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OpenSolaris 2009.06 - man page for mail (opensolaris section 1)

mail(1) 				  User Commands 				  mail(1)

       mail, rmail - read mail or send mail to users

   Sending Mail
       mail [-tw] [-m message_type] recipient...

       rmail [-tw] [-m message_type] recipient...

   Reading Mail
       mail [-ehpPqr] [-f file]

       mail [-x debug_level] [other_mail_options] recipient...

       A  recipient  is usually a domain style address ("user@machine") or a user name recognized
       by login(1). When recipients are named, mail assumes a message is  being  sent.	It  reads
       from  the  standard  input up to an end-of-file (Control-d) or, if reading from a terminal
       device, until it reads a line consisting of just a period. When either of those indicators
       is received, mail adds the letter to the mailfile for each recipient.

       A letter is composed of some header lines followed by a blank line followed by the message
       content. The header lines section of the letter consists of one or more UNIX postmarks:

	 From sender date_and_time [remote from remote_system_name]

       followed by one or more standardized message header lines of the form:

	 keyword-name: [printable text]

       where keyword-name is comprised of any printable,  non-whitespace  characters  other  than
       colon  (`:').  A  MIME-version:	header	line  indicates  that the message is formatted as
       described in RFC 2045. A Content-Length: header line, indicating the number  of	bytes  in
       the  message  content,  is  always present unless the letter consists of only header lines
       with no message content. A Content-Type: header line that describes the type of	the  mes-
       sage  content  (such  as text/plain, application/octet-stream, and so on) is also present,
       unless the letter consists of only header lines with no message content. Header lines  may
       be continued on the following line if that line starts with white space.

   Sending Mail
       The following command-line arguments affect sending mail:

       -m message_type	  A  Message-Type:  line is added to the message header with the value of

       -t		  A To: line is added to the message header  for  each	of  the  intended

       -w		  A  letter is sent to a remote recipient without waiting for the comple-
			  tion of the remote transfer program.

       If a letter is found to be undeliverable, it is returned to the	sender	with  diagnostics
       that indicate the location and nature of the failure. If mail is interrupted during input,
       the message is saved in the file dead.letter to allow editing and  resending.  dead.letter
       is  always  appended  to,  thus	preserving  any previous contents. The initial attempt to
       append to (or create) dead.letter is in the current directory. If this fails,  dead.letter
       is  appended  to  (or  created  in) the user's login directory. If the second attempt also
       fails, no dead.letter processing is done.

       rmail only permits the sending of mail; uucp(1C) uses rmail as a security precaution.  Any
       application  programs  that  generate  mail messages should be sure to invoke rmail rather
       than mail for message transport and/or delivery.

       If the local system has the Basic Networking Utilities installed, mail can be  sent  to	a
       recipient  on  a  remote  system. There are numerous ways to address mail to recipients on
       remote systems depending on the transport mechanisms available to the  local  system.  The
       two most prevalent addressing schemes are Domain-style and UUCP-style.

       Domain-style addressing	  Remote  recipients are specified by appending an `@' and domain
				  (and possibly sub-domain) information  to  the  recipient  name
				  (such  as  user@sf.att.com).	(The  local  system administrator
				  should be consulted for details on which addressing conventions
				  are available on the local system.)

       UUCP-style addressing	  Remote recipients are specified by prefixing the recipient name
				  with the remote system name and an exclamation point,  such  as
				  sysa!user. If csh(1) is the default shell, sysa\!user should be
				  used. A series of system names separated by exclamation  points
				  can  be  used  to  direct  a letter through an extended network
				  (such as sysa!sysb!sysc!user or sysa\!sysb\!sysc\!user).

   Reading Mail
       The following command-line arguments affect reading mail:

       -e	  Test for the presence of mail. mail prints nothing.

		  An exit status of 0 is returned if the user has mail. Otherwise, an exit status
		  of 1 is returned.

       -E	  Similar to -e, but tests only for the presence of new mail.

		  An   exit   status   of  0  is returned if the user has new		 mail  to
		  read,  an exit status of 1 is returned if the 	   user  has no mail,  or
		  an  exit  status  of	2  is  returned 	   if the user has mail which has
		  already been read.

       -h	  A window of headers are initially displayed rather than the latest message. The
		  display is followed by the ? prompt.

       -p	  All messages are printed without prompting for disposition.

       -P	  All  messages  are  printed  with  all  header lines displayed, rather than the
		  default selective header line display.

       -q	  mail terminates after interrupts. Normally an interrupt causes only the  termi-
		  nation of the message being printed.

       -r	  Messages are printed in first-in, first-out order.

       -f file	  mail uses file (such as mbox) instead of the default mailfile.

       mail, unless otherwise influenced by command-line arguments, prints a user's mail messages
       in last-in, first-out order. The default mode for printing messages  is	to  display  only
       those  header lines of immediate interest. These include, but are not limited to, the UNIX
       From and >From postmarks, From:, Date:, Subject:, and Content-Length:  header  lines,  and
       any  recipient  header  lines such as To:, Cc:, Bcc:, and so forth. After the header lines
       have been displayed, mail displays the contents (body) of the message only if it  contains
       no  unprintable	characters.  Otherwise, mail issues a warning statement about the message
       having binary content and not display the content. This can be overridden by means of  the
       p command.

       For  each  message,  the  user  is  prompted with a ? and a line is read from the standard
       input. The following commands are available to determine the disposition of the message:

       #		     Print the number of the current message.

       -		     Print previous message.

