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OpenSolaris 2009.06 - man page for mailx (opensolaris section 1)

mailx(1)				  User Commands 				 mailx(1)

NAME
       mailx - interactive message processing system

SYNOPSIS
       mailx [-BdeHiInNURvV~] [-f [file | +folder]] [-T file]
	    [-u user]

       mailx [-BdFintUv~] [-b bcc] [-c cc] [-h number]
	    [-r address] [-s subject] recipient...

       /usr/ucb/mail ...

       /usr/ucb/Mail ...

DESCRIPTION
       The  mail  utilities  listed above provide a comfortable, flexible environment for sending
       and receiving mail messages electronically.

       When reading mail, the mail utilities provide commands to facilitate saving, deleting, and
       responding to messages. When sending mail, the mail utilities allow editing, reviewing and
       other modification of the message as it is entered.

       Incoming mail is stored in a standard file for each user,  called  the  mailbox	for  that
       user.  When  the  mail  utilities  are called to read messages, the mailbox is the default
       place to find them. As messages are read, they are marked to be moved to a secondary  file
       for  storage,  unless  specific	action	is  taken,  so that the messages need not be seen
       again.This secondary file is called the mbox and is normally located in	the  user's  HOME
       directory (see MBOX in ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES for a description of this file). Messages can
       be saved in other secondary files named by the user. Messages remain in a  secondary  file
       until forcibly removed.

       The  user  can  access  a secondary file by using the -f option. Messages in the secondary
       file can then be read or otherwise processed using the same Commands  as  in  the  primary
       mailbox. This gives rise within these pages to the notion of a current mailbox.

OPTIONS
       On  the	command  line  options start with a dash (-). Any other arguments are taken to be
       destinations (recipients). If no recipients are specified, mailx attempts to read messages
       from the mailbox.

       -B		Do not buffer standard input or standard output.

       -b bcc		Set  the  blind carbon copy list to bcc. bcc should be enclosed in quotes
			if it contains more than one name.

       -c cc		Set the carbon copy list to cc. cc should be enclosed  in  quotes  if  it
			contains more than one name.

       -d		Turn  on  debugging  output. (Neither particularly interesting nor recom-
			mended.)

       -e		Test for the presence of mail. mailx prints nothing and exits with a suc-
			cessful return code if there is mail to read.

       -F		Record	the  message in a file named after the first recipient. Overrides
			the record variable, if set (see Internal Variables).

       -f [file]	Read messages from file instead of mailbox. If no file is specified,  the
			mbox is used.

       -f [ +folder]	Use the file folder in the folder directory (same as the folder command).
			The name of this directory is listed in the folder variable.

       -H		Print header summary only.

       -h number	The number of network "hops" made so far. This is  provided  for  network
			software  to  avoid infinite delivery loops. This option and its argument
			are passed to the delivery program.

       -I		Include the newsgroup and article-id header lines when printing mail mes-
			sages.	This option requires the -f option to be specified.

       -i		Ignore interrupts. See also ignore in Internal Variables.

       -N		Do not print initial header summary.

       -n		Do  not initialize from the system default mailx.rc or Mail.rc file.  See
			USAGE.

       -r address	Use address as the return address when invoking the delivery program. All
			tilde  commands  are  disabled. This option and its argument is passed to
			the delivery program.

       -s subject	Set the Subject header field to subject. subject should  be  enclosed  in
			quotes if it contains embedded white space.

       -T file		Message-id  and  article-id  header  lines are recorded in file after the
			message is read. This option also sets the -I option.

       -t		Scan the input for To:, Cc:, and Bcc: fields. Any recipients on the  com-
			mand line will be ignored.

       -U		Convert  UUCP-style  addresses to internet standards.  Overrides the conv
			environment variable.

       -u user		Read user's mailbox. This is only effective if user's mailbox is not read
			protected.

       -V		Print the mailx version number and exit.

       -v		Pass the -v flag to sendmail(1M).

       -~		Interpret tilde escapes in the input even if not reading from a tty.

OPERANDS
       The following operands are supported:

       recipient    Addressee of message.

USAGE
   Starting Mail
       At  startup time, mailx executes the system startup file /etc/mail/mailx.rc. If invoked as
       mail or Mail, the system startup file /etc/mail/Mail.rc is used instead.

       The system startup file sets  up initial display options and alias lists and assigns  val-
       ues  to some internal variables. These variables are flags and valued parameters which are
       set and cleared using the set and unset commands. See Internal Variables.

       With the following exceptions, regular commands are legal inside startup files:	!,  Copy,
       edit,  followup, Followup, hold, mail, preserve, reply, Reply, shell, and visual. An error
       in the startup file causes the remaining lines in the file to be ignored.

       After executing the system startup file,  the mail utilities execute the optional personal
       startup file $HOME/.mailrc, wherein the user can override the values of the internal vari-
       ables as set by the system startup file.

       If the -n option is specified, however, the mail  utilities  do	not  execute  the  system
       startup file.

