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# CentOS 7.0 - man page for guestfish (centos section 1)

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 guestfish(1) Virtualization Support guestfish(1) NAME guestfish - the guest filesystem shell SYNOPSIS guestfish [--options] [commands] guestfish guestfish [--ro|--rw] -a disk.img guestfish [--ro|--rw] -a disk.img -m dev[:mountpoint] guestfish -d libvirt-domain guestfish [--ro|--rw] -a disk.img -i guestfish -d libvirt-domain -i WARNING Using guestfish in read/write mode on live virtual machines can be dangerous, potentially causing disk corruption. Use the --ro (read-only) option to use guestfish safely if the disk image or virtual machine might be live. DESCRIPTION Guestfish is a shell and command-line tool for examining and modifying virtual machine filesystems. It uses libguestfs and exposes all of the functionality of the guestfs API, see guestfs(3). Guestfish gives you structured access to the libguestfs API, from shell scripts or the command line or interactively. If you want to rescue a broken virtual machine image, you should look at the virt-rescue(1) command. EXAMPLES As an interactive shell $guestfish Welcome to guestfish, the guest filesystem shell for editing virtual machine filesystems. Type: 'help' for a list of commands 'man' to read the manual 'quit' to quit the shell > add-ro disk.img > run > list-filesystems /dev/sda1: ext4 /dev/vg_guest/lv_root: ext4 /dev/vg_guest/lv_swap: swap > mount /dev/vg_guest/lv_root / > cat /etc/fstab # /etc/fstab # Created by anaconda [...] > exit From shell scripts Create a new "/etc/motd" file in a guest or disk image: guestfish <<_EOF_ add disk.img run mount /dev/vg_guest/lv_root / write /etc/motd "Welcome, new users" _EOF_ List the LVM logical volumes in a disk image: guestfish -a disk.img --ro <<_EOF_ run lvs _EOF_ List all the filesystems in a disk image: guestfish -a disk.img --ro <<_EOF_ run list-filesystems _EOF_ On one command line Update "/etc/resolv.conf" in a guest: guestfish \ add disk.img : run : mount /dev/vg_guest/lv_root / : \ write /etc/resolv.conf "nameserver 1.2.3.4" Edit "/boot/grub/grub.conf" interactively: guestfish --rw --add disk.img \ --mount /dev/vg_guest/lv_root \ --mount /dev/sda1:/boot \ edit /boot/grub/grub.conf Mount disks automatically Use the -i option to automatically mount the disks from a virtual machine: guestfish --ro -a disk.img -i cat /etc/group guestfish --ro -d libvirt-domain -i cat /etc/group Another way to edit "/boot/grub/grub.conf" interactively is: guestfish --rw -a disk.img -i edit /boot/grub/grub.conf As a script interpreter Create a 100MB disk containing an ext2-formatted partition: #!/usr/bin/guestfish -f sparse test1.img 100M run part-disk /dev/sda mbr mkfs ext2 /dev/sda1 Start with a prepared disk An alternate way to create a 100MB disk called "test1.img" containing a single ext2-formatted partition: guestfish -N fs To list what is available do: guestfish -N help | less Remote drives Access a remote disk using ssh: guestfish -a ssh://example.com/path/to/disk.img Remote control eval "guestfish --listen" guestfish --remote add-ro disk.img guestfish --remote run guestfish --remote lvs OPTIONS --help Displays general help on options. -h --cmd-help Lists all available guestfish commands. -h cmd --cmd-help cmd Displays detailed help on a single command "cmd". -a image --add image Add a block device or virtual machine image to the shell. The format of the disk image is auto-detected. To override this and force a particular format use the --format=.. option. Using this flag is mostly equivalent to using the "add" command, with "readonly:true" if the --ro flag was given, and with "format:..." if the --format=... flag was given. -a URI --add URI Add a remote disk. See "ADDING REMOTE STORAGE". -c URI --connect URI When used in conjunction with the -d option, this specifies the libvirt URI to use. The default is to use the default libvirt connection. --csh If using the --listen option and a csh-like shell, use this option. See section "REMOTE CONTROL AND CSH" below. -d libvirt-domain --domain libvirt-domain Add disks from the named libvirt domain. If the --ro option is also used, then any libvirt domain can be used. However in write mode, only libvirt domains which are shut down can be named here. Domain UUIDs can be used instead of names. Using this flag is mostly equivalent to using the "add-domain" command, with "readonly:true" if the --ro flag was given, and with "format:..." if the --format=... flag was given. -D --no-dest-paths Don't tab-complete paths on the guest filesystem. It is useful to be able to hit the tab key to complete paths on the guest filesystem, but this causes extra "hidden" guestfs calls to be made, so this option is here to allow this feature to be disabled. --echo-keys When prompting for keys and passphrases, guestfish normally turns echoing off so you cannot see what you are typing. If you are not worried about Tempest attacks and there is no one else in the room you can specify this flag to see what you are typing. -f file --file file Read commands from "file". To write pure guestfish scripts, use: #!/usr/bin/guestfish -f --format=raw|qcow2|.. --format The default for the -a option is to auto-detect the format of the disk image. Using this forces the disk format for -a options which follow on the command line. Using --format with no argument switches back to auto-detection for subsequent -a options. For example: guestfish --format=raw -a disk.img forces raw format (no auto-detection) for "disk.img". guestfish --format=raw -a disk.img --format -a another.img forces raw format (no auto-detection) for "disk.img" and reverts to auto-detection for "another.img". If you have untrusted raw-format guest disk images, you should use this option to specify the disk format. This avoids a possible security problem with malicious guests (CVE-2010-3851). See also "add". -i --inspector Using virt-inspector(1) code, inspect the disks looking for an operating system and mount filesystems as they would be mounted on the real virtual machine. Typical usage is either: guestfish -d myguest -i (for an inactive libvirt domain called myguest), or: guestfish --ro -d myguest -i (for active domains, readonly), or specify the block device directly: guestfish --rw -a /dev/Guests/MyGuest -i Note that the command line syntax changed slightly over older versions of guestfish. You can still use the old syntax: guestfish [--ro] -i disk.img guestfish [--ro] -i libvirt-domain Using this flag is mostly equivalent to using the "inspect-os" command and then using other commands to mount the filesystems that were found. --keys-from-stdin Read key or passphrase parameters from stdin. The default is to try to read passphrases from the user by opening "/dev/tty". --listen Fork into the background and listen for remote commands. See section "REMOTE CONTROL GUESTFISH OVER A SOCKET" below. --live Connect to a live virtual machine. (Experimental, see "ATTACHING TO RUNNING DAEMONS" in guestfs(3)). -m dev[:mountpoint[:options[:fstype]]] --mount dev[:mountpoint[:options[:fstype]]] Mount the named partition or logical volume on the given mountpoint. If the mountpoint is omitted, it defaults to "/". You have to mount something on "/" before most commands will work. If any -m or --mount options are given, the guest is automatically launched. If you don't know what filesystems a disk image contains, you can either run guestfish without this option, then list the partitions, filesystems and LVs available (see "list-partitions", "list-filesystems" and "lvs" commands), or you can use the virt-filesystems(1) program. The third (and rarely used) part of the mount parameter is the list of mount options used to mount the underlying filesystem. If this is not given, then the mount options are either the empty string or "ro" (the latter if the --ro flag is used). By specifying the mount options, you override this default choice. Probably the only time you would use this is to enable ACLs and/or extended attributes if the filesystem can support them: -m /dev/sda1:/:acl,user_xattr Using this flag is equivalent to using the "mount-options" command. The fourth part of the parameter is the filesystem driver to use, such as "ext3" or "ntfs". This is rarely needed, but can be useful if multiple drivers are valid for a filesystem (eg: "ext2" and "ext3"), or if libguestfs misidentifies a filesystem. --network Enable QEMU user networking in the guest. -N type --new type -N help Prepare a fresh disk image formatted as "type". This is an alternative to the -a option: whereas -a adds an existing disk, -N creates a preformatted disk with a filesystem and adds it. See "PREPARED DISK IMAGES" below. -n --no-sync Disable autosync. This is enabled by default. See the discussion of autosync in the guestfs(3) manpage. --pipe-error If writes fail to pipe commands (see "PIPES" below), then the command returns an error. The default (also for historical reasons) is to ignore such errors so that: > command_with_lots_of_output | head doesn't give an error. --progress-bars Enable progress bars, even when guestfish is used non-interactively. Progress bars are enabled by default when guestfish is used as an interactive shell. --no-progress-bars Disable progress bars. --remote[=pid] Send remote commands to$GUESTFISH_PID or "pid". See section "REMOTE CONTROL GUESTFISH OVER A SOCKET" below. -r --ro This changes the -a, -d and -m options so that disks are added and mounts are done read-only. The option must always be used if the disk image or virtual machine might be running, and is generally recommended in cases where you don't need write access to the disk. Note that prepared disk images created with -N are not affected by this option. Also commands like "add" are not affected - you have to specify the "readonly:true" option explicitly if you need it. See also "OPENING DISKS FOR READ AND WRITE" below. --selinux Enable SELinux support for the guest. See "SELINUX" in guestfs(3). -v --verbose Enable very verbose messages. This is particularly useful if you find a bug. -V --version Display the guestfish / libguestfs version number and exit. -w --rw This changes the -a, -d and -m options so that disks are added and mounts are done read-write. See "OPENING DISKS FOR READ AND WRITE" below. -x Echo each command before executing it. COMMANDS ON COMMAND LINE Any additional (non-option) arguments are treated as commands to execute. Commands to execute should be separated by a colon (":"), where the colon is a separate parameter. Thus: guestfish cmd [args...] : cmd [args...] : cmd [args...] ... If there are no additional arguments, then we enter a shell, either an interactive shell with a prompt (if the input is a terminal) or a non-interactive shell. In either command line mode or non-interactive shell, the first command that gives an error causes the whole shell to exit. In interactive mode (with a prompt) if a command fails, you can continue to enter commands. USING launch (OR run) As with guestfs(3), you must first configure your guest by adding disks, then launch it, then mount any disks you need, and finally issue actions/commands. So the general order of the day is: o add or -a/--add o launch (aka run) o mount or -m/--mount o any other commands "run" is a synonym for "launch". You must "launch" (or "run") your guest before mounting or performing any other commands. The only exception is that if any of the -i, -m, --mount, -N or --new options were given then "run" is done automatically, simply because guestfish can't perform the