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OpenSolaris 2009.06 - man page for find (opensolaris section 1)

find(1) 				  User Commands 				  find(1)

NAME
       find - find files

SYNOPSIS
       /usr/bin/find [-H | -L] path... expression

       /usr/xpg4/bin/find [-H | -L] path... expression

DESCRIPTION
       The  find utility recursively descends the directory hierarchy for each path seeking files
       that match a Boolean expression written in the primaries specified below.

       find is able to descend to arbitrary depths in a file hierarchy and does not fail  due  to
       path  length  limitations  (unless  a  path  operand  specified by the application exceeds
       PATH_MAX requirements).

       find detects infinite loops; that is, entering a previously visited directory that  is  an
       ancestor of the last file encountered.

OPTIONS
       The following options are supported:

       -H    Causes  the  file information and file type evaluated for each symbolic link encoun-
	     tered on the command line to be those of the file referenced by the  link,  and  not
	     the  link	itself.  If  the referenced file does not exist, the file information and
	     type is for the link itself. File information for all symbolic links not on the com-
	     mand line is that of the link itself.

       -L    Causes  the  file	information  and file type evaluated for each symbolic link to be
	     those of the file referenced by the link, and not the link itself. See NOTES.

       Specifying more than one of the mutually-exclusive options -H and -Lis not  considered  an
       error. The last option specified determines the behavior of the utility.

OPERANDS
       The following operands are supported:

       path	     A pathname of a starting point in the directory hierarchy.

       expression    The  first  argument  that starts with a -, or is a ! or a (, and all subse-
		     quent arguments are interpreted as an expression made up  of  the	following
		     primaries	and  operators. In the descriptions, wherever n is used as a pri-
		     mary argument, it is interpreted as a decimal integer optionally preceded by
		     a plus (+) or minus (-) sign, as follows:

		     +n    more than n

		     n	   exactly n

		     -n    less than n

   Expressions
       Valid expressions are:

       -acl		True if the file have additional ACLs defined.

       -amin n		File was last accessed n minutes ago.

       -atime n 	True  if the file was accessed n days ago. The access time of directories
			in path is changed by find itself.

       -cmin n		File's status was last changed n minutes ago.

       -cpio device	Always true. Writes the current file on device in cpio format  (5120-byte
			records).

       -ctime n 	True if the file's status was changed n days ago.

       -depth		Always true. Causes descent of the directory hierarchy to be done so that
			all entries in a directory are acted on before the directory itself. This
			can  be  useful when find is used with cpio(1) to transfer files that are
			contained in directories without write permission.

       -exec command	True if the executed command returns a zero value as exit status. The end
			of  command  must  be  punctuated  by an escaped semicolon (;). A command
			argument {} is replaced by the current pathname. If the last argument  to
			-exec  is {} and you specify + rather than the semicolon (;), the command
			is invoked fewer times, with {} replaced by groups of pathnames.  If  any
			invocation  of	the command returns a non-zero value as exit status, find
			returns a non-zero exit status.

       -follow		Always true and always evaluated no matter where it  appears  in  expres-
			sion.  The  behavior is unspecified if -follow is used when the find com-
			mand is invoked with either the -H or  the  -L	option.  Causes  symbolic
			links  to be followed. When following symbolic links, find keeps track of
			the directories visited so that it can detect infinite loops.  For  exam-
			ple,  such  a loop would occur if a symbolic link pointed to an ancestor.
			This expression should not be used with the find-type l  expression.  See
			NOTES.

       -fstype type	True if the filesystem to which the file belongs is of type type.

       -group gname	True if the file belongs to the group gname. If gname is numeric and does
			not appear in the /etc/group file, or in the NIS/NIS+ tables, it is taken
			as a group ID.

       -inum n		True if the file has inode number n.

       -links n 	True if the file has n links.

       -local		True  if the file system type is not a remote file system type as defined
			in the /etc/dfs/fstypes file. nfs is used as the default remote  filesys-
			tem  type  if the /etc/dfs/fstypes file is not present. The -local option
			descends the hierarchy of non-local  directories.  See	EXAMPLES  for  an
			example of how to search for local files without descending.

       -ls		Always true. Prints current pathname together with its associated statis-
			tics. These include (respectively):

			    o	   inode number

			    o	   size in kilobytes (1024 bytes)

			    o	   protection mode

			    o	   number of hard links

			    o	   user

			    o	   group

			    o	   size in bytes

			    o	   modification time.
			If the file is a special file, the size field instead contains the  major
			and minor device numbers.

			If  the  file  is  a symbolic link, the pathname of the linked-to file is
			printed preceded by `->'. The format is identical to that  of  ls  -gilds
			(see ls(1B)).

			Formatting is done internally, without executing the ls program.

