. In addi-
	   tion, the shell sets the PWD environment variable from the csh variable  cwd  whenever
	   the latter changes.

	   The	environment variables LC_CTYPE, LC_MESSAGES, LC_TIME, LC_COLLATE, LC_NUMERIC, and
	   LC_MONETARY take immediate effect when changed within the C shell.

	   If any of the LC_* variables (LC_CTYPE, LC_MESSAGES, LC_TIME, LC_COLLATE,  LC_NUMERIC,
	   and	LC_MONETARY)  (see  environ(5))  are  not set in the environment, the operational
	   behavior of csh for each corresponding locale category is determined by the	value  of
	   the	LANG  environment  variable.  If LC_ALL is set, its contents are used to override
	   both the LANG and the other LC_* variables. If none of the above variables is  set  in
	   the environment, the "C" (U.S. style) locale determines how csh behaves.

	   LC_CTYPE	  Determines  how csh handles characters. When LC_CTYPE is set to a valid
			  value, csh can display and handle text and filenames	containing  valid
			  characters for that locale.

	   LC_MESSAGES	  Determines  how diagnostic and informative messages are presented. This
			  includes the language and style of the messages and the correct form of
			  affirmative and negative responses. In the "C" locale, the messages are
			  presented in the default form found in  the  program	itself	(in  most
			  cases, U.S./English).

	   LC_NUMERIC	  Determines  the value of the radix character, decimal point, (.) in the
			  "C" locale) and thousand  separator,	empty  string  ("")  in  the  "C"

       shift [variable ]

	   The	components of argv, or variable, if supplied, are shifted to the left, discarding
	   the first component. It is an error for the variable not to be set or to have  a  null

       source [-h] name

	   Reads  commands  from  name. source commands can be nested, but if they are nested too
	   deeply the shell can run out of file descriptors. An error in a sourced  file  at  any
	   level terminates all nested source commands.

	   -h	 Place commands from the file name on the history list without executing them.

       stop %jobid ...

	   Stop the current or specified background job.

       stop pid ...

	   Stop the specified process, pid. (see ps(1)).


	   Stop  the shell in its tracks, much as if it had been sent a stop signal with ^Z. This
	   is most often used to stop shells started by su.

       switch (string)
       case label:

	   Each label is successively matched, against the specified string, which is first  com-
	   mand  and filename expanded. The file metacharacters *, ? and [...] can be used in the
	   case labels, which are variable expanded.  If  none	of  the  labels  match	before	a
	   "default"  label  is found, execution begins after the default label. Each case state-
	   ment and the default statement must appear at the beginning of  a  line.  The  command
	   breaksw  continues  execution  after the endsw. Otherwise control falls through subse-
	   quent case and default statements as with C. If no  label  matches  and  there  is  no
	   default, execution continues after the endsw.

       time [command ]

	   With  no argument, print a summary of time used by this C shell and its children. With
	   an optional command, execute command and print a summary of the time it  uses.  As  of
	   this  writing, the time built-in command does NOT compute the last 6 fields of output,
	   rendering the output to erroneously report the value 0 for these fields.

	     example %time ls -R
		     9.0u 11.0s 3:32 10% 0+0k 0+0io 0pf+0w

	   (See the Environment Variables and Predefined Shell Variables sub-section on the  time

       umask [value ]

	   Display  the  file  creation  mask. With value, set the file creation mask. With value
	   given in octal, the user can turn off any bits, but cannot turn on bits to  allow  new
	   permissions.  Common  values  include  077,	restricting all permissions from everyone
	   else; 002, giving complete access to the group, and read (and directory search) access
	   to  others; or 022, giving read (and directory search) but not write permission to the
	   group and others.

       unalias pattern

	   Discard aliases that match (filename substitution) pattern. All aliases are removed by
	   `unalias *'.