action you asked for without doing this. OPENING DISKS FOR READ AND WRITE The guestfish, guestmount(1) and virt-rescue(1) options --ro and --rw affect whether the other command line options -a, -c, -d, -i and -m open disk images read-only or for writing. In libguestfs <= 1.10, guestfish, guestmount and virt-rescue defaulted to opening disk images supplied on the command line for write. To open a disk image read-only you have to do -a image --ro. This matters: If you accidentally open a live VM disk image writable then you will cause irreversible disk corruption. In a future libguestfs we intend to change the default the other way. Disk images will be opened read-only. You will have to either specify guestfish --rw, guestmount --rw, virt- rescue --rw, or change the configuration file "/etc/libguestfs-tools.conf" in order to get write access for disk images specified by those other command line options. This version of guestfish, guestmount and virt-rescue has a --rw option which does nothing (it is already the default). However it is highly recommended that you use this option to indicate that you need write access, and prepare your scripts for the day when this option will be required for write access. Note: This does not affect commands like "add" and "mount", or any other libguestfs program apart from guestfish and guestmount. QUOTING You can quote ordinary parameters using either single or double quotes. For example: add "file with a space.img" rm '/file name' rm '/"' A few commands require a list of strings to be passed. For these, use a whitespace- separated list, enclosed in quotes. Strings containing whitespace to be passed through must be enclosed in single quotes. A literal single quote must be escaped with a backslash. vgcreate VG "/dev/sda1 /dev/sdb1" command "/bin/echo 'foo bar'" command "/bin/echo \'foo\'" ESCAPE SEQUENCES IN DOUBLE QUOTED ARGUMENTS In double-quoted arguments (only) use backslash to insert special characters: "\a" Alert (bell) character. "\b" Backspace character. "\f" Form feed character. "\n" Newline character. "\r" Carriage return character. "\t" Horizontal tab character. "\v" Vertical tab character. "\"" A literal double quote character. "\ooo" A character with octal value ooo. There must be precisely 3 octal digits (unlike C). "\xhh" A character with hex value hh. There must be precisely 2 hex digits. In the current implementation "\000" and "\x00" cannot be used in strings. "\\" A literal backslash character. OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS Some commands take optional arguments. These arguments appear in this documentation as "[argname:..]". You can use them as in these examples: add filename add filename readonly:true add filename format:qcow2 readonly:false Each optional argument can appear at most once. All optional arguments must appear after the required ones. NUMBERS This section applies to all commands which can take integers as parameters. SIZE SUFFIX When the command takes a parameter measured in bytes, you can use one of the following suffixes to specify kilobytes, megabytes and larger sizes: k or K or KiB The size in kilobytes (multiplied by 1024). KB The size in SI 1000 byte units. M or MiB The size in megabytes (multiplied by 1048576). MB The size in SI 1000000 byte units. G or GiB The size in gigabytes (multiplied by 2**30). GB The size in SI 10**9 byte units. T or TiB The size in terabytes (multiplied by 2**40). TB The size in SI 10**12 byte units. P or PiB The size in petabytes (multiplied by 2**50). PB The size in SI 10**15 byte units. E or EiB The size in exabytes (multiplied by 2**60). EB The size in SI 10**18 byte units. Z or ZiB The size in zettabytes (multiplied by 2**70). ZB The size in SI 10**21 byte units. Y or YiB The size in yottabytes (multiplied by 2**80). YB The size in SI 10**24 byte units. For example: truncate-size /file 1G would truncate the file to 1 gigabyte. Be careful because a few commands take sizes in kilobytes or megabytes (eg. the parameter to "memsize" is specified in megabytes already). Adding a suffix will probably not do what you expect. OCTAL AND HEXADECIMAL NUMBERS For specifying the radix (base) use the C convention: 0 to prefix an octal number or "0x" to prefix a hexadecimal number. For example: 1234 decimal number 1234 02322 octal number, equivalent to decimal 1234 0x4d2 hexadecimal number, equivalent to decimal 1234 When using the "chmod" command, you almost always want to specify an octal number for the mode, and you must prefix it with 0 (unlike the Unix chmod(1) program): chmod 0777 /public # OK chmod 777 /public # WRONG! This is mode 777 decimal = 01411 octal. Commands that return numbers usually print them in decimal, but some commands print numbers in other radices (eg. "umask" prints the mode in octal, preceded by 0). WILDCARDS AND GLOBBING Neither guestfish nor the underlying guestfs API performs wildcard expansion (globbing) by default. So for example the following will not do what you expect: rm-rf /home/* Assuming you don't have a directory called literally "/home/*" then the above command will return an error. To perform wildcard expansion, use the "glob" command. glob rm-rf /home/* runs "rm-rf" on each path that matches (ie. potentially running the command many times), equivalent to: rm-rf /home/jim rm-rf /home/joe rm-rf /home/mary "glob" only works on simple guest paths and not on device names. If you have several parameters, each containing a wildcard, then glob will perform a Cartesian product. COMMENTS Any line which starts with a # character is treated as a comment and ignored. The # can optionally be preceded by whitespace, but not by a command. For example: # this is a comment # this is a comment foo # NOT a comment Blank lines are also ignored. RUNNING COMMANDS LOCALLY Any line which starts with a ! character is treated as a command sent to the local shell ("/bin/sh" or whatever system(3) uses). For example: !mkdir local tgz-out /remote local/remote-data.tar.gz will create a directory "local" on the host, and then export the contents of "/remote" on the mounted filesystem to "local/remote-data.tar.gz". (See "tgz-out"). To change the local directory, use the "lcd" command. "!cd" will have no effect, due to the way that subprocesses work in Unix. LOCAL COMMANDS WITH INLINE EXECUTION If a line starts with | command" to pipe the output of the first command (a guestfish command) to the second command (any host command). For example: cat /etc/passwd | awk -F: '$3 == 0 { print }' (where "cat" is the guestfish cat command, but "awk" is the host awk program). The above command would list all accounts in the guest filesystem which have UID 0, ie. root accounts including backdoors. Other examples: hexdump /bin/ls | head list-devices | tail -1 tgz-out / - | tar ztf - The space before the pipe symbol is required, any space after the pipe symbol is optional. Everything after the pipe symbol is just passed straight to the host shell, so it can contain redirections, globs and anything else that makes sense on the host side. To use a literal argument which begins with a pipe symbol, you have to quote it, eg: echo "|" HOME DIRECTORIES If a parameter starts with the character "~" then the tilde may be expanded as a home directory path (either "~" for the current user's home directory, or "~user" for another user). Note that home directory expansion happens for users known on the host, not in the guest filesystem. To use a literal argument which begins with a tilde, you have to quote it, eg: echo "~" ENCRYPTED DISKS Libguestfs has some support for Linux guests encrypted according to the Linux Unified Key Setup (LUKS) standard, which includes nearly all whole disk encryption systems used by modern Linux guests. Currently only LVM-on-LUKS is supported. Identify encrypted block devices and partitions using "vfs-type": > vfs-type /dev/sda2 crypto_LUKS Then open those devices using "luks-open". This creates a device-mapper device called "/dev/mapper/luksdev". > luks-open /dev/sda2 luksdev Enter key or passphrase ("key"): Finally you have to tell LVM to scan for volume groups on the newly created mapper device: vgscan vg-activate-all true The logical volume(s) can now be mounted in the usual way. Before closing a LUKS device you must unmount any logical volumes on it and deactivate the volume groups by calling "vg-activate false VG" on each one. Then you can close the mapper device: vg-activate false /dev/VG luks-close /dev/mapper/luksdev WINDOWS PATHS If a path is prefixed with "win:" then you can use Windows-style drive letters and paths (with some limitations). The following commands are equivalent: file /WINDOWS/system32/config/system.LOG file win:\windows\system32\config\system.log file WIN:C:\Windows\SYSTEM32\CONFIG\SYSTEM.LOG The parameter is rewritten "behind the scenes" by looking up the position where the drive is mounted, prepending that to the path, changing all backslash characters to forward slash, then resolving the result using "case-sensitive-path". For example if the E: drive was mounted on "/e" then the parameter might be rewritten like this: win:e:\foo\bar => /e/FOO/bar This only works in argument positions that expect a path. UPLOADING AND DOWNLOADING FILES For commands such as "upload", "download", "tar-in", "tar-out" and others which upload from or download to a local file, you can use the special filename "-" to mean "from stdin" or "to stdout". For example: upload - /foo reads stdin and creates from that a file "/foo" in the disk image, and: tar-out /etc - | tar tf - writes the tarball to stdout and then pipes that into the external "tar" command (see "PIPES"). When using "-" to read from stdin, the input is read up to the end of stdin. You can also use a special "heredoc"-like syntax to read up to some arbitrary end marker: upload -</dev/null 2>&1 ||: } trap cleanup_guestfish EXIT ERR guestfish --remote -- run # ... REMOTE CONTROL DOES NOT WORK WITH -a ETC. OPTIONS Options such as -a, --add, -N, --new etc don't interact properly with remote support. They are processed locally, and not sent through to the remote guestfish. In particular this won't do what you expect: guestfish --remote --add disk.img Don't use these options. Use the equivalent commands instead, eg: guestfish --remote add-drive disk.img or: guestfish --remote > add disk.img REMOTE CONTROL RUN COMMAND HANGING Using the "run" (or "launch") command remotely in a command substitution context hangs, ie. don't do (note the backquotes): a=guestfish --remote run Since the "run" command produces no output on stdout, this is not useful anyway. For further information see https://bugzilla.redhat.com/show_bug.cgi?id=592910. PREPARED DISK IMAGES Use the -N type or --new type parameter to select one of a set of preformatted disk images that guestfish can make for you to save typing. This is particularly useful for testing purposes. This option is used instead of the -a option, and like -a can appear multiple times (and can be mixed with -a). The new disk is called "test1.img" for the first -N, "test2.img" for the second and so on. Existing files in the current directory are overwritten. The type briefly describes how the disk should be sized, partitioned, how filesystem(s) should be created, and how content should be added. Optionally the type can be followed by extra parameters, separated by ":" (colon) characters. For example, -N fs creates a default 100MB, sparsely-allocated disk, containing a single partition, with the partition formatted as ext2. -N fs:ext4:1G is the same, but for an ext4 filesystem on a 1GB disk instead. Note