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OpenSolaris 2009.06 - man page for echo (opensolaris section 1)

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echo(1) 				  User Commands 				  echo(1)

       echo - echo arguments

       /usr/bin/echo [string]...

       The echo utility writes its arguments, separated by BLANKs and terminated by a NEWLINE, to
       the standard output. If there are no arguments, only the NEWLINE character is written.

       echo is useful for producing diagnostics in command files, for sending known data  into	a
       pipe, and for displaying the contents of environment variables.

       The  C shell, the Korn shell, and the Bourne shell all have echo built-in commands, which,
       by  default,  is  invoked  if  the  user  calls	echo  without  a   full   pathname.   See
       shell_builtins(1).  sh's  echo, ksh's echo, ksh93's echo, and /usr/bin/echo understand the
       back-slashed escape characters, except that sh's echo does not understand \a as the  alert
       character.  In addition, ksh's and ksh93's echo does not have an -n option. sh's  echo and
       /usr/bin/echo have an -n option if the SYSV3 environment variable is set (see  ENVIRONMENT
       VARIABLES  below). csh's echo and /usr/ucb/echo, on the other hand, have an -n option, but
       do not understand the  back-slashed  escape  characters.  sh  and  ksh  determine  whether
       /usr/ucb/echo  is  found first in the PATH and, if so, they adapt the behavior of the echo
       builtin to match /usr/ucb/echo.

       The following operand is supported:

       string	 A string to be written to standard output. If any operand is "-n", it is treated
		 as  a	string,  not  an  option. The following character sequences is recognized
		 within any of the arguments:

		 \a	 Alert character.

		 \b	 Backspace.

		 \c	 Print line without new-line. All characters  following  the  \c  in  the
			 argument are ignored.

		 \f	 Form-feed.

		 \n	 New-line.

		 \r	 Carriage return.

		 \t	 Tab.

		 \v	 Vertical tab.

		 \\	 Backslash.

		 \0n	 Where n is the 8-bit character whose ASCII code is the 1-, 2- or 3-digit
			 octal number representing that character.

       Portable applications should not use -n (as the first argument) or escape sequences.

       The printf(1) utility can be used portably to emulate any of the traditional behaviors  of
       the echo utility as follows:

	   o	  The  Solaris 2.6 operating environment or compatible version's /usr/bin/echo is
		  equivalent to:

		    printf "%b\n" "$*"

	   o	  The /usr/ucb/echo is equivalent to:

		    if [ "X$1" = "X-n" ]



			    printf "%s" "$*"


			    printf "%s\n" "$*"


       New applications are encouraged to use printf instead of echo.

       Example 1 Finding how far below root your current directory is located

       You can use echo to determine how many subdirectories below the root directory (/) is your
       current directory, as follows:

	   o	  Echo your current-working-directory's full pathname.

	   o	  Pipe	the  output  through tr to translate the path's embedded slash-characters
		  into space-characters.

	   o	  Pipe that output through wc -w for a count of the names in your path.

		    example% /usr/bin/echo $PWD | tr '/' ' ' | wc -w

       See tr(1) and wc(1) for their functionality.

       Below are the different flavors for echoing a string without a NEWLINE:

       Example 2 /usr/bin/echo

	 example% /usr/bin/echo "$USER's current directory is $PWD\c"

       Example 3 sh/ksh shells

	 example$ echo "$USER's current directory is $PWD\c"

       Example 4 csh shell

	 example% echo -n "$USER's current directory is $PWD"

       Example 5 /usr/ucb/echo

	 example% /usr/ucb/echo -n "$USER's current directory is $PWD"

       See environ(5) for descriptions of the following environment  variables	that  affect  the
       execution of echo: LANG, LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE, LC_MESSAGES, and NLSPATH.

       SYSV3	This  environment variable is used to provide compatibility with INTERACTIVE UNIX
		System and SCO UNIX installation scripts. It is intended for  compatibility  only
		and  should  not  be  used  in	new scripts. This variable is applicable only for
		Solaris x86 platforms, not Solaris SPARC systems.

       The following error values are returned:

       0     Successful completion.

       >0    An error occurred.

       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:

       |      ATTRIBUTE TYPE	     |	    ATTRIBUTE VALUE	   |
       |Availability		     |SUNWcsu			   |
       |CSI			     |Enabled			   |
       |Interface Stability	     |Committed 		   |
       |Standard		     |See standards(5). 	   |

       ksh93(1), printf(1), shell_builtins(1), tr(1), wc(1), echo(1B),	ascii(5),  attributes(5),
       environ(5), standards(5)

       When representing an 8-bit character by using the escape convention \0n, the n must always
       be preceded by the digit zero(0).

       For example, typing: echo 'WARNING:\07' prints the phrase WARNING: and sounds  the  "bell"
       on your terminal. The use of single (or double) quotes (or two backslashes) is required to
       protect the "\" that precedes the "07".

       Following the \0, up to three digits are used in constructing the octal output  character.
       If,  following  the \0n, you want to echo additional digits that are not part of the octal
       representation, you must use the full 3-digit n. For example, if you want to echo "ESC  7"
       you must use the three digits "033" rather than just the two digits "33" after the \0.

	 2 digits	  Incorrect:	  echo "\0337" | od -xc
			  produces:	  df0a			   (hex)
					  337			   (ascii)
	 3 digits	  Correct:	  echo "\00337" | od -xc
			  produces:	  lb37 0a00		   (hex)
					  033 7 		   (ascii)

       For the octal equivalents of each character, see ascii(5).

SunOS 5.11				    8 Apr 2008					  echo(1)
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