       -mmin n		File's data was last modified n minutes ago.

       -mount		Always	true.  Restricts  the  search  to  the file system containing the
			directory specified. Does not list mount points to other file systems.

       -mtime n 	True if the file's data was modified n days ago.

       -name pattern	True if pattern matches the basename of the  current  file  name.  Normal
			shell  file  name  generation characters (see sh(1)) can be used. A back-
			slash (\) is used as an escape character within the pattern. The  pattern
			should be escaped or quoted when find is invoked from the shell.

			Unless the character '.' is explicitly specified in the beginning of pat-
			tern, a current file name beginning with '.' does not match pattern  when
			using  /usr/bin/find.  /usr/xpg4/bin/find does not make this distinction;
			wildcard file name generation characters can match file  names	beginning
			with '.'.

       -ncpio device	Always	true.  Writes  the current file on device in cpio -c format (5120
			byte records).

       -newer file	True if the current file has been modified more recently than  the  argu-
			ment file.

       -nogroup 	True if the file belongs to a group not in the /etc/group file, or in the
			NIS/NIS+ tables.

       -nouser		True if the file belongs to a user not in the /etc/passwd file, or in the
			NIS/NIS+ tables.

       -ok command	Like  -exec,  except  that  the  generated command line is printed with a
			question mark first, and is executed only if the response is affirmative.

       -perm [-]mode	The mode argument is used to represent file mode bits. It is identical in
			format	to  the  symbolic  mode operand, symbolic_mode_list, described in
			chmod(1), and is interpreted as follows. To start, a template is  assumed
			with all file mode bits cleared. An op symbol of:

			+	Set the appropriate mode bits in the template

			-	Clear the appropriate bits

			=	Set  the appropriate mode bits, without regard to the contents of
				the file mode creation mask of the process

			The op symbol of - cannot be the first character of mode, to avoid  ambi-
			guity  with  the  optional  leading hyphen. Since the initial mode is all
			bits off, there are no symbolic modes that need to use	-  as  the  first
			character.

			If  the  hyphen  is  omitted, the primary evaluates as true when the file
			permission bits exactly match the value of the resulting template.

			Otherwise, if mode is prefixed by a hyphen, the primary evaluates as true
			if  at	least  all the bits in the resulting template are set in the file
			permission bits.

       -perm [-]onum	True if the file permission flags exactly match  the  octal  number  onum
			(see  chmod(1)).  If  onum is prefixed by a minus sign (-), only the bits
			that are set in onum are compared with the file permission flags, and the
			expression evaluates true if they match.

       -print		Always true. Causes the current pathname to be printed.

       -prune		Always	yields	true.  Does  not  examine any directories or files in the
			directory structure below the pattern just matched.  (See  EXAMPLES).  If
			-depth is specified, -prune has no effect.

       -size n[c]	True if the file is n blocks long (512 bytes per block). If n is followed
			by a c, the size is in bytes.

       -type c		True if the type of the file is c, where c is b, c, d, D, f, l, p,  or	s
			for  block  special  file, character special file, directory, door, plain
			file, symbolic link, fifo (named pipe), or socket, respectively.

       -user uname	True if the file belongs to the user uname. If uname is numeric and  does
			not  appear  as  a login name in the /etc/passwd file, or in the NIS/NIS+
			tables, it is taken as a user ID.

       -xdev		Same as the -mount primary.

       -xattr		True if the file has extended attributes.

   Complex Expressions
       The primaries can be combined using the following operators (in order of decreasing prece-
       dence):

       1)(expression)

	   True if the parenthesized expression is true (parentheses are special to the shell and
	   must be escaped).

       2)!expression

	   The negation of a primary (! is the unary not operator).

       3) expression[-a] expression

	   Concatenation of primaries (the and operation is implied by the juxtaposition  of  two
	   primaries).

       4) expression-oexpression

	   Alternation of primaries (-o is the or operator).

       When  you  use find in conjunction with cpio, if you use the -L option with cpio, you must
       use the -L option or the -follow primitive with find and vice versa. Otherwise the results
       are unspecified.

       If no expression is present, -print is used as the expression. Otherwise, if the specified
       expression does not contain any of the primaries -exec, -ok, -ls, or -print, the specified
       expression is effectively replaced by:

       (specified) -print

       The  -user,  -group,  and  -newer  primaries each evaluate their respective arguments only
       once. Invocation of command specified by -exec or -ok does not affect subsequent primaries
       on the same file.

USAGE
       See  largefile(5)  for  the  description  of  the behavior of find when encountering files
       greater than or equal to 2 Gbyte (2^31 bytes).

EXAMPLES
       Example 1 Writing Out the Hierarchy Directory

       The following commands are equivalent:

	 example% find .
	 example% find . -print

       They both write out the entire directory hierarchy from the current directory.