that the prepared filesystem is not mounted. You would usually have to use the "mount /dev/sda1 /" command or add the -m /dev/sda1 option. If any -N or --new options are given, the libguestfs appliance is automatically launched. EXAMPLES Create a 100MB disk with an ext4-formatted partition: guestfish -N fs:ext4 Create a 32MB disk with a VFAT-formatted partition, and mount it: guestfish -N fs:vfat:32M -m /dev/sda1 Create a blank 200MB disk: guestfish -N disk:200M -N disk - create a blank disk "guestfish -N disk[:size]" Create a blank disk, size 100MB (by default). The default size can be changed by supplying an optional parameter. The optional parameters are: Name Default value size 100M the size of the disk image -N part - create a partitioned disk "guestfish -N part[:size[:partition]]" Create a disk with a single partition. By default the size of the disk is 100MB (the available space in the partition will be a tiny bit smaller) and the partition table will be MBR (old DOS-style). These defaults can be changed by supplying optional parameters. The optional parameters are: Name Default value size 100M the size of the disk image partition mbr partition table type -N fs - create a filesystem "guestfish -N fs[:filesystem[:size[:partition]]]" Create a disk with a single partition, with the partition containing an empty filesystem. This defaults to creating a 100MB disk (the available space in the filesystem will be a tiny bit smaller) with an MBR (old DOS-style) partition table and an ext2 filesystem. These defaults can be changed by supplying optional parameters. The optional parameters are: Name Default value filesystem ext2 the type of filesystem to use size 100M the size of the disk image partition mbr partition table type -N lv - create a disk with logical volume "guestfish -N lv[:name[:size[:partition]]]" Create a disk with a single partition, set up the partition as an LVM2 physical volume, and place a volume group and logical volume on there. This defaults to creating a 100MB disk with the VG and LV called "/dev/VG/LV". You can change the name of the VG and LV by supplying an alternate name as the first optional parameter. Note this does not create a filesystem. Use 'lvfs' to do that. The optional parameters are: Name Default value name /dev/VG/LV the name of the VG and LV to use size 100M the size of the disk image partition mbr partition table type -N lvfs - create a disk with logical volume and filesystem "guestfish -N lvfs[:name[:filesystem[:size[:partition]]]]" Create a disk with a single partition, set up the partition as an LVM2 physical volume, and place a volume group and logical volume on there. Then format the LV with a filesystem. This defaults to creating a 100MB disk with the VG and LV called "/dev/VG/LV", with an ext2 filesystem. The optional parameters are: Name Default value name /dev/VG/LV the name of the VG and LV to use filesystem ext2 the type of filesystem to use size 100M the size of the disk image partition mbr partition table type -N bootroot - create a boot and root filesystem "guestfish -N bootroot[:bootfs[:rootfs[:size[:bootsize[:partition]]]]]" Create a disk with two partitions, for boot and root filesystem. Format the two filesystems independently. There are several optional parameters which control the exact layout and filesystem types. The optional parameters are: Name Default value bootfs ext2 the type of filesystem to use for boot rootfs ext2 the type of filesystem to use for root size 100M the size of the disk image bootsize 32M the size of the boot filesystem partition mbr partition table type -N bootrootlv - create a boot and root filesystem using LVM "guestfish -N bootrootlv[:name[:bootfs[:rootfs[:size[:bootsize[:partition]]]]]]" This is the same as "bootroot" but the root filesystem (only) is placed on a logical volume, named by default "/dev/VG/LV". There are several optional parameters which control the exact layout. The optional parameters are: Name Default value name /dev/VG/LV the name of the VG and LV for root bootfs ext2 the type of filesystem to use for boot rootfs ext2 the type of filesystem to use for root size 100M the size of the disk image bootsize 32M the size of the boot filesystem partition mbr partition table type ADDING REMOTE STORAGE For API-level documentation on this topic, see "guestfs_add_drive_opts" in guestfs(3) and "REMOTE STORAGE" in guestfs(3). On the command line, you can use the -a option to add network block devices using a URI- style format, for example: guestfish -a ssh://root@example.com/disk.img URIs cannot be used with the "add" command. The equivalent command using the API directly is: > add /disk.img protocol:ssh server:tcp:example.com username:root The possible -a URI formats are described below. -a disk.img -a file:///path/to/disk.img Add the local disk image (or device) called "disk.img". -a nbd://example.com[:port] -a nbd://example.com[:port]/exportname -a nbd://?socket=/socket -a nbd:///exportname?socket=/socket Add a disk located on Network Block Device (nbd) storage. The /exportname part of the URI specifies an NBD export name, but is usually left empty. The optional ?socket parameter can be used to specify a Unix domain socket that we talk to the NBD server over. Note that you cannot mix server name (ie. TCP/IP) and socket path. The equivalent API command would be (no export name): > add "" protocol:nbd server:[tcp:example.com|unix:/socket] PROGRESS BARS Some (not all) long-running commands send progress notification messages as they are running. Guestfish turns these messages into progress bars. When a command that supports progress bars takes longer than two seconds to run, and if progress bars are enabled, then you will see one appearing below the command: > copy-size /large-file /another-file 2048M / 10% [#####-----------------------------------------] 00:30 The spinner on the left hand side moves round once for every progress notification received from the backend. This is a (reasonably) golden assurance that the command is "doing something" even if the progress bar is not moving, because the command is able to send the progress notifications. When the bar reaches 100% and the command finishes, the spinner disappears. Progress bars are enabled by default when guestfish is used interactively. You can enable them even for non-interactive modes using --progress-bars, and you can disable them completely using --no-progress-bars. PROMPT You can change or add colours to the default prompt (">") by setting the "GUESTFISH_PS1" environment variable. A simple prompt can be set by setting this to an alternate string:$ GUESTFISH_PS1='(type a command) ' $export GUESTFISH_PS1$ guestfish [...] (type a command) You can also use special escape sequences, as described in the table below: \\ A literal backslash character.  Place non-printing characters (eg. terminal control codes for colours) between "$...$". What this does it to tell the readline(3) library that it should treat this subsequence as zero-width, so that command-line redisplay, editing etc works. \a A bell character. \e An ASCII ESC (escape) character. \n A newline. \r A carriage return. \NNN The ASCII character whose code is the octal value NNN. \xNN The ASCII character whose code is the hex value NN. EXAMPLES OF PROMPTS Note these these require a terminal that supports ANSI escape codes. GUESTFISH_PS1='$\e[1;30m$>$\e[0;30m$ ' A bold black version of the ordinary prompt. WINDOWS 8 Windows 8 "fast startup" can prevent guestfish from mounting NTFS partitions. See "WINDOWS HIBERNATION AND WINDOWS 8 FAST STARTUP" in guestfs(3). GUESTFISH COMMANDS The commands in this section are guestfish convenience commands, in other words, they are not part of the guestfs(3) API. help help help cmd Without any parameter, this provides general help. With a "cmd" parameter, this displays detailed help for that command. exit quit This exits guestfish. You can also use "^D" key. alloc allocate alloc filename size This creates an empty (zeroed) file of the given size, and then adds so it can be further examined. For more advanced image creation, see qemu-img(1) utility. Size can be specified using standard suffixes, eg. "1M". To create a sparse file, use "sparse" instead. To create a prepared disk image, see "PREPARED DISK IMAGES". copy-in copy-in local [local ...] /remotedir "copy-in" copies local files or directories recursively into the disk image, placing them in the directory called "/remotedir" (which must exist). This guestfish meta-command turns into a sequence of "tar-in" and other commands as necessary. Multiple local files and directories can be specified, but the last parameter must always be a remote directory. Wildcards cannot be used. copy-out copy-out remote [remote ...] localdir "copy-out" copies remote files or directories recursively out of the disk image, placing them on the host disk in a local directory called "localdir" (which must exist). This guestfish meta-command turns into a sequence of "download", "tar-out" and other commands as necessary. Multiple remote files and directories can be specified, but the last parameter must always be a local directory. To download to the current directory, use "." as in: copy-out /home . Wildcards cannot be used in the ordinary command, but you can use them with the help of "glob" like this: glob copy-out /home/* . delete-event delete-event name Delete the event handler which was previously registered as "name". If multiple event handlers were registered with the same name, they are all deleted. See also the guestfish commands "event" and "list-events". display display filename Use "display" (a graphical display program) to display an image file. It downloads the file, and runs "display" on it. To use an alternative program, set the "GUESTFISH_DISPLAY_IMAGE" environment variable. For example to use the GNOME display program: export GUESTFISH_DISPLAY_IMAGE=eog See also display(1). echo echo [params ...] This echos the parameters to the terminal. edit vi emacs edit filename This is used to edit a file. It downloads the file, edits it locally using your editor, then uploads the result. The editor is $EDITOR. However if you use the alternate commands "vi" or "emacs" you will get those corresponding editors. event event name eventset "shell script ..." Register a shell script fragment which is executed when an event is raised. See "guestfs_set_event_callback" in guestfs(3) for a discussion of the event API in libguestfs. The "name" parameter is a name that you give to this event handler. It can be any string (even the empty string) and is simply there so you can delete the handler using the guestfish "delete-event" command. The "eventset" parameter is a comma-separated list of one or more events, for example "close" or "close,trace". The special value "*" means all events. The third and final parameter is the shell script fragment (or any external command) that is executed when any of the events in the eventset occurs. It is executed using "$SHELL -c", or if $SHELL is not set then "/bin/sh -c". The shell script fragment receives callback parameters as arguments$1, $2 etc. The actual event that was called is available in the environment variable$EVENT. event "" close "echo closed" event messages appliance,library,trace "echo $@" event "" progress "echo progress:$3/$4" event "" * "echo$EVENT $@" See also the guestfish commands "delete-event" and "list-events". glob glob command args... Expand wildcards in any paths in the args list, and run "command" repeatedly on each matching path. See "WILDCARDS AND GLOBBING". hexedit hexedit hexedit