       <new-line>,+, or n    Print the next message.

       !command 	     Escape to the shell to do command.

       a		     Print message that arrived during the mail session.

       d, or dp 	     Delete the current message and print the next message.

       d n		     Delete message number n. Do not go on to next message.

       dq		     Delete message and quit mail.

       h		     Display a window of headers around current message.

       hn		     Display a window of headers around message number n.

       h a		     Display headers of all messages in the user's mailfile.

       h d		     Display headers of messages scheduled for deletion.

       m [ persons ]	     Mail (and delete) the current message to the named persons.

       n		     Print message number n.

       p		     Print current message again, overriding any  indications  of  binary
			     (that is, unprintable) content.

       P		     Override  default	brief  mode and print current message again, dis-
			     playing all header lines.

       q, or Control-d	     Put undeleted mail back in the mailfile and quit mail.

       r [ users ]	     Reply to the sender, and other users, then delete the message.

       s [ files ]	     Save message in the named files (mbox is  default)  and  delete  the

       u [ n ]		     Undelete message number n (default is last read).

       w [ files ]	     Save  message contents, without any header lines, in the named files
			     (mbox is default) and delete the message.

       x		     Put all mail back in the mailfile unchanged and exit mail.

       y [ files ]	     Same as -w option.

       ?		     Print a command summary.

       When a user logs in, the presence of mail, if any, is usually indicated.  Also,	notifica-
       tion is made if new mail arrives while using mail.

       The  permissions  of  mailfile  can be manipulated using chmod(1) in two ways to alter the
       function of mail. The other permissions of the file can be  read-write(0666),	read-only(0664),	or neither read nor write(0660) to allow different levels of privacy. If changed
       to other than the default (mode 0660), the file is preserved even when empty to perpetuate
       the  desired permissions. (The administrator can override this file preservation using the
       DEL_EMPTY_MAILFILE option of mailcnfg.)

       The group ID of the mailfile must be mail to allow new messages to be delivered,  and  the
       mailfile must be writable by group mail.

       The following command-line arguments cause mail to provide debugging information:

       -x debug_level	 mail creates a trace file containing debugging information.

       The -x option causes mail to create a file named /tmp/MLDBGprocess_id that contains debug-
       ging information relating to how mail processed the current message. The absolute value of
       debug_level  controls the verboseness of the debug information. 0 implies no debugging. If
       debug_level is greater than 0, the debug file is retained only if  mail	encountered  some
       problem	while  processing  the	message. If debug_level is less than 0, the debug file is
       always be retained. The debug_level specified via -x overrides any specification of  DEBUG
       in /etc/mail/mailcnfg. The information provided by the -x option is esoteric and is proba-
       bly only useful to system administrators.

   Delivery Notification
       Several forms of notification are available for mail by including  one  of  the	following
       lines in the message header.

       Transport-Options: [ /options ]

       Default-Options: [ /options ]

       >To: recipient [ /options ]

       Where the "/options" can be one or more of the following:

       /delivery      Inform the sender that the message was successfully delivered to the recip-
		      ient's mailbox.

       /nodelivery    Do not inform the sender of successful deliveries.

       /ignore	      Do not inform the sender of failed deliveries.

       /return	      Inform the sender if mail delivery fails. Return the failed message to  the

       /report	      Same as /return except that the original message is not returned.

       The  default is /nodelivery/return. If contradictory options are used, the first is recog-
       nized and later, conflicting, terms are ignored.

       The following operand is supported for sending mail:

       recipient    A domain style address ("user@machine") or	user  login  name  recognized  by

       See  largefile(5)  for the description of the behavior of mail and rmail when encountering
       files greater than or equal to 2 Gbyte ( 2^31 bytes).

       See environ(5) for descriptions of the following environment  variables	that  affect  the
       execution of mail: LC_CTYPE, LC_MESSAGES, and NLSPATH.

       TZ    Determine the timezone used with date and time strings.

       The following exit values are returned:

       0     Successful completion when the user had mail.

       1     The user had no mail or an initialization error occurred.

       >1    An error occurred after initialization.

       dead.letter	   unmailable text

       /etc/passwd	   to identify sender and locate recipients

       $HOME/mbox	   saved mail

       $MAIL		   variable containing path name of mailfile

       /tmp/MLDBG*	   debug trace file

       /var/mail/*.lock    lock for mail directory

       /var/mail/:saved    directory  for holding temp files to prevent loss of data in the event
			   of a system crash

       /var/mail/user	   incoming mail for user; that is, the mailfile

       var/tmp/ma*	   temporary file

       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:

       |      ATTRIBUTE TYPE	     |	    ATTRIBUTE VALUE	   |
       |Availability		     |SUNWcsu			   |

       chmod(1), csh(1),  login(1),  mailx(1),	uucp(1C),  uuencode(1C),  vacation(1),	write(1),
       attributes(5), environ(5), largefile(5)

       Solaris Advanced User's Guide

       The interpretation and resulting action taken because of the header lines described in the
       Delivery Notifications section only occur if this version of mail is installed on the sys-
       tem  where  the	delivery (or failure) happens. Earlier versions of mail might not support
       any types of delivery notification.

       Conditions sometimes result in a failure to remove a lock file.

       After an interrupt, the next message might not be printed. Printing can be forced by  typ-
       ing a p.

SunOS 5.11				   24 Jul 2008					  mail(1)

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