	   Disable the internal hash tables for the path and cdpath variables.

       unlimit [-h] [resource ]

	   Remove  a limitation on resource. If no resource is specified, then all resource limi-
	   tations are removed. See the description of the limit command for the list of resource

	   -h	 Remove corresponding hard limits. Only the privileged user can do this.

       unset pattern

	   Remove  variables whose names match (filename substitution) pattern. All variables are
	   removed by `unset *'; this has noticeably distasteful side effects.

       unsetenv variable

	   Remove variable from the environment. As with unset,  pattern  matching  is	not  per-


	   Wait for background jobs to finish (or for an interrupt) before prompting.

       while (expr)

	   While  expr	is true (evaluates to nonzero), repeat commands between the while and the
	   matching end statement. break and continue can be used to terminate	or  continue  the
	   loop  prematurely.  The  while  and end must appear alone on their input lines. If the
	   shell's input is a terminal, it prompts for commands with a	question-mark  until  the
	   end command is entered and then performs the commands in the loop.

       % [job ] [&]

	   Bring  the  current	or  indicated job to the foreground. With the ampersand, continue
	   running job in the background.

       @ [var =expr]
       @ [var[n]=expr]

	   With no arguments, display the values for all shell variables. With arguments, set the
	   variable  var,  or the n'th word in the value of var, to the value that expr evaluates
	   to. (If [n] is supplied, both var and its n'th component must already exist.)

	   If the expression contains the characters >, <, &, or |, then at least  this  part  of
	   expr must be placed within parentheses.

	   The	operators  *=,	+=, and so forth, are available as in C. The space separating the
	   name from the assignment operator is optional. Spaces are, however, mandatory in sepa-
	   rating components of expr that would otherwise be single words.

	   Special postfix operators, ++ and --, increment or decrement name, respectively.

   Environment Variables and Predefined Shell Variables
       Unlike  the  Bourne  shell,  the C shell maintains a distinction between environment vari-
       ables, which are automatically exported to processes  it  invokes,  and	shell  variables,
       which  are not. Both types of variables are treated similarly under variable substitution.
       The shell sets the variables argv, cwd, home, path, prompt, shell, and  status  upon  ini-
       tialization.  The shell copies the environment variable USER into the shell variable user,
       TERM into term, and HOME into home, and copies each back into the  respective  environment
       variable  whenever the shell variables are reset. PATH and path are similarly handled. You
       need only set path once in the .cshrc or .login file. The environment variable PWD is  set
       from  cwd whenever the latter changes. The following shell variables have predefined mean-

       argv	    Argument list. Contains the list of command line arguments	supplied  to  the
		    current  invocation  of  the shell. This variable determines the value of the
		    positional parameters $1, $2, and so on.

       cdpath	    Contains a list of directories to be searched by the cd, chdir, and popd com-
		    mands,  if	the  directory argument each accepts is not a subdirectory of the
		    current directory.

       cwd	    The full pathname of the current directory.

       echo	    Echo commands (after substitutions) just before execution.

       fignore	    A list of filename suffixes to ignore when	attempting  filename  completion.
		    Typically the single word `.o'.

       filec	    Enable filename completion, in which case the Control-d character EOT and the
		    ESC character have special significance when typed in at the end of a  termi-
		    nal input line:

		    EOT    Print a list of all filenames that start with the preceding string.

		    ESC    Replace the preceding string with the longest unambiguous extension.

       hardpaths    If set, pathnames in the directory stack are resolved to contain no symbolic-
		    link components.

       histchars    A two-character string. The first character replaces ! as the history-substi-
		    tution character. The second replaces the carat (^) for quick substitutions.

       history	    The number of lines saved in the history list. A very large number can use up
		    all of the C shell's memory. If not set, the C  shell  saves  only	the  most
		    recent command.

       home	    The user's home directory. The filename expansion of ~ refers to the value of
		    this variable.

       ignoreeof    If set, the shell ignores EOF from terminals. This protects against  acciden-
		    tally killing a C shell by typing a Control-d.

       mail	    A  list  of files where the C shell checks for mail. If the first word of the
		    value is a number, it specifies a mail checking interval in seconds  (default
		    5 minutes).