hexedit Use hexedit (a hex editor) to edit all or part of a binary file or block device. This command works by downloading potentially the whole file or device, editing it locally, then uploading it. If the file or device is large, you have to specify which part you wish to edit by using "max" and/or "start" "max" parameters. "start" and "max" are specified in bytes, with the usual modifiers allowed such as "1M" (1 megabyte). For example to edit the first few sectors of a disk you might do: hexedit /dev/sda 1M which would allow you to edit anywhere within the first megabyte of the disk. To edit the superblock of an ext2 filesystem on "/dev/sda1", do: hexedit /dev/sda1 0x400 0x400 (assuming the superblock is in the standard location). This command requires the external hexedit(1) program. You can specify another program to use by setting the "HEXEDITOR" environment variable. See also "hexdump". lcd lcd directory Change the local directory, ie. the current directory of guestfish itself. Note that "!cd" won't do what you might expect. list-events list-events List the event handlers registered using the guestfish "event" command. man manual man Opens the manual page for guestfish. more less more filename less filename This is used to view a file. The default viewer is$PAGER. However if you use the alternate command "less" you will get the "less" command specifically. reopen reopen Close and reopen the libguestfs handle. It is not necessary to use this normally, because the handle is closed properly when guestfish exits. However this is occasionally useful for testing. setenv setenv VAR value Set the environment variable "VAR" to the string "value". To print the value of an environment variable use a shell command such as: !echo $VAR sparse sparse filename size This creates an empty sparse file of the given size, and then adds so it can be further examined. In all respects it works the same as the "alloc" command, except that the image file is allocated sparsely, which means that disk blocks are not assigned to the file until they are needed. Sparse disk files only use space when written to, but they are slower and there is a danger you could run out of real disk space during a write operation. For more advanced image creation, see qemu-img(1) utility. Size can be specified using standard suffixes, eg. "1M". supported supported This command returns a list of the optional groups known to the daemon, and indicates which ones are supported by this build of the libguestfs appliance. See also "AVAILABILITY" in guestfs(3). time time command args... Run the command as usual, but print the elapsed time afterwards. This can be useful for benchmarking operations. unsetenv unsetenv VAR Remove "VAR" from the environment. COMMANDS acl-delete-def-file acl-delete-def-file dir This function deletes the default POSIX Access Control List (ACL) attached to directory "dir". acl-get-file acl-get-file path acltype This function returns the POSIX Access Control List (ACL) attached to "path". The ACL is returned in "long text form" (see acl(5)). The "acltype" parameter may be: "access" Return the ordinary (access) ACL for any file, directory or other filesystem object. "default" Return the default ACL. Normally this only makes sense if "path" is a directory. acl-set-file acl-set-file path acltype acl This function sets the POSIX Access Control List (ACL) attached to "path". The "acltype" parameter may be: "access" Set the ordinary (access) ACL for any file, directory or other filesystem object. "default" Set the default ACL. Normally this only makes sense if "path" is a directory. The "acl" parameter is the new ACL in either "long text form" or "short text form" (see acl(5)). The new ACL completely replaces any previous ACL on the file. The ACL must contain the full Unix permissions (eg. "u::rwx,g::rx,o::rx"). If you are specifying individual users or groups, then the mask field is also required (eg. "m::rwx"), followed by the "u:ID:..." and/or "g:ID:..." field(s). A full ACL string might therefore look like this: u::rwx,g::rwx,o::rwx,m::rwx,u:500:rwx,g:500:rwx \ Unix permissions / \mask/ \ ACL / You should use numeric UIDs and GIDs. To map usernames and groupnames to the correct numeric ID in the context of the guest, use the Augeas functions (see "aug-init"). add-cdrom add-cdrom filename This function adds a virtual CD-ROM disk image to the guest. Do not use this function! ISO files are just ordinary read-only disk images. Use "add- drive-ro" instead. This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "add-drive" call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. add-domain domain add-domain dom [libvirturi:..] [readonly:true|false] [iface:..] [live:true|false] [allowuuid:true|false] [readonlydisk:..] This function adds the disk(s) attached to the named libvirt domain "dom". It works by connecting to libvirt, requesting the domain and domain XML from libvirt, parsing it for disks, and calling "add-drive-opts" on each one. The number of disks added is returned. This operation is atomic: if an error is returned, then no disks are added. This function does some minimal checks to make sure the libvirt domain is not running (unless "readonly" is true). In a future version we will try to acquire the libvirt lock on each disk. Disks must be accessible locally. This often means that adding disks from a remote libvirt connection (see http://libvirt.org/remote.html) will fail unless those disks are accessible via the same device path locally too. The optional "libvirturi" parameter sets the libvirt URI (see http://libvirt.org/uri.html). If this is not set then we connect to the default libvirt URI (or one set through an environment variable, see the libvirt documentation for full details). The optional "live" flag controls whether this call will try to connect to a running virtual machine "guestfsd" process if it sees a suitable element in the libvirt XML definition. The default (if the flag is omitted) is never to try. See "ATTACHING TO RUNNING DAEMONS" in guestfs(3) for more information. If the "allowuuid" flag is true (default is false) then a UUID may be passed instead of the domain name. The "dom" string is treated as a UUID first and looked up, and if that lookup fails then we treat "dom" as a name as usual. The optional "readonlydisk" parameter controls what we do for disks which are marked in the libvirt XML. Possible values are: readonlydisk = "error" If "readonly" is false: The whole call is aborted with an error if any disk with the flag is found. If "readonly" is true: Disks with the flag are added read-only. readonlydisk = "read" If "readonly" is false: Disks with the flag are added read-only. Other disks are added read/write. If "readonly" is true: Disks with the flag are added read-only. readonlydisk = "write" (default) If "readonly" is false: Disks with the flag are added read/write. If "readonly" is true: Disks with the flag are added read-only. readonlydisk = "ignore" If "readonly" is true or false: Disks with the flag are skipped. The other optional parameters are passed directly through to "add-drive-opts". This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS". add-drive add add-drive-opts add-drive filename [readonly:true|false] [format:..] [iface:..] [name:..] [label:..] [protocol:..] [server:..] [username:..] [secret:..] [cachemode:..] This function adds a disk image called "filename" to the handle. "filename" may be a regular host file or a host device. When this function is called before "launch" (the usual case) then the first time you call this function, the disk appears in the API as "/dev/sda", the second time as "/dev/sdb", and so on. In libguestfs >= 1.20 you can also call this function after launch (with some restrictions). This is called "hotplugging". When hotplugging, you must specify a "label" so that the new disk gets a predictable name. For more information see "HOTPLUGGING" in guestfs(3). You don't necessarily need to be root when using libguestfs. However you obviously do need sufficient permissions to access the filename for whatever operations you want to perform (ie. read access if you just want to read the image or write access if you want to modify the image). This call checks that "filename" exists. "filename" may be the special string "/dev/null". See "NULL DISKS" in guestfs(3). The optional arguments are: "readonly" If true then the image is treated as read-only. Writes are still allowed, but they are stored in a temporary snapshot overlay which is discarded at the end. The disk that you add is not modified. "format" This forces the image format. If you omit this (or use "add-drive" or "add-drive-ro") then the format is automatically detected. Possible formats include "raw" and "qcow2". Automatic detection of the format opens you up to a potential security hole when dealing with untrusted raw-format images. See CVE-2010-3851 and RHBZ#642934. Specifying the format closes this security hole. "iface" This rarely-used option lets you emulate the behaviour of the deprecated "add-drive- with-if" call (q.v.) "name" The name the drive had in the original guest, e.g. "/dev/sdb". This is used as a hint to the guest inspection process if it is available. "label" Give the disk a label. The label should be a unique, short string using only ASCII characters "[a-zA-Z]". As well as its usual name in the API (such as "/dev/sda"), the drive will also be named "/dev/disk/guestfs/label". See "DISK LABELS" in guestfs(3). "protocol" The optional protocol argument can be used to select an alternate source protocol. See also: "REMOTE STORAGE" in guestfs(3). "protocol = "file"" "filename" is interpreted as a local file or device. This is the default if the optional protocol parameter is omitted. "protocol = "nbd"" Connect to the Network Block Device server. The "server" parameter must also be supplied - see below. See also: "NETWORK BLOCK DEVICE" in guestfs(3). "server" For protocols which require access to a remote server, this is a list of server(s). Protocol Number of servers required -------- -------------------------- file List must be empty or param not used at all nbd Exactly one Each list element is a string specifying a server. The string must be in one of the following formats: hostname hostname:port tcp:hostname tcp:hostname:port unix:/path/to/socket If the port number is omitted, then the standard port number for the protocol is used (see "/etc/services"). "cachemode" Choose whether or not libguestfs will obey sync operations (safe but slow) or not (unsafe but fast). The possible values for this string are: "cachemode = "writeback"" This is the default. Write operations in the API do not return until a write(2) call has completed in the host [but note this does not imply that anything gets written to disk]. Sync operations in the API, including implicit syncs caused by filesystem journalling, will not return until an fdatasync(2) call has completed in the host, indicating that data has been committed to disk. "cachemode = "unsafe"" In this mode, there are no guarantees. Libguestfs may cache anything and ignore sync requests. This is suitable only for scratch or temporary disks. This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS". add-drive-ro add-ro add-drive-ro filename This function is the equivalent of calling "add-drive-opts" with the optional parameter "GUESTFS_ADD_DRIVE_OPTS_READONLY" set to 1, so the disk is added read-only, with the format being detected automatically. add-drive-ro-with-if add-drive-ro-with-if filename iface This is the same as "add-drive-ro" but it allows