       Many system administrators include the commands

	 set appenddeadletter
	 unset replyall
	 unset pipeignore

       in  the	system startup files (to be compatible with past Solaris behavior), but this does
       not meet standards requirements for mailx. To  get  standard  behavior  for  mailx,  users
       should use the -n option or include the following commands in a personal startup file:

	 unset appenddeadletter
	 set replyall
	 set pipeignore

       When  reading  mail, the mail utilities are in command mode. A header summary of the first
       several messages is displayed, followed by a prompt  indicating	the  mail  utilities  can
       accept regular commands (see Commands below). When sending mail, the mail utilities are in
       input mode. If no subject is specified on the command line, and	the  asksub  variable  is
       set, a prompt for the subject is printed.

       As  the	message is typed, the mail utilities read the message and store it in a temporary
       file. Commands may be entered by beginning a line with the tilde (~) escape character fol-
       lowed  by  a single command letter and optional arguments. See Tilde Escapes for a summary
       of these commands.

   Reading Mail
       Each message is assigned a sequential number, and there is at any time  the  notion  of	a
       current	message, marked by a right angle bracket (>) in the header summary. Many commands
       take an optional list of messages (message-list) to operate on.	In most cases,	the  cur-
       rent  message is set to the highest-numbered message in the list after the command is fin-
       ished executing.

       The default for message-list is the current message. A message-list is a list  of  message
       identifiers separated by spaces, which may include:

       n	  Message number n.

       .	  The current message.

       ^	  The first undeleted message.

       $	  The last message.

       *	  All messages.

       +	  The next undeleted message.

       -	  The previous undeleted message.

       n-m	  An inclusive range of message numbers.

       user	  All messages from user.

       /string	  All messages with string in the Subject line (case ignored).

       :c	  All messages of type c, where c is one of:

		  d    deleted messages

		  n    new messages

		  o    old messages

		  r    read messages

		  u    unread messages

		  Notice  that the context of the command determines whether this type of message
		  specification makes sense.

       Other arguments are usually arbitrary strings whose usage depends on the command involved.
       Filenames,  where  expected,  are expanded using the normal shell conventions (see sh(1)).
       Special characters are recognized by certain commands and are documented with the commands
       below.

   Sending Mail
       Recipients  listed on the command line may be of three types: login names, shell commands,
       or alias groups. Login names may be any network address, including mixed network  address-
       ing. If mail is found to be undeliverable, an attempt is made to return it to the sender's
       mailbox. If the recipient name begins with a pipe symbol ( | ), the rest of  the  name  is
       taken to be a shell command to pipe the message through. This provides an automatic inter-
       face with any program that reads the standard input, such as lp(1) for recording  outgoing
       mail on paper. Alias groups are set by the alias command (see Commands below) or in a sys-
       tem startup file (for example, $HOME/.mailrc). Aliases are  lists  of  recipients  of  any
       type.

   Forwarding Mail
       To  forward a specific message, include it in a message to the desired recipients with the
       ~f or ~m tilde escapes. See Tilde Escapes below. To  forward  mail  automatically,  add	a
       comma-separated	list  of addresses for additional recipients to the .forward file in your
       home directory. This is different from the format of the  alias	command,  which  takes	a
       space-separated	list  instead.	Note: Forwarding addresses must be valid, or the messages
       will "bounce." You cannot, for instance, reroute your mail to a new host by forwarding  it
       to your new address if it is not yet listed in the NIS aliases domain.

   Commands
       Regular commands are of the form

	 [ command ] [ message-list ] [ arguments ]

       In  input  mode,  commands are recognized by the escape character, tilde(~), and lines not
       treated as commands are taken as input for the message. If no command is specified in com-
       mand mode, next is assumed. The following is a complete list of mailx commands:

       !shell-command

	   Escape to the shell. See SHELL in ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES.

       # comment

	   NULL command (comment). Useful in mailrc files.

       =

	   Print the current message number.

       ?

	   Prints a summary of commands.

       alias alias name ...
       group alias name ...

	   Declare  an alias for the given names. The names are substituted when alias is used as
	   a recipient. Useful in the mailrc file. With no arguments, the  command  displays  the
	   list of defined aliases.

       alternates name ...

	   Declare  a list of alternate names for your login. When responding to a message, these
	   names are removed from the list of recipients for the  response.  With  no  arguments,
	   print the current list of alternate names. See also allnet in Internal Variables.

       cd [directory]
       chdir [directory]

	   Change directory. If directory is not specified, $HOME is used.

       copy [file]
       copy [message-list] file

	   Copy  messages to the file without marking the messages as saved. Otherwise equivalent
	   to the save command.

       Copy [message-list]

	   Save the specified messages in a file whose name is derived from  the  author  of  the
	   message  to	be  saved, without marking the messages as saved. Otherwise equivalent to
	   the Save command.

       delete [message-list]

	   Delete messages from the mailbox. If autoprint is set, the next message after the last
	   one deleted is printed (see Internal Variables).

       discard [header-field...]
       ignore [header-field...]