       nobeep	    Suppress the bell during command completion when asking the C shell to extend
		    an ambiguous filename.

       noclobber    Restrict output redirection so that existing files are not destroyed by acci-
		    dent.  > redirections can only be made to new files. >> redirections can only
		    be made to existing files.

       noglob	    Inhibit filename substitution. This is most  useful  in  shell  scripts  once
		    filenames (if any) are obtained and no further expansion is desired.

       nonomatch    Return  the  filename substitution pattern, rather than an error, if the pat-
		    tern is not matched. Malformed patterns still result in errors.

       notify	    If set, the shell notifies you immediately as jobs are completed, rather than
		    waiting until just before issuing a prompt.

       path	    The  list of directories in which to search for commands. path is initialized
		    from the environment variable PATH, which the C shell updates  whenever  path
		    changes.  A  null  word  ('') specifies the current directory. The default is
		    typically (/usr/bin .). One can override this initial search  path	upon  csh
		    start-up  by  setting it in .cshrc or .login (for login shells only). If path
		    becomes unset, only full pathnames execute. An interactive C  shell  normally
		    hashes the contents of the directories listed after reading .cshrc, and when-
		    ever path is reset. If new commands are added,  use  the  rehash  command  to
		    update the table.

       prompt	    The  string  an interactive C shell prompts with. Noninteractive shells leave
		    the prompt variable unset. Aliases and other commands in the .cshrc file that
		    are  only  useful  interactively, can be placed after the following test: `if
		    ($?prompt == 0) exit', to reduce startup time for noninteractive shells. A	!
		    in	the  prompt  string  is replaced by the current event number. The default
		    prompt is hostname% for mere mortals, or hostname# for the privileged user.

		    The setting of $prompt has three meanings:

		    $prompt not set	     non-interactive shell, test $?prompt.

		    $prompt set but == ""    .cshrc called by the which(1) command.

		    $prompt set and != ""    normal interactive shell.

       savehist     The number of lines from the history list that are saved in  ~/.history  when
		    the  user  logs  out.  Large values for savehist slow down the C shell during

       shell	    The file in which the C shell resides. This is  used  in  forking  shells  to
		    interpret  files  that  have execute bits set, but that are not executable by
		    the system.

       status	    The status returned by the most recent command. If	that  command  terminated
		    abnormally,  0200  is added to the status. Built-in commands that fail return
		    exit status 1; all other built-in commands set status to 0.

       time	    Control automatic timing of commands. Can be supplied with one or two values.
		    The  first	is the reporting threshold in CPU seconds. The second is a string
		    of tags and text indicating which resources to report on. A tag is a  percent
		    sign  (%)  followed by a single upper-case letter (unrecognized tags print as

		    %D	  Average amount of unshared data space used in Kilobytes.

		    %E	  Elapsed (wallclock) time for the command.

		    %F	  Page faults.

		    %I	  Number of block input operations.

		    %K	  Average amount of unshared stack space used in Kilobytes.

		    %M	  Maximum real memory used during execution of the process.

		    %O	  Number of block output operations.

		    %P	  Total CPU time -- U (user) plus S (system) --  as  a	percentage  of	E
			  (elapsed) time.

		    %S	  Number  of  seconds of CPU time consumed by the kernel on behalf of the
			  user's process.

		    %U	  Number of seconds of CPU time devoted to the user's process.

		    %W	  Number of swaps.

		    %X	  Average amount of shared memory used in Kilobytes.

		    The default summary display outputs from the %U, %S, %E, %P, %X, %D, %I,  %O,
		    %F, and %W tags, in that order.

       verbose	    Display each command after history substitution takes place.

   Large File Behavior
       See  largefile(5)  for  the  description  of  the  behavior of csh when encountering files
       greater than or equal to 2 Gbyte (2^31 bytes).

       ~/.cshrc       Read at beginning of execution by each shell.

       ~/.login       Read by login shells after .cshrc at login.