you to specify the QEMU interface emulation to use at run time. This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "add-drive" call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. add-drive-scratch scratch add-drive-scratch size [name:..] [label:..] This command adds a temporary scratch drive to the handle. The "size" parameter is the virtual size (in bytes). The scratch drive is blank initially (all reads return zeroes until you start writing to it). The drive is deleted when the handle is closed. The optional arguments "name" and "label" are passed through to "add-drive". This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS". add-drive-with-if add-drive-with-if filename iface This is the same as "add-drive" but it allows you to specify the QEMU interface emulation to use at run time. This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "add-drive" call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. aug-clear aug-clear augpath Set the value associated with "path" to "NULL". This is the same as the augtool(1) "clear" command. aug-close aug-close Close the current Augeas handle and free up any resources used by it. After calling this, you have to call "aug-init" again before you can use any other Augeas functions. aug-defnode aug-defnode name expr val Defines a variable "name" whose value is the result of evaluating "expr". If "expr" evaluates to an empty nodeset, a node is created, equivalent to calling "aug- set" "expr", "value". "name" will be the nodeset containing that single node. On success this returns a pair containing the number of nodes in the nodeset, and a boolean flag if a node was created. aug-defvar aug-defvar name expr Defines an Augeas variable "name" whose value is the result of evaluating "expr". If "expr" is NULL, then "name" is undefined. On success this returns the number of nodes in "expr", or 0 if "expr" evaluates to something which is not a nodeset. aug-get aug-get augpath Look up the value associated with "path". If "path" matches exactly one node, the "value" is returned. aug-init aug-init root flags Create a new Augeas handle for editing configuration files. If there was any previous Augeas handle associated with this guestfs session, then it is closed. You must call this before using any other "aug-*" commands. "root" is the filesystem root. "root" must not be NULL, use "/" instead. The flags are the same as the flags defined in , the logical or of the following integers: "AUG_SAVE_BACKUP" = 1 Keep the original file with a ".augsave" extension. "AUG_SAVE_NEWFILE" = 2 Save changes into a file with extension ".augnew", and do not overwrite original. Overrides "AUG_SAVE_BACKUP". "AUG_TYPE_CHECK" = 4 Typecheck lenses. This option is only useful when debugging Augeas lenses. Use of this option may require additional memory for the libguestfs appliance. You may need to set the "LIBGUESTFS_MEMSIZE" environment variable or call "set-memsize". "AUG_NO_STDINC" = 8 Do not use standard load path for modules. "AUG_SAVE_NOOP" = 16 Make save a no-op, just record what would have been changed. "AUG_NO_LOAD" = 32 Do not load the tree in "aug-init". To close the handle, you can call "aug-close". To find out more about Augeas, see http://augeas.net/. aug-insert aug-insert augpath label true|false Create a new sibling "label" for "path", inserting it into the tree before or after "path" (depending on the boolean flag "before"). "path" must match exactly one existing node in the tree, and "label" must be a label, ie. not contain "/", "*" or end with a bracketed index "[N]". aug-load aug-load Load files into the tree. See "aug_load" in the Augeas documentation for the full gory details. aug-ls aug-ls augpath This is just a shortcut for listing "aug-match" "path/*" and sorting the resulting nodes into alphabetical order. aug-match aug-match augpath Returns a list of paths which match the path expression "path". The returned paths are sufficiently qualified so that they match exactly one node in the current tree. aug-mv aug-mv src dest Move the node "src" to "dest". "src" must match exactly one node. "dest" is overwritten if it exists. aug-rm aug-rm augpath Remove "path" and all of its children. On success this returns the number of entries which were removed. aug-save aug-save This writes all pending changes to disk. The flags which were passed to "aug-init" affect exactly how files are saved. aug-set aug-set augpath val Set the value associated with "path" to "val". In the Augeas API, it is possible to clear a node by setting the value to NULL. Due to an oversight in the libguestfs API you cannot do that with this call. Instead you must use the "aug-clear" call. available available 'groups ...' This command is used to check the availability of some groups of functionality in the appliance, which not all builds of the libguestfs appliance will be able to provide. The libguestfs groups, and the functions that those groups correspond to, are listed in "AVAILABILITY" in guestfs(3). You can also fetch this list at runtime by calling "available-all-groups". The argument "groups" is a list of group names, eg: "["inotify", "augeas"]" would check for the availability of the Linux inotify functions and Augeas (configuration file editing) functions. The command returns no error if all requested groups are available. It fails with an error if one or more of the requested groups is unavailable in the appliance. If an unknown group name is included in the list of groups then an error is always returned. Notes: o "feature-available" is the same as this call, but with a slightly simpler to use API: that call returns a boolean true/false instead of throwing an error. o You must call "launch" before calling this function. The reason is because we don't know what groups are supported by the appliance/daemon until it is running and can be queried. o If a group of functions is available, this does not necessarily mean that they will work. You still have to check for errors when calling individual API functions even if they are available. o It is usually the job of distro packagers to build complete functionality into the libguestfs appliance. Upstream libguestfs, if built from source with all requirements satisfied, will support everything. o This call was added in version 1.0.80. In previous versions of libguestfs all you could do would be to speculatively execute a command to find out if the daemon implemented it. See also "version". See also "filesystem-available". available-all-groups available-all-groups This command returns a list of all optional groups that this daemon knows about. Note this returns both supported and unsupported groups. To find out which ones the daemon can actually support you have to call "available" / "feature-available" on each member of the returned list. See also "available", "feature-available" and "AVAILABILITY" in guestfs(3). base64-in base64-in (base64file|-) filename This command uploads base64-encoded data from "base64file" to "filename". Use "-" instead of a filename to read/write from stdin/stdout. base64-out base64-out filename (base64file|-) This command downloads the contents of "filename", writing it out to local file "base64file" encoded as base64. Use "-" instead of a filename to read/write from stdin/stdout. blkid blkid device This command returns block device attributes for "device". The following fields are usually present in the returned hash. Other fields may also be present. "UUID" The uuid of this device. "LABEL" The label of this device. "VERSION" The version of blkid command. "TYPE" The filesystem type or RAID of this device. "USAGE" The usage of this device, for example "filesystem" or "raid". blockdev-flushbufs blockdev-flushbufs device This tells the kernel to flush internal buffers associated with "device". This uses the blockdev(8) command. blockdev-getbsz blockdev-getbsz device This returns the block size of a device. Note: this is different from both size in blocks and filesystem block size. Also this setting is not really used by anything. You should probably not use it for anything. Filesystems have their own idea about what block size to choose. This uses the blockdev(8) command. blockdev-getro blockdev-getro device Returns a boolean indicating if the block device is read-only (true if read-only, false if not). This uses the blockdev(8) command. blockdev-getsize64 blockdev-getsize64 device This returns the size of the device in bytes. See also "blockdev-getsz". This uses the blockdev(8) command. blockdev-getss blockdev-getss device This returns the size of sectors on a block device. Usually 512, but can be larger for modern devices. (Note, this is not the size in sectors, use "blockdev-getsz" for that). This uses the blockdev(8) command. blockdev-getsz blockdev-getsz device This returns the size of the device in units of 512-byte sectors (even if the sectorsize isn't 512 bytes ... weird). See also "blockdev-getss" for the real sector size of the device, and "blockdev-getsize64" for the more useful size in bytes. This uses the blockdev(8) command. blockdev-rereadpt blockdev-rereadpt device Reread the partition table on "device". This uses the blockdev(8) command. blockdev-setbsz blockdev-setbsz device blocksize This call does nothing and has never done anything because of a bug in blockdev. Do not use it. If you need to set the filesystem block size, use the "blocksize" option of "mkfs". This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "mkfs" call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. blockdev-setro blockdev-setro device Sets the block device named "device" to read-only. This uses the blockdev(8) command. blockdev-setrw blockdev-setrw device Sets the block device named "device" to read-write. This uses the blockdev(8) command. btrfs-device-add btrfs-device-add 'devices ...' fs Add the list of device(s) in "devices" to the btrfs filesystem mounted at "fs". If "devices" is an empty list, this does nothing. btrfs-device-delete btrfs-device-delete 'devices ...' fs Remove the "devices" from the btrfs filesystem mounted at "fs". If "devices" is an empty list, this does nothing. btrfs-filesystem-balance btrfs-filesystem-balance fs Balance the chunks in the btrfs filesystem mounted at "fs" across the underlying devices. btrfs-filesystem-resize btrfs-filesystem-resize mountpoint [size:N] This command resizes a btrfs filesystem. Note that unlike other resize calls, the filesystem has to be mounted and the parameter is the mountpoint not the device (this is a requirement of btrfs itself). The optional parameters are: "size" The new size (in bytes) of the filesystem. If omitted, the filesystem is resized to the maximum size. See also btrfs(8). This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS". btrfs-filesystem-sync btrfs-filesystem-sync fs Force sync on the btrfs filesystem mounted at "fs". btrfs-fsck btrfs-fsck device [superblock:N] [repair:true|false] Used to check a btrfs filesystem, "device" is the device file where the filesystem is stored. This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS". btrfs-set-seeding btrfs-set-seeding device true|false Enable or disable the seeding feature of a device that contains a btrfs filesystem. btrfs-subvolume-create btrfs-subvolume-create dest Create a btrfs subvolume. The "dest" argument is the destination directory and the name of the snapshot, in the form "/path/to/dest/name". btrfs-subvolume-delete btrfs-subvolume-delete subvolume Delete the named btrfs subvolume. btrfs-subvolume-list btrfs-subvolume-list fs List the btrfs snapshots and subvolumes of the btrfs