	   Suppress  printing  of  the	specified  header  fields when displaying messages on the
	   screen. Examples of header fields to ignore are Status and Received.  The  fields  are
	   included when the message is saved, unless the alwaysignore variable is set. The More,
	   Page, Print, and Type commands override this command. If no header is  specified,  the
	   current  list  of  header  fields being ignored is printed. See also the undiscard and
	   unignore commands.

       dp [message-list]
       dt [message-list]

	   Delete the specified messages from the mailbox and print the next  message  after  the
	   last one deleted. Roughly equivalent to a delete command followed by a print command.

       echo string ...

	   Echo the given strings (like echo(1)).

       edit [message-list]

	   Edit  the  given  messages. Each message is placed in a temporary file and the program
	   named by the EDITOR variable is  invoked  to  edit  it  (see  ENVIRONMENT  VARIABLES).
	   Default editor is ed(1).

       exit
       xit

	   Exit  from mailx, without changing the mailbox. No messages are saved in the mbox (see
	   also quit).

       field [message-list] header-file

	   Display the value of the header field in the specified message.

       file [file]
       folder [file]

	   Quit from the current file of messages and read in the specified file. Several special
	   characters are recognized when used as file names:

	   %	    the current mailbox.

	   %user    the mailbox for user.

	   #	    the previous mail file.

	   &	    the current mbox.

	   +file    The named file in the folder directory (listed in the folder variable).

	   With no arguments, print the name of the current mail file, and the number of messages
	   and characters it contains.

       folders

	   Print the names of the files in the directory set by the folder variable (see Internal
	   Variables).

       Followup [message]

	   Respond  to a message, recording the response in a file whose name is derived from the
	   author of the message. Overrides the record variable, if set. If the replyall variable
	   is  set,  the  actions  of  Followup and followup are reversed. See also the followup,
	   Save, and Copy commands and outfolder in Internal Variables,  and  the  Starting  Mail
	   section in USAGE above.

       followup [message-list]

	   Respond to the first message in the message-list, sending the message to the author of
	   each message in the message-list. The subject line is taken from the first message and
	   the	response is recorded in a file whose name is derived from the author of the first
	   message. If the replyall variable is set, the actions of  followup  and  Followup  are
	   reversed.  See  also  the  Followup, Save, and Copy commands and outfolder in Internal
	   Variables, and the Starting Mail section in USAGE above.

       from [message-list]

	   Print the header summary for the specified messages. If  no	messages  are  specified,
	   print the header summary for the current message.

       group alias name ...
       alias alias name ...

	   Declare  an alias for the given names. The names are substituted when alias is used as
	   a recipient. Useful in the mailrc file.

       headers [message]

	   Print the page of headers which includes the message specified.  The  screen  variable
	   sets the number of headers per page (see Internal Variables). See also the z command.

       help

	   Print a summary of commands.

       hold [message-list]
       preserve [message-list]

	   Hold the specified messages in the mailbox.

       if s | r | t
       mail-commands

       else
       mail-commands

       endif

	   Conditional	execution,  where  s  executes	following mail-commands, up to an else or
	   endif, if the program is in send mode, r causes the mail-commands to be executed  only
	   in  receive mode, and t causes the mail-commands to be executed only if mailx is being
	   run from a terminal. Useful in the mailrc file.

       inc

	   Incorporate messages that arrive while you are reading the  system  mailbox.  The  new
	   messages  are added to the message list in the current mail session. This command does
	   not commit changes made during the session, and prior messages are not renumbered.

       ignore [header-field ...]
       discard [header-field ...]

	   Suppress printing of the specified header  fields  when  displaying	messages  on  the
	   screen. Examples of header fields to ignore are Status and Cc. All fields are included
	   when the message is saved. The More, Page, Print and Type commands override this  com-
	   mand.  If  no  header is specified, the current list of header fields being ignored is
	   printed. See also the undiscard and unignore commands.

       list

	   Print all commands available. No explanation is given.

       load

	   [message] file The specified message is replaced by the message  in	the  named  file.
	   file should contain a single mail message including mail headers (as saved by the save
	   command).

       mail recipient ...

	   Mail a message to the specified recipients.

       Mail recipient

	   Mail a message to the specified recipients, and record it in  a  file  whose  name  is
	   derived  from  the  author  of the message. Overrides the record variable, if set. See
	   also the Save and Copy commands and outfolder in Internal Variables.

       mbox [message-list]

	   Arrange for the given messages to end up in the standard mbox  save	file  when  mailx
	   terminates normally. See MBOX in ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES for a description of this file.
	   See also the exit and quit commands.

       more [message-list]
       page [message-list]

	   Print the specified messages. If crt is set, the messages longer than  the  number  of
	   lines  specified  by  the  crt variable are paged through the command specified by the
	   PAGER variable. The default command is pg(1) or if the bsdcompat variable is set,  the
	   default is more(1). See ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES. Same as the print and type commands.