       Example 2 Removing Files

       The following comand removes all files in your home directory named a.out or *.o that have
       not been accessed for a week:

	 example% find $HOME \( -name a.out -o -name '*.o' \) \
		-atime +7 -exec rm {} \;

       Example 3 Printing All File Names But Skipping SCCS Directories

       The following command recursively print all file names in the current directory and below,
       but skipping SCCS directories:

	 example% find . -name SCCS -prune -o -print

       Example 4 Printing all file names and the SCCS directory name

       Recursively print all file names in the current directory and below, skipping the contents
       of SCCS directories, but printing out the SCCS directory name:

	 example% find . -print -name SCCS -prune

       Example 5 Testing for the Newer File

       The following command is basically equivalent to the -nt extension to test(1):

	 example$ if [ -n "$(find
	 file1 -prune -newer file2)" ]; then

	 printf %s\\n "file1 is newer than file2"

       Example 6 Selecting a File Using 24-hour Mode

       The  descriptions of -atime, -ctime, and -mtime use the terminology n ``24-hour periods''.
       For example, a file accessed at 23:59 is selected by:

	 example% find . -atime -1 -print

       at 00:01 the next day (less than 24 hours later, not more than one day ago). The  midnight
       boundary between days has no effect on the 24-hour calculation.

       Example 7 Printing Files Matching a User's Permission Mode

       The  following  command	recursively  print  all  file names whose permission mode exactly
       matches read, write, and execute access for user, and read and execute  access  for  group
       and other:

	 example% find . -perm u=rwx,g=rx,o=rx

       The above could alternatively be specified as follows:

	 example% find . -perm a=rwx,g-w,o-w

       Example 8 Printing Files with Write Access for other

       The  following  command recursively print all file names whose permission includes, but is
       not limited to, write access for other:

	 example% find . -perm -o+w

       Example 9 Printing Local Files without Descending Non-local Directories

	 example% find . ! -local -prune -o -print

       Example 10 Printing the Files in the Name Space Possessing Extended Attributes

	 example% find . -xattr


ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       See environ(5) for descriptions of the following environment  variables	that  affect  the
       execution of find: LANG, LC_ALL, LC_COLLATE, LC_CTYPE, LC_MESSAGES, and NLSPATH.

       PATH    Determine the location of the utility_name for the -exec and -ok primaries.

       Affirmative  responses are processed using the extended regular expression defined for the
       yesexpr keyword in the LC_MESSAGES category of the user's locale. The locale specified  in
       the  LC_COLLATE	category  defines the behavior of ranges, equivalence classes, and multi-
       character collating elements used in the expression defined for yesexpr. The locale speci-
       fied  in  LC_CTYPE  determines the locale for interpretation of sequences of bytes of text
       data a characters, the behavior of character classes used in the  expression  defined  for
       the yesexpr. See locale(5).

EXIT STATUS
       The following exit values are returned:

       0     All path operands were traversed successfully.

       >0    An error occurred.

FILES
       /etc/passwd	   Password file

       /etc/group	   Group file

       /etc/dfs/fstypes    File that registers distributed file system packages

ATTRIBUTES
       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:

       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |      ATTRIBUTE TYPE	     |	    ATTRIBUTE VALUE	   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |Availability		     |SUNWcsu			   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |CSI			     |Enabled			   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |Interface Stability	     |Committed 		   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |Standard		     |See standards(5). 	   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+

SEE ALSO
       chmod(1), cpio(1), sh(1), test(1), ls(1B), acl(2), stat(2), umask(2), attributes(5), envi-
       ron(5), fsattr(5), largefile(5), locale(5), standards(5)

WARNINGS
       The following options are obsolete and will not be supported in future releases:

       -cpio device	Always true. Writes the current file on device in cpio format  (5120-byte
			records).

       -ncpio device	Always	true.  Writes  the  current  file  on  device  in  cpio -c format
			(5120-byte records).

NOTES
       When using find to determine files modified within a range of time, use the  -mtime  argu-
       ment before the -print argument. Otherwise, find gives all files.

       Some  files that might be under the Solaris root file system are actually mount points for
       virtual file systems, such as mntfs or namefs. When comparing against a ufs  file  system,
       such files are not selected if -mount or -xdev is specified in the find expression.

       Using  the -L or -follow option is not recommended when descending a file-system hierarchy
       that is under the control of other users. In particular, when using -exec, symbolic  links
       can  lead  the  find  command out of the hierarchy in which it started. Using -type is not
       sufficient to restrict the type of files on which  the  -exec  command  operates,  because
       there  is  an inherent race condition between the type-check performed by the find command
       and the time the executed command operates on the file argument.

SunOS 5.11				   15 Aug 2008					  find(1)


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