filesystem which is mounted at "fs". btrfs-subvolume-set-default btrfs-subvolume-set-default id fs Set the subvolume of the btrfs filesystem "fs" which will be mounted by default. See "btrfs-subvolume-list" to get a list of subvolumes. btrfs-subvolume-snapshot btrfs-subvolume-snapshot source dest Create a writable snapshot of the btrfs subvolume "source". The "dest" argument is the destination directory and the name of the snapshot, in the form "/path/to/dest/name". canonical-device-name canonical-device-name device This utility function is useful when displaying device names to the user. It takes a number of irregular device names and returns them in a consistent format: "/dev/hdX" "/dev/vdX" These are returned as "/dev/sdX". Note this works for device names and partition names. This is approximately the reverse of the algorithm described in "BLOCK DEVICE NAMING" in guestfs(3). "/dev/mapper/VG-LV" "/dev/dm-N" Converted to "/dev/VG/LV" form using "lvm-canonical-lvm-name". Other strings are returned unmodified. cap-get-file cap-get-file path This function returns the Linux capabilities attached to "path". The capabilities set is returned in text form (see cap_to_text(3)). If no capabilities are attached to a file, an empty string is returned. cap-set-file cap-set-file path cap This function sets the Linux capabilities attached to "path". The capabilities set "cap" should be passed in text form (see cap_from_text(3)). case-sensitive-path case-sensitive-path path This can be used to resolve case insensitive paths on a filesystem which is case sensitive. The use case is to resolve paths which you have read from Windows configuration files or the Windows Registry, to the true path. The command handles a peculiarity of the Linux ntfs-3g filesystem driver (and probably others), which is that although the underlying filesystem is case-insensitive, the driver exports the filesystem to Linux as case-sensitive. One consequence of this is that special directories such as "c:\windows" may appear as "/WINDOWS" or "/windows" (or other things) depending on the precise details of how they were created. In Windows itself this would not be a problem. Bug or feature? You decide: http://www.tuxera.com/community/ntfs-3g-faq/#posixfilenames1 This function resolves the true case of each element in the path and returns the case- sensitive path. Thus "case-sensitive-path" ("/Windows/System32") might return "/WINDOWS/system32" (the exact return value would depend on details of how the directories were originally created under Windows). Note: This function does not handle drive names, backslashes etc. See also "realpath". cat cat path Return the contents of the file named "path". Because, in C, this function returns a "char *", there is no way to differentiate between a "\0" character in a file and end of string. To handle binary files, use the "read-file" or "download" functions. checksum checksum csumtype path This call computes the MD5, SHAx or CRC checksum of the file named "path". The type of checksum to compute is given by the "csumtype" parameter which must have one of the following values: "crc" Compute the cyclic redundancy check (CRC) specified by POSIX for the "cksum" command. "md5" Compute the MD5 hash (using the "md5sum" program). "sha1" Compute the SHA1 hash (using the "sha1sum" program). "sha224" Compute the SHA224 hash (using the "sha224sum" program). "sha256" Compute the SHA256 hash (using the "sha256sum" program). "sha384" Compute the SHA384 hash (using the "sha384sum" program). "sha512" Compute the SHA512 hash (using the "sha512sum" program). The checksum is returned as a printable string. To get the checksum for a device, use "checksum-device". To get the checksums for many files, use "checksums-out". checksum-device checksum-device csumtype device This call computes the MD5, SHAx or CRC checksum of the contents of the device named "device". For the types of checksums supported see the "checksum" command. checksums-out checksums-out csumtype directory (sumsfile|-) This command computes the checksums of all regular files in "directory" and then emits a list of those checksums to the local output file "sumsfile". This can be used for verifying the integrity of a virtual machine. However to be properly secure you should pay attention to the output of the checksum command (it uses the ones from GNU coreutils). In particular when the filename is not printable, coreutils uses a special backslash syntax. For more information, see the GNU coreutils info file. Use "-" instead of a filename to read/write from stdin/stdout. chmod chmod mode path Change the mode (permissions) of "path" to "mode". Only numeric modes are supported. Note: When using this command from guestfish, "mode" by default would be decimal, unless you prefix it with 0 to get octal, ie. use 0700 not 700. The mode actually set is affected by the umask. chown chown owner group path Change the file owner to "owner" and group to "group". Only numeric uid and gid are supported. If you want to use names, you will need to locate and parse the password file yourself (Augeas support makes this relatively easy). command command 'arguments ...' This call runs a command from the guest filesystem. The filesystem must be mounted, and must contain a compatible operating system (ie. something Linux, with the same or compatible processor architecture). The single parameter is an argv-style list of arguments. The first element is the name of the program to run. Subsequent elements are parameters. The list must be non-empty (ie. must contain a program name). Note that the command runs directly, and is not invoked via the shell (see "sh"). The return value is anything printed to stdout by the command. If the command returns a non-zero exit status, then this function returns an error message. The error message string is the content of stderr from the command. The$PATH environment variable will contain at least "/usr/bin" and "/bin". If you require a program from another location, you should provide the full path in the first parameter. Shared libraries and data files required by the program must be available on filesystems which are mounted in the correct places. It is the caller's responsibility to ensure all filesystems that are needed are mounted at the right locations. Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3). command-lines command-lines 'arguments ...' This is the same as "command", but splits the result into a list of lines. See also: "sh-lines" Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3). compress-device-out compress-device-out ctype device (zdevice|-) [level:N] This command compresses "device" and writes it out to the local file "zdevice". The "ctype" and optional "level" parameters have the same meaning as in "compress-out". Use "-" instead of a filename to read/write from stdin/stdout. This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS". compress-out compress-out ctype file (zfile|-) [level:N] This command compresses "file" and writes it out to the local file "zfile". The compression program used is controlled by the "ctype" parameter. Currently this includes: "compress", "gzip", "bzip2", "xz" or "lzop". Some compression types may not be supported by particular builds of libguestfs, in which case you will get an error containing the substring "not supported". The optional "level" parameter controls compression level. The meaning and default for this parameter depends on the compression program being used. Use "-" instead of a filename to read/write from stdin/stdout. This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS". config config qemuparam qemuvalue This can be used to add arbitrary qemu command line parameters of the form -param value. Actually it's not quite arbitrary - we prevent you from setting some parameters which would interfere with parameters that we use. The first character of "qemuparam" string must be a "-" (dash). "qemuvalue" can be NULL. copy-device-to-device copy-device-to-device src dest [srcoffset:N] [destoffset:N] [size:N] [sparse:true|false] The four calls "copy-device-to-device", "copy-device-to-file", "copy-file-to-device", and "copy-file-to-file" let you copy from a source (device|file) to a destination (device|file). Partial copies can be made since you can specify optionally the source offset, destination offset and size to copy. These values are all specified in bytes. If not given, the offsets both default to zero, and the size defaults to copying as much as possible until we hit the end of the source. The source and destination may be the same object. However overlapping regions may not be copied correctly. If the destination is a file, it is created if required. If the destination file is not large enough, it is extended. If the "sparse" flag is true then the call avoids writing blocks that contain only zeroes, which can help in some situations where the backing disk is thin-provisioned. Note that unless the target is already zeroed, using this option will result in incorrect copying. This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS". copy-device-to-file copy-device-to-file src dest [srcoffset:N] [destoffset:N] [size:N] [sparse:true|false] See "copy-device-to-device" for a general overview of this call. This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS". copy-file-to-device copy-file-to-device src dest [srcoffset:N] [destoffset:N] [size:N] [sparse:true|false] See "copy-device-to-device" for a general overview of this call. This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS". copy-file-to-file copy-file-to-file src dest [srcoffset:N] [destoffset:N] [size:N] [sparse:true|false] See "copy-device-to-device" for a general overview of this call. This is not the function you want for copying files. This is for copying blocks within existing files. See "cp", "cp-a" and "mv" for general file copying and moving functions. This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS". copy-size copy-size src dest size This command copies exactly "size" bytes from one source device or file "src" to another destination device or file "dest". Note this will fail if the source is too short or if the destination is not large enough. This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "copy-device-to-device" call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. cp cp src dest This copies a file from "src" to "dest" where "dest" is either a destination filename or destination directory. cp-a cp-a src dest This copies a file or directory from "src" to "dest" recursively using the "cp -a" command. cp-r cp-r src dest This copies a file or directory from "src" to "dest" recursively using the "cp -rP" command. Most users should use "cp-a" instead. This command is useful when you don't want to preserve permissions, because the target filesystem does not support it (primarily when writing to DOS FAT filesystems). dd dd src dest This command copies from one source device or file "src" to another destination device or file "dest". Normally you would use this to copy to or from a device or partition, for example to duplicate a filesystem. If the destination is a device, it must be as large or larger than the source file or device, otherwise the copy will fail. This command cannot do partial copies (see "copy- device-to-device"). This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "copy-device-to-device" call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. device-index device-index device This function takes a device name (eg. "/dev/sdb") and returns the index of the device in the