       More [message-list]
       Page [message-list]

	   Print  the  specified  messages  on the screen, including all header fields. Overrides
	   suppression of fields by the ignore command. Same as the Print and Type commands.

       new [message-list]
       New [message-list]
       unread [message-list]
       Unread

	   [message-list] Take a message list and mark each message as not having been read.

       next [message]

	   Go to the next message matching message. If message	is  not  supplied,  this  command
	   finds the next message that was not deleted or saved. A message-list may be specified,
	   but in this case the first valid message in the list is the only  one  used.  This  is
	   useful  for	jumping to the next message from a specific user, since the name would be
	   taken as a command in the absence of a real command. See the  discussion  of  message-
	   list above for a description of possible message specifications.

       pipe [message-list] [shell-command]
       | [message-list] [shell-command]

	   Pipe the message through the given shell-command. The message is treated as if it were
	   read. If no arguments are given, the current message  is  piped  through  the  command
	   specified  by  the value of the cmd variable. If the page variable is set, a form feed
	   character is inserted after each message (see Internal Variables).

       preserve [message-list]
       hold [message-list]

	   Preserve the specified messages in the mailbox.

       print [message-list]
       type [message-list]

	   Print the specified messages. If crt is set, the messages longer than  the  number  of
	   lines  specified  by  the  crt variable are paged through the command specified by the
	   PAGER variable. The default command is pg(1) or if the bsdcompat variable is set,  the
	   default is more(1). See ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES. Same as the more and page commands.

       Print [message-list]
       Type [message-list]

	   Print  the  specified  messages  on the screen, including all header fields. Overrides
	   suppression of fields by the ignore command.  Same as the More and Page commands.

       put [file]
       put [message-list] file

	   Save the specified message in the given file. Use the same conventions  as  the  print
	   command for which header fields are ignored.

       Put [file]
       Put [message-list] file

	   Save  the  specified message in the given file. Overrides suppression of fields by the
	   ignore command.

       quit

	   Exit from mailx, storing messages that were read in mbox and unread	messages  in  the
	   mailbox.  Messages  that  have  been explicitly saved in a file are deleted unless the
	   keepsave variable is set.

       reply [message-list]
       respond [message-list]
       replysender [message-list]

	   Send a response to the author of each message in the message-list. The subject line is
	   taken  from	the  first  message.   If record is set to a file, a copy of the reply is
	   added to that file. If the replyall variable is set, the actions of Reply/Respond  and
	   reply/respond  are  reversed.  The replysender command is not affected by the replyall
	   variable, but sends each reply only to the sender of each message.  See  the  Starting
	   Mail section in USAGE above.

       Reply [message]
       Respond [message]
       replyall [message]

	   Reply  to  the  specified message, including all other recipients of that message.  If
	   the variable record is set to a file, a copy of the reply added to that file.  If  the
	   replyall variable is set, the actions of Reply/Respond and reply/respond are reversed.
	   The replyall command is not affected by the replyall variable, but  always  sends  the
	   reply to all recipients of the message. See the Starting Mail section in USAGE above.

       retain

	   Add	the  list  of header fields named to the retained list. Only the header fields in
	   the retain list are shown on your terminal when you print a message. All other  header
	   fields  are	suppressed.   The  set of retained fields specified by the retain command
	   overrides any list of ignored fields specified by the ignore  command.  The	Type  and
	   Print  commands  can be used to print a message in its entirety. If retain is executed
	   with no arguments, it lists the current set of retained fields.

       Save [message-list]

	   Save the specified messages in a file whose name is derived from  the  author  of  the
	   first  message. The name of the file is taken to be the author's name with all network
	   addressing stripped off. See also the Copy, followup, and Followup commands	and  out-
	   folder in Internal Variables.

       save [file]
       save [message-list] file

	   Save  the  specified  messages  in  the given file. The file is created if it does not
	   exist. The file defaults to mbox. The message is deleted from the mailbox  when  mailx
	   terminates  unless  keepsave is set (see also Internal Variables and the exit and quit
	   commands).

       set
       set variable
       set variable=string
       set variable=number

	   Define a variable. To assign a value to variable, separate the variable name from  the
	   value  by  an  `=' (there must be no space before or after the `='). A variable may be
	   given a null, string, or numeric value. To embed  SPACE  characters	within	a  value,
	   enclose it in quotes.

	   With  no arguments, set displays all defined variables and any values they might have.
	   See Internal Variables for a description of all predefined mail variables.

       shell

	   Invoke an interactive shell. See also SHELL in ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES.

       size [message-list]

	   Print the size in characters of the specified messages.

       source file

	   Read commands from the given file and return to command mode.

       top [message-list]

	   Print the top few lines of the specified messages. If the toplines variable is set, it
	   is taken as the number of lines to print (see Internal Variables). The default is 5.

       touch [message-list]

	   Touch the specified messages. If any message in message-list is not specifically saved
	   in a file, it is placed in the mbox, or the file specified  in  the	MBOX  environment
	   variable, upon normal termination. See exit and quit.