       ~/.logout      Read by login shells at logout.

       ~/.history     Saved history for use at next login.

       /usr/bin/sh    The Bourne shell, for shell scripts not starting with a `#'.

       /tmp/sh*       Temporary file for `<<'.

       /etc/passwd    Source of home directories for `~name'.

       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:

       |      ATTRIBUTE TYPE	     |	    ATTRIBUTE VALUE	   |
       |Availability		     |SUNWcsu			   |
       |CSI			     |Enabled			   |

       bc(1), echo(1), limit(1), login(1), ls(1), more(1),  pfcsh(1),  pfexec(1),  ps(1),  sh(1),
       shell_builtins(1),  tset(1B),  which(1), df(1M), swap(1M), sysdef(1M), access(2), exec(2),
       fork(2), pipe(2), a.out(4), ascii(5), attributes(5), environ(5), largefile(5), termio(7I)

       You have stopped jobs.	 You attempted to exit the C shell with stopped  jobs  under  job
				 control. An immediate second attempt to exit succeeds, terminat-
				 ing the stopped jobs.

       The use of setuid shell scripts is strongly discouraged.

       Words can be no longer than 1024 bytes. The system  limits  argument  lists  to	1,048,576
       bytes.  However, the maximum number of arguments to a command for which filename expansion
       applies is 1706. Command substitutions can expand to no more characters than  are  allowed
       in the argument list. To detect looping, the shell restricts the number of alias substitu-
       tions on a single line to 20.

       When a command is restarted from a stop, the shell prints the directory it started  in  if
       this  is  different from the current directory; this can be misleading (that is, wrong) as
       the job might have changed directories internally.

       Shell built-in functions are not stoppable/restartable. Command sequences of the form a	b
       c  are also not handled gracefully when stopping is attempted. If you suspend b, the shell
       never executes c. This is especially noticeable if the expansion results from an alias. It
       can be avoided by placing the sequence in parentheses to force it into a subshell.

       Commands within loops, prompted for by ?, are not placed in the history list.

       Control	structures  should  be	parsed rather than being recognized as built-in commands.
       This would allow control commands to be placed anywhere, to be combined with |, and to  be
       used with & and ; metasyntax.

       It should be possible to use the : modifiers on the output of command substitutions. There
       are two problems with : modifier usage on variable substitutions: not all of the modifiers
       are available, and only one modifier per substitution is allowed.

       The g (global) flag in history substitutions applies only to the first match in each word,
       rather than all matches in all words. The common text editors consistently do  the  latter
       when given the g flag in a substitution command.

       Quoting	conventions are confusing. Overriding the escape character to force variable sub-
       stitutions within double quotes is  counterintuitive  and  inconsistent	with  the  Bourne

       Symbolic links can fool the shell. Setting the hardpaths variable alleviates this.

       It  is up to the user to manually remove all duplicate pathnames accrued from using built-
       in commands as

	 set path = pathnames


	 setenv PATH = pathnames

       more than once. These often occur because a shell script or a .cshrc file  does	something

	 `set path=(/usr/local /usr/hosts $path)'

       to ensure that the named directories are in the pathname list.

       The  only way to direct the standard output and standard error separately is by invoking a
       subshell, as follows:

	 command > outfile ) >& errorfile

       Although robust enough for general use, adventures into the esoteric periphery  of  the	C
       shell can reveal unexpected quirks.

       If  you	start  csh  as a login shell and you do not have a .login in your home directory,
       then the csh reads in the /etc/.login.

       When the shell executes a shell script that attempts to	execute  a  non-existent  command
       interpreter,  the shell returns an erroneous diagnostic message that the shell script file
       does not exist.

       As of this writing, the time built-in command does not compute the last 6 fields  of  out-
       put, rendering the output to erroneously report the value 0 for these fields:

	 example %time ls -R
		 9.0u 11.0s 3:32 10% 0+0k 0+0io 0pf+0w

SunOS 5.11				   27 Jul 2007					   csh(1)

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