list of devices. Index numbers start from 0. The named device must exist, for example as a string returned from "list-devices". See also "list-devices", "part-to-dev". df df This command runs the "df" command to report disk space used. This command is mostly useful for interactive sessions. It is not intended that you try to parse the output string. Use "statvfs" from programs. df-h df-h This command runs the "df -h" command to report disk space used in human-readable format. This command is mostly useful for interactive sessions. It is not intended that you try to parse the output string. Use "statvfs" from programs. disk-format disk-format filename Detect and return the format of the disk image called "filename". "filename" can also be a host device, etc. If the format of the image could not be detected, then "unknown" is returned. Note that detecting the disk format can be insecure under some circumstances. See "CVE-2010-3851" in guestfs(3). See also: "DISK IMAGE FORMATS" in guestfs(3) disk-has-backing-file disk-has-backing-file filename Detect and return whether the disk image "filename" has a backing file. Note that detecting disk features can be insecure under some circumstances. See "CVE-2010-3851" in guestfs(3). disk-virtual-size disk-virtual-size filename Detect and return the virtual size in bytes of the disk image called "filename". Note that detecting disk features can be insecure under some circumstances. See "CVE-2010-3851" in guestfs(3). dmesg dmesg This returns the kernel messages ("dmesg" output) from the guest kernel. This is sometimes useful for extended debugging of problems. Another way to get the same information is to enable verbose messages with "set-verbose" or by setting the environment variable "LIBGUESTFS_DEBUG=1" before running the program. download download remotefilename (filename|-) Download file "remotefilename" and save it as "filename" on the local machine. "filename" can also be a named pipe. See also "upload", "cat". Use "-" instead of a filename to read/write from stdin/stdout. download-offset download-offset remotefilename (filename|-) offset size Download file "remotefilename" and save it as "filename" on the local machine. "remotefilename" is read for "size" bytes starting at "offset" (this region must be within the file or device). Note that there is no limit on the amount of data that can be downloaded with this call, unlike with "pread", and this call always reads the full amount unless an error occurs. See also "download", "pread". Use "-" instead of a filename to read/write from stdin/stdout. drop-caches drop-caches whattodrop This instructs the guest kernel to drop its page cache, and/or dentries and inode caches. The parameter "whattodrop" tells the kernel what precisely to drop, see http://linux-mm.org/Drop_Caches Setting "whattodrop" to 3 should drop everything. This automatically calls sync(2) before the operation, so that the maximum guest memory is freed. du du path This command runs the "du -s" command to estimate file space usage for "path". "path" can be a file or a directory. If "path" is a directory then the estimate includes the contents of the directory and all subdirectories (recursively). The result is the estimated size in kilobytes (ie. units of 1024 bytes). e2fsck e2fsck device [correct:true|false] [forceall:true|false] This runs the ext2/ext3 filesystem checker on "device". It can take the following optional arguments: "correct" Automatically repair the file system. This option will cause e2fsck to automatically fix any filesystem problems that can be safely fixed without human intervention. This option may not be specified at the same time as the "forceall" option. "forceall" Assume an answer of 'yes' to all questions; allows e2fsck to be used non- interactively. This option may not be specified at the same time as the "correct" option. This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS". e2fsck-f e2fsck-f device This runs "e2fsck -p -f device", ie. runs the ext2/ext3 filesystem checker on "device", noninteractively (-p), even if the filesystem appears to be clean (-f). This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "e2fsck" call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. echo-daemon echo-daemon 'words ...' This command concatenates the list of "words" passed with single spaces between them and returns the resulting string. You can use this command to test the connection through to the daemon. See also "ping-daemon". egrep egrep regex path This calls the external "egrep" program and returns the matching lines. Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3). This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "grep" call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. egrepi egrepi regex path This calls the external "egrep -i" program and returns the matching lines. Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3). This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "grep" call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. equal equal file1 file2 This compares the two files "file1" and "file2" and returns true if their content is exactly equal, or false otherwise. The external cmp(1) program is used for the comparison. exists exists path This returns "true" if and only if there is a file, directory (or anything) with the given "path" name. See also "is-file", "is-dir", "stat". extlinux extlinux directory Install the SYSLINUX bootloader on the device mounted at "directory". Unlike "syslinux" which requires a FAT filesystem, this can be used on an ext2/3/4 or btrfs filesystem. The "directory" parameter can be either a mountpoint, or a directory within the mountpoint. You also have to mark the partition as "active" ("part-set-bootable") and a Master Boot Record must be installed (eg. using "pwrite-device") on the first sector of the whole disk. The SYSLINUX package comes with some suitable Master Boot Records. See the extlinux(1) man page for further information. Additional configuration can be supplied to SYSLINUX by placing a file called "extlinux.conf" on the filesystem under "directory". For further information about the contents of this file, see extlinux(1). See also "syslinux". fallocate fallocate path len This command preallocates a file (containing zero bytes) named "path" of size "len" bytes. If the file exists already, it is overwritten. Do not confuse this with the guestfish-specific "alloc" command which allocates a file in the host and attaches it as a device. This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "fallocate64" call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. fallocate64 fallocate64 path len This command preallocates a file (containing zero bytes) named "path" of size "len" bytes. If the file exists already, it is overwritten. Note that this call allocates disk blocks for the file. To create a sparse file use "truncate-size" instead. The deprecated call "fallocate" does the same, but owing to an oversight it only allowed 30 bit lengths to be specified, effectively limiting the maximum size of files created through that call to 1GB. Do not confuse this with the guestfish-specific "alloc" and "sparse" commands which create a file in the host and attach it as a device. feature-available feature-available 'groups ...' This is the same as "available", but unlike that call it returns a simple true/false boolean result, instead of throwing an exception if a feature is not found. For other documentation see "available". fgrep fgrep pattern path This calls the external "fgrep" program and returns the matching lines. Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3). This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "grep" call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. fgrepi fgrepi pattern path This calls the external "fgrep -i" program and returns the matching lines. Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3). This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "grep" call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. file file path This call uses the standard file(1) command to determine the type or contents of the file. This call will also transparently look inside various types of compressed file. The exact command which runs is "file -zb path". Note in particular that the filename is not prepended to the output (the -b option). The output depends on the output of the underlying file(1) command and it can change in future in ways beyond our control. In other words, the output is not guaranteed by the ABI. See also: file(1), "vfs-type", "lstat", "is-file", "is-blockdev" (etc), "is-zero". file-architecture file-architecture filename This detects the architecture of the binary "filename", and returns it if known. Currently defined architectures are: "i386" This string is returned for all 32 bit i386, i486, i586, i686 binaries irrespective of the precise processor requirements of the binary. "x86_64" 64 bit x86-64. "sparc" 32 bit SPARC. "sparc64" 64 bit SPARC V9 and above. "ia64" Intel Itanium. "ppc" 32 bit Power PC. "ppc64" 64 bit Power PC. Libguestfs may return other architecture strings in future. The function works on at least the following types of files: o many types of Un*x and Linux binary o many types of Un*x and Linux shared library o Windows Win32 and Win64 binaries o Windows Win32 and Win64 DLLs Win32 binaries and DLLs return "i386". Win64 binaries and DLLs return "x86_64". o Linux kernel modules o Linux new-style initrd images o some non-x86 Linux vmlinuz kernels What it can't do currently: o static libraries (libfoo.a) o Linux old-style initrd as compressed ext2 filesystem (RHEL 3) o x86 Linux vmlinuz kernels x86 vmlinuz images (bzImage format) consist of a mix of 16-, 32- and compressed code, and are horribly hard to unpack. If you want to find the architecture of a kernel, use the architecture of the associated initrd or kernel module(s) instead. filesize filesize file This command returns the size of "file" in bytes. To get other stats about a file, use "stat", "lstat", "is-dir", "is-file" etc. To get the size of block devices, use "blockdev-getsize64". filesystem-available filesystem-available filesystem Check whether libguestfs supports the named filesystem. The argument "filesystem" is a filesystem name, such as "ext3". You must call "launch" before using this command. This is mainly useful as a negative test. If this returns true, it doesn't mean that a particular filesystem can be created or mounted, since filesystems can fail for other reasons such as it being a later version of the filesystem, or having incompatible features, or lacking the right mkfs. tool. See also "available", "feature-available", "AVAILABILITY" in guestfs(3). fill fill c len path This command creates a new file called "path". The initial content of the file is "len" octets of "c", where "c" must be a number in the range "[0..255]". To fill a file with zero bytes (sparsely), it is much more efficient to use "truncate- size". To create a file with a pattern of repeating bytes use "fill-pattern". fill-dir fill-dir dir nr This function, useful for testing filesystems, creates "nr" empty files in the directory "dir" with names 00000000 through "nr-1" (ie. each file name is 8 digits long padded with zeroes). fill-pattern fill-pattern pattern len path This function is like "fill" except that it creates a new file of length "len" containing the repeating pattern of bytes in "pattern". The pattern is truncated if necessary to ensure the length of the file is exactly "len" bytes. find find directory This command