       Type [message-list]
       Print [message-list]

	   Print  the  specified  messages  on the screen, including all header fields. Overrides
	   suppression of fields by the ignore command.

       type [message-list]
       print [message-list]

	   Print the specified messages. If crt is set, the messages longer than  the  number  of
	   lines  specified  by  the  crt variable are paged through the command specified by the
	   PAGER variable. The default command is pg(1). See ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES.

       unalias [alias] ...
       ungroup [alias] ...

	   Remove the definitions of the specified aliases.

       undelete [message-list]

	   Restore the specified deleted messages. Will only restore messages deleted in the cur-
	   rent  mail session. If autoprint is set, the last message of those restored is printed
	   (see Internal Variables).

       undiscard [header-field...]
       unignore [header-field...]

	   Remove the specified header fields from the list being ignored. If  no  header  fields
	   are specified, all header fields are removed from the list being ignored.

       unretain [header-field...]

	   Remove  the	specified header fields from the list being retained. If no header fields
	   are specified, all header fields are removed from the list being retained.

       unread [message-list]
       Unread [message-list] Same as the new command.

       unset variable...

	   Erase the specified variables. If the variable was imported from the environment (that
	   is,	an  environment  variable  or  exported  shell variable), it cannot be unset from
	   within mailx.

       version

	   Print the current version and release date of the mailx utility.

       visual [message-list]

	   Edit the given messages with a screen editor. Each messages is placed in  a	temporary
	   file  and the program named by the VISUAL variable is invoked to edit it (see ENVIRON-
	   MENT VARIABLES). Notice that the default visual editor is vi.

       write [message-list] file

	   Write the given messages on the specified file, minus the header  and  trailing  blank
	   line. Otherwise equivalent to the save command.

       xit
       exit

	   Exit  from mailx, without changing the mailbox. No messages are saved in the mbox (see
	   also quit).

       z[+|-]

	   Scroll the header display forward or backward one screen-full. The number  of  headers
	   displayed is set by the screen variable (see Internal Variables).

   Tilde Escapes
       The  following tilde escape commands can be used when composing mail to send. These may be
       entered only from input mode, by beginning a line with the tilde escape character (~). See
       escape in Internal Variables for changing this special character. The escape character can
       be entered as text by typing it twice.

       ~!shell-command	      Escape to the shell. If present, run shell-command.

       ~.		      Simulate end of file (terminate message input).

       ~:mail-command	      Perform the command-level request. Valid only when sending  a  mes-
       ~_mail-command	      sage while reading mail.

       ~?		      Print a summary of tilde escapes.

       ~A		      Insert  the  autograph  string  Sign into the message (see Internal
			      Variables).

       ~a		      Insert the autograph string sign into  the  message  (see  Internal
			      Variables).

       ~b name ...	      Add the names to the blind carbon copy (Bcc) list. This is like the
			      carbon copy (Cc) list, except that the names in the  Bcc	list  are
			      not shown in the header of the mail message.

       ~c name ...	      Add the names to the carbon copy (Cc) list.

       ~d		      Read in the dead-letter file. See DEAD in ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES for
			      a description of this file.

       ~e		      Invoke the editor on the partial message. See also EDITOR in  ENVI-
			      RONMENT VARIABLES.

       ~f [message-list]      Forward  the  specified message, or the current message being read.
			      Valid only when sending a message while reading mail. The  messages
			      are inserted into the message without alteration (as opposed to the
			      ~m escape).

       ~F [message-list]      Forward the specified message, or the current message  being  read,
			      including all header fields. Overrides the suppression of fields by
			      the ignore command.

       ~h		      Prompt for Subject line and To, Cc, and Bcc lists. If the field  is
			      displayed  with  an  initial  value, it may be edited as if you had
			      just typed it.

       ~i variable	      Insert the value of the named variable into the text  of	the  mes-
			      sage. For example, ~A is equivalent to `~i Sign.' Environment vari-
			      ables set and exported in the shell are also accessible by ~i.

       ~m [message-list]      Insert the listed messages, or the current message being read  into
			      the  letter.  Valid only when sending a message while reading mail.
			      The text of the message is shifted to the  right,  and  the  string
			      contained  in the indentprefix variable is inserted as the leftmost
			      characters of each line. If indentprefix is not set, a TAB  charac-
			      ter is inserted into each line.

       ~M [message-list]      Insert  the  listed  messages,  or  the current message being read,
			      including the header fields, into the letter. Valid only when send-
			      ing  a  message  while  reading  mail.  The  text of the message is
			      shifted to the right, and the string contained in the  indentprefix
			      variable	is  inserted  as the leftmost characters of each line. If
			      indentprefix is not set, a TAB  character  is  inserted  into  each
			      line. Overrides the suppression of fields by the ignore command.

       ~p		      Print the message being entered.

       ~q		      Quit from input mode by simulating an interrupt. If the body of the
			      message is not null, the partial message is saved  in  dead-letter.
			      See DEAD in ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES for a description of this file.

       ~R		      Mark message for return receipt.

       ~r file		      Read in the specified file. If the argument begins with an exclama-
       ~< file		      tion point (!), the rest of the string is  taken	as  an	arbitrary
       ~< ! shell-command     shell  command  and  is executed, with the standard output inserted
			      into the message.

       ~s string ...	      Set the subject line to string.

       ~t name ...	      Add the given names to the To list.

       ~v		      Invoke a preferred  screen  editor  on  the  partial  message.  The
			      default  visual  editor  is  vi(1).  See also VISUAL in ENVIRONMENT
			      VARIABLES.

       ~w file		      Write the message into the given file, without the header.

       ~x		      Exit as with ~q except the message is not saved in dead-letter.

       ~| shell-command       Pipe the body of the message through the	given  shell-command.  If
			      the  shell-command  returns a successful exit status, the output of
			      the command replaces the message.

   Internal Variables
       The following variables are internal variables. They may be imported  from  the	execution
       environment  or	set  using  the set command at any time. The unset command may be used to
       erase variables.

       allnet			 All network names whose last component (login	name)  match  are
				 treated as identical. This causes the message-list message spec-
				 ifications to behave similarly. Disabled by  default.	See  also
				 the alternates command and the metoo and fuzzymatch variables.

       alwaysignore		 Ignore  header  fields  with  ignore everywhere, not just during
				 print or type. Affects the save, Save, copy,  Copy,  top,  pipe,
				 and  write commands, and the ~m and ~f tilde escapes. Enabled by
				 default.

       append			 Upon termination, append messages to the end of  the  mbox  file
				 instead of prepending them. Although disabled by default, append
				 is set in the system startup file (which can be suppressed  with
				 the -n command line option).

       appenddeadletter 	 Append to the deadletter file rather than overwrite it. Although
				 disabled by  default, appenddeadletter is frequently set in  the
				 system startup file. See Starting Mail in USAGE above.

       askbcc			 Prompt  for  the  Bcc list after the Subject is entered if it is
				 not specified on the command line with the -b	option.  Disabled
				 by default.

       askcc			 Prompt for the Cc list after the Subject is entered if it is not
				 specified on the command line with the -c  option.  Disabled  by
				 default.

       asksub			 Prompt  for  subject  if it is not specified on the command line
				 with the -s option. Enabled by default.

       autoinc			 Automatically incorporate new messages into the current  session
				 as  they  arrive.  This has an affect similar to issuing the inc
				 command every time the command prompt is displayed. Disabled  by
				 default,  but	autoinc is set in the default system startup file
				 for mailx; it is not set for /usr/ucb/mail or /usr/ucb/Mail.

       autoprint		 Enable automatic printing of messages after delete and  undelete
				 commands. Disabled by default.

       bang			 Enable  the  special-casing  of  exclamation points (!) in shell
				 escape command lines as in vi(1). Disabled by default.

       bsdcompat		 Set automatically if mailx is invoked as mail	or  Mail.  Causes
				 mailx	to  use  /etc/mail/Mail.rc  as	the  system startup file.
				 Changes the default pager to more(1).

       cmd=shell-command	 Set the default command for the pipe command.	No default value.

       conv=conversion		 Convert uucp addresses to the specified address style, which can
				 be either:

				 internet    This  requires a mail delivery program conforming to
					     the RFC822 standard for electronic mail addressing.

				 optimize    Remove loops in uucp(1C)  address	paths  (typically
					     generated	by  the  reply command).  No rerouting is
					     performed; mail has no knowledge of UUCP  routes  or
					     connections.

				 Conversion is disabled by default. See also sendmail(1M) and the
				 -U command-line option.

       crt[=number]		 Pipe messages having more than number lines through the  command
				 specified  by the value of the PAGER variable ( pg(1) or more(1)
				 by default). If number is not specified, the current window size
				 is used. Disabled by default.

       debug			 Enable  verbose  diagnostics  for  debugging.	Messages  are not
				 delivered. Disabled by default.

       dot			 Take a period on a line by itself, or EOF during  input  from	a
				 terminal  as end-of-file. Disabled by default, but dot is set in
				 the system startup file (which can be	suppressed  with  the  -n
				 command line option).

       fcc			 By  default,  mailx  will  treat  any address containing a slash
				 ("/") character as a local "send to file" address. By	unsetting
				 this option, this behavior is disabled. Enabled by default.

       flipr			 Reverse the effect of the followup/Followup and reply/Reply com-
				 mand pairs.  If both flipr and replyall are set, the  effect  is
				 as if neither was set.

       from			 Extract  the  author listed in the header summary from the From:
				 header instead of the UNIX From line. Enabled by default.

       fuzzymatch		 The from  command  searches  for  messages  from  the	indicated
				 sender.  By  default, the full sender address must be specified.
				 By setting this option, only a sub-string of the sender  address
				 need be specified. Disabled by default.

       escape=c 		 Substitute  c for the ~ escape character. Takes effect with next
				 message sent.

       folder=directory 	 The directory for saving  standard  mail  files.  User-specified
				 file  names  beginning with a plus (+) are expanded by preceding
				 the file name with this directory name to obtain the  real  file
				 name.	If  directory  does  not start with a slash (/), $HOME is
				 prepended to it.  There is no default for the	folder	variable.
				 See also outfolder below.

       header			 Enable  printing  of  the  header  summary  when entering mailx.
				 Enabled by default.

       hold			 Preserve all messages that are read in the  mailbox  instead  of
				 putting  them	in  the  standard  mbox  save  file.  Disabled by
				 default.

       ignore			 Ignore interrupts while entering messages. Handy for noisy dial-
				 up lines. Disabled by default.

       ignoreeof		 Ignore  end-of-file  during  message input. Input must be termi-
				 nated by a period (.) on a line by itself or by the ~.  command.
				 See also dot above. Disabled by default.

       indentprefix=string	 When  indentprefix is set, string is used to mark indented lines
				 from messages included with ~m. The default is a TAB character.

       keep			 When the mailbox is empty, truncate it to zero length instead of
				 removing it. Disabled by default.

       iprompt=string		 The  specified  prompt  string  is displayed before each line on
				 input is requested when sending a message.

       keepsave 		 Keep messages that have been saved in other files in the mailbox
				 instead of deleting them. Disabled by default.

       makeremote		 When replying to all recipients of a message, if an address does
				 not include a machine name, it is assumed to be relative to  the
				 sender  of  the  message.  Normally not needed when dealing with
				 hosts that support RFC822.

       metoo			 If your login appears as a recipient, do not delete it from  the
				 list. Disabled by default.

       mustbang 		 Force all mail addresses to be in bang format.

       onehop			 When responding to a message that was originally sent to several
				 recipients, the other recipient addresses are normally forced to
				 be   relative	to  the  originating  author's	machine  for  the
				 response. This  flag  disables  alteration  of  the  recipients'
				 addresses,  improving efficiency in a network where all machines
				 can send directly to all other machines (that is, one hop away).
				 Disabled by default.

       outfolder		 Locate  the files used to record outgoing messages in the direc-
				 tory specified by the folder variable unless the  path  name  is
				 absolute.  Disabled  by  default. See folder above and the Save,
				 Copy, followup, and Followup commands.

       page			 Used with the pipe command to insert a form feed after each mes-
				 sage sent through the pipe. Disabled by default.

       pipeignore		 Omit  ignored	header	when  outputting  to  the  pipe  command.
				 Although disabled by default,	pipeignore is frequently  set  in
				 the system startup file. See Starting Mail in USAGE above.

       postmark 		 Your "real name" to be included in the From line of messages you
				 send.	By default this is derived from the comment field in your
				 passwd(4) file entry.

       prompt=string		 Set  the  command mode prompt to string. Default is "? ", unless
				 the bsdcompat variable is set, then the default is "&".

       quiet			 Refrain from printing	the  opening  message  and  version  when
				 entering mailx. Disabled by default.

       record=file		 Record  all outgoing mail in file. Disabled by default. See also
				 outfolder above.

       replyall 		 Reverse the effect of the reply and Reply and followup and  Fol-
				 lowup	commands.  Although  set  by  default,	replayall is fre-
				 quently unset in the system startup file. See flipr and Starting
				 Mail in USAGE above.

       returnaddr=string	 The  default  sender  address	is that of the current user. This
				 variable can be used to set the sender address to any	arbitrary
				 value. Set with caution.

       save			 Enable  saving of messages in dead-letter on interrupt or deliv-
				 ery error. See DEAD for a description of this file.  Enabled  by
				 default.

       screen=number		 Sets  the  number  of	lines in a screen-full of headers for the
				 headers command. number must be a positive number.

				 The default is set according to baud rate or window size. With a
				 baud  rate less than 1200, number defaults to 5, if baud rate is
				 exactly 1200, it defaults to 10. If you are in a window,  number
				 defaults  to  the  default  window  size minus 4. Otherwise, the
				 default is 20.

       sendmail=shell-command	 Alternate command for delivering messages. Note: In addition  to
				 the expected list of recipients, mail also passes the -i and -m,
				 flags to the command. Since these flags are not  appropriate  to
				 other	commands,  you may have to use a shell script that strips
				 them from the arguments list before invoking  the  desired  com-
				 mand. Default is /usr/bin/rmail.

       sendwait 		 Wait  for background mailer to finish before returning. Disabled
				 by default.

       showname 		 Causes the message header display to show the sender's real name
				 (if  known) rather than their mail address. Disabled by default,
				 but showname is set in  the  /etc/mail/mailx.rc  system  startup
				 file for mailx.

       showto			 When  displaying the header summary and the message is from you,
				 print the recipient's name instead of the author's name.

       sign=string		 The variable inserted into the text of a  message  when  the  ~a
				 (autograph)  command  is given. No default (see also ~i in Tilde
				 Escapes).

				 `

       Sign=string		 The variable inserted into the text of a  message  when  the  ~A
				 command is given.  No default (see also ~i in Tilde Escapes).

       toplines=number		 The  number  of  lines  of header to print with the top command.
				 Default is 5.

       verbose			 Invoke sendmail(1M) with the -v flag.

       translate		 The name of a program to translate mail addresses.  The  program
				 receives  mail  addresses as arguments. The program produces, on
				 the standard output, lines containing	the  following	data,  in
				 this order:

				     o	    the  postmark  for the sender (see the postmark vari-
					    able)

				     o	    translated mail addresses, one per line,  correspond-
					    ing  to  the  program's  arguments.   Each translated
					    address will replace the corresponding address in the
					    mail message being sent.

				     o	    a  line containing only "y" or "n".  if the line con-
					    tains "y" the user will be asked to confirm that  the
					    message should be sent.
				 The  translate  program will be invoked for each mail message to
				 be sent. If the program exits with a non-zero	exit  status,  or
				 fails to produce enough output, the message is not sent.

   Large File Behavior
       See  largefile(5)  for  the  description  of the behavior of mailx when encountering files
       greater than or equal to 2 Gbyte ( 2^31 bytes).

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       See environ(5) for descriptions of the following environment  variables	that  affect  the
       execution of mailx: HOME, LANG, LC_CTYPE, LC_TIME, LC_MESSAGES, NLSPATH, and TERM.

       DEAD	     The  name	of  the file in which to save partial letters in case of untimely
		     interrupt. Default is $HOME/dead.letter.

       EDITOR	     The command to run when the edit or ~e command is used. Default is ed(1).

       LISTER	     The command (and options) to use when listing the	contents  of  the  folder
		     directory. The default is ls(1).

       MAIL	     The name of the initial mailbox file to read (in lieu of the standard system
		     mailbox). The default is /var/mail/username .

       MAILRC	     The name of the startup file.  Default is $HOME/.mailrc.

       MAILX_HEAD    The specified string is included at the beginning of the body of  each  mes-
		     sage that is sent.

       MAILX_TAIL    The specified string is included at the end of the body of each message that
		     is sent.

       MBOX	     The name of the file to save messages which have been read. The exit command
		     overrides	this  function,  as does saving the message explicitly in another
		     file.  Default is $HOME/mbox.

       PAGER	     The command to use as a filter for paginating output. This can also be  used
		     to  specify  the  options to be used.  Default is pg(1), or if the bsdcompat
		     variable is set, the default is more(1). See Internal Variables.

       SHELL	     The name of a preferred command interpreter. Default is sh(1).

       VISUAL	     The name of a preferred screen editor.  Default is vi(1).

EXIT STATUS
       When the -e option is specified, the following exit values are returned:

       0     Mail was found.

       >0    Mail was not found or an error occurred.

       Otherwise, the following exit values are returned:

       0     Successful completion. Notice that this status implies that all messages were  sent,
	     but it gives no assurances that any of them were actually delivered.

       >0    An error occurred

FILES
       $HOME/.mailrc

	    personal startup file

       $HOME/mbox

	   secondary storage file

       $HOME/.Maillock

	   lock file to prevent multiple writers of system mailbox

       /etc/mail/mailx.rc

	   optional system startup file for mailx only

       /etc/mail/Mail.rc

	   BSD compatibility system-wide startup file for /usr/ucb/mail and /usr/ucb/Mail

       /tmp/R[emqsx]*

	   temporary files

       /usr/share/lib/mailx/mailx.help*

	   help message files

       /var/mail/*

	   post office directory

ATTRIBUTES
       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:

       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |      ATTRIBUTE TYPE	     |	    ATTRIBUTE VALUE	   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |Availability		     |SUNWcsu			   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |Interface Stability	     |Standard			   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+

SEE ALSO
       biff(1B),  echo(1),  ed(1), ex(1), fmt(1), lp(1), ls(1), mail(1), mail(1B), mailcompat(1),
       more(1),  pg(1),  sh(1),  uucp(1C),  vacation(1),  vi(1),  newaliases(1M),   sendmail(1M),
       aliases(4), passwd(4), attributes(5), environ(5), largefile(5), standards(5)

NOTES
       Where  shell-command  is shown as valid, arguments are not always allowed. Experimentation
       is recommended.

       Internal variables imported from the execution environment cannot be unset.

       The full internet addressing is not fully supported by mailx. The new standards need  some
       time to settle down.

       Replies	do  not always generate correct return addresses.  Try resending the errant reply
       with onehop set.

       mailx does not lock your record file. So, if you use a record file and send  two  or  more
       messages simultaneously, lines from the messages may be interleaved in the record file.

       The format for the alias command is a space-separated list of recipients, while the format
       for an alias in either the .forward or /etc/aliases is a comma-separated list.

       To read mail on a workstation running Solaris 1.x when your mail server is running Solaris
       2.x, first execute the mailcompat(1) program.

SunOS 5.11				   19 Sep 2001					 mailx(1)


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