lists out all files and directories, recursively, starting at "directory". It is essentially equivalent to running the shell command "find directory -print" but some post-processing happens on the output, described below. This returns a list of strings without any prefix. Thus if the directory structure was: /tmp/a /tmp/b /tmp/c/d then the returned list from "find" "/tmp" would be 4 elements: a b c c/d If "directory" is not a directory, then this command returns an error. The returned list is sorted. find0 find0 directory (files|-) This command lists out all files and directories, recursively, starting at "directory", placing the resulting list in the external file called "files". This command works the same way as "find" with the following exceptions: o The resulting list is written to an external file. o Items (filenames) in the result are separated by "\0" characters. See find(1) option -print0. o The result list is not sorted. Use "-" instead of a filename to read/write from stdin/stdout. findfs-label findfs-label label This command searches the filesystems and returns the one which has the given label. An error is returned if no such filesystem can be found. To find the label of a filesystem, use "vfs-label". findfs-uuid findfs-uuid uuid This command searches the filesystems and returns the one which has the given UUID. An error is returned if no such filesystem can be found. To find the UUID of a filesystem, use "vfs-uuid". fsck fsck fstype device This runs the filesystem checker (fsck) on "device" which should have filesystem type "fstype". The returned integer is the status. See fsck(8) for the list of status codes from "fsck". Notes: o Multiple status codes can be summed together. o A non-zero return code can mean "success", for example if errors have been corrected on the filesystem. o Checking or repairing NTFS volumes is not supported (by linux-ntfs). This command is entirely equivalent to running "fsck -a -t fstype device". fstrim fstrim mountpoint [offset:N] [length:N] [minimumfreeextent:N] Trim the free space in the filesystem mounted on "mountpoint". The filesystem must be mounted read-write. The filesystem contents are not affected, but any free space in the filesystem is "trimmed", that is, given back to the host device, thus making disk images more sparse, allowing unused space in qcow2 files to be reused, etc. This operation requires support in libguestfs, the mounted filesystem, the host filesystem, qemu and the host kernel. If this support isn't present it may give an error or even appear to run but do nothing. See also "zero-free-space". That is a slightly different operation that turns free space in the filesystem into zeroes. It is valid to call "fstrim" either instead of, or after calling "zero-free-space". This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS". get-append get-append Return the additional kernel options which are added to the guest kernel command line. If "NULL" then no options are added. get-attach-method get-attach-method Return the current backend. See "set-backend" and "BACKEND" in guestfs(3). This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "get-backend" call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. get-autosync get-autosync Get the autosync flag. get-backend get-backend Return the current backend. This handle property was previously called the "attach method". See "set-backend" and "BACKEND" in guestfs(3). get-cachedir get-cachedir Get the directory used by the handle to store the appliance cache. get-direct get-direct Return the direct appliance mode flag. get-e2attrs get-e2attrs file This returns the file attributes associated with "file". The attributes are a set of bits associated with each inode which affect the behaviour of the file. The attributes are returned as a string of letters (described below). The string may be empty, indicating that no file attributes are set for this file. These attributes are only present when the file is located on an ext2/3/4 filesystem. Using this call on other filesystem types will result in an error. The characters (file attributes) in the returned string are currently: 'A' When the file is accessed, its atime is not modified. 'a' The file is append-only. 'c' The file is compressed on-disk. 'D' (Directories only.) Changes to this directory are written synchronously to disk. 'd' The file is not a candidate for backup (see dump(8)). 'E' The file has compression errors. 'e' The file is using extents. 'h' The file is storing its blocks in units of the filesystem blocksize instead of sectors. 'I' (Directories only.) The directory is using hashed trees. 'i' The file is immutable. It cannot be modified, deleted or renamed. No link can be created to this file. 'j' The file is data-journaled. 's' When the file is deleted, all its blocks will be zeroed. 'S' Changes to this file are written synchronously to disk. 'T' (Directories only.) This is a hint to the block allocator that subdirectories contained in this directory should be spread across blocks. If not present, the block allocator will try to group subdirectories together. 't' For a file, this disables tail-merging. (Not used by upstream implementations of ext2.) 'u' When the file is deleted, its blocks will be saved, allowing the file to be undeleted. 'X' The raw contents of the compressed file may be accessed. 'Z' The compressed file is dirty. More file attributes may be added to this list later. Not all file attributes may be set for all kinds of files. For detailed information, consult the chattr(1) man page. See also "set-e2attrs". Don't confuse these attributes with extended attributes (see "getxattr"). get-e2generation get-e2generation file This returns the ext2 file generation of a file. The generation (which used to be called the "version") is a number associated with an inode. This is most commonly used by NFS servers. The generation is only present when the file is located on an ext2/3/4 filesystem. Using this call on other filesystem types will result in an error. See "set-e2generation". get-e2label get-e2label device This returns the ext2/3/4 filesystem label of the filesystem on "device". This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "vfs-label" call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. get-e2uuid get-e2uuid device This returns the ext2/3/4 filesystem UUID of the filesystem on "device". This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "vfs-uuid" call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. get-libvirt-requested-credential-challenge get-libvirt-requested-credential-challenge index Get the challenge (provided by libvirt) for the "index"'th requested credential. If libvirt did not provide a challenge, this returns the empty string "". See "LIBVIRT AUTHENTICATION" in guestfs(3) for documentation and example code. get-libvirt-requested-credential-defresult get-libvirt-requested-credential-defresult index Get the default result (provided by libvirt) for the "index"'th requested credential. If libvirt did not provide a default result, this returns the empty string "". See "LIBVIRT AUTHENTICATION" in guestfs(3) for documentation and example code. get-libvirt-requested-credential-prompt get-libvirt-requested-credential-prompt index Get the prompt (provided by libvirt) for the "index"'th requested credential. If libvirt did not provide a prompt, this returns the empty string "". See "LIBVIRT AUTHENTICATION" in guestfs(3) for documentation and example code. get-libvirt-requested-credentials get-libvirt-requested-credentials This should only be called during the event callback for events of type "GUESTFS_EVENT_LIBVIRT_AUTH". Return the list of credentials requested by libvirt. Possible values are a subset of the strings provided when you called "set-libvirt-supported-credentials". See "LIBVIRT AUTHENTICATION" in guestfs(3) for documentation and example code. get-memsize get-memsize This gets the memory size in megabytes allocated to the qemu subprocess. If "set-memsize" was not called on this handle, and if "LIBGUESTFS_MEMSIZE" was not set, then this returns the compiled-in default value for memsize. For more information on the architecture of libguestfs, see guestfs(3). get-network get-network This returns the enable network flag. get-path get-path Return the current search path. This is always non-NULL. If it wasn't set already, then this will return the default path. get-pgroup get-pgroup This returns the process group flag. get-pid pid get-pid Return the process ID of the qemu subprocess. If there is no qemu subprocess, then this will return an error. This is an internal call used for debugging and testing. get-program get-program Get the program name. See "set-program". get-qemu get-qemu Return the current qemu binary. This is always non-NULL. If it wasn't set already, then this will return the default qemu binary name. get-recovery-proc get-recovery-proc Return the recovery process enabled flag. get-selinux get-selinux This returns the current setting of the selinux flag which is passed to the appliance at boot time. See "set-selinux". For more information on the architecture of libguestfs, see guestfs(3). get-smp get-smp This returns the number of virtual CPUs assigned to the appliance. get-tmpdir get-tmpdir Get the directory used by the handle to store temporary files. get-trace get-trace Return the command trace flag. get-umask get-umask Return the current umask. By default the umask is 022 unless it has been set by calling "umask". get-verbose get-verbose This returns the verbose messages flag. getcon getcon This gets the SELinux security context of the daemon. See the documentation about SELINUX in guestfs(3), and "setcon" getxattr getxattr path name Get a single extended attribute from file "path" named "name". This call follows symlinks. If you want to lookup an extended attribute for the symlink itself, use "lgetxattr". Normally it is better to get all extended attributes from a file in one go by calling "getxattrs". However some Linux filesystem implementations are buggy and do not provide a way to list out attributes. For these filesystems (notably ntfs-3g) you have to know the names of the extended attributes you want in advance and call this function. Extended attribute values are blobs of binary data. If there is no extended attribute named "name", this returns an error. See also: "getxattrs", "lgetxattr", attr(5). getxattrs getxattrs path This call lists the extended attributes of the file or directory "path". At the system call level, this is a combination of the listxattr(2) and getxattr(2) calls. See also: "lgetxattrs", attr(5). glob-expand glob-expand pattern This command searches for all the pathnames matching "pattern" according to the wildcard expansion rules used by the shell. If no paths match, then this returns an empty list (note: not an error). It is just a wrapper around the C glob(3) function with flags "GLOB_MARK|GLOB_BRACE". See that manual page for more details. Notice that there is no equivalent command for expanding a device name (eg. "/dev/sd*"). Use "list-devices", "list-partitions" etc functions instead. grep grep-opts grep regex path [extended:true|false] [fixed:true|false] [insensitive:true|false] [compressed:true|false] This calls the external "grep" program and returns the matching lines. The optional flags are: "extended" Use extended regular expressions. This is the same as using the -E flag. "fixed" Match fixed (don't use regular expressions). This is the same as using the -F flag. "insensitive" Match case-insensitive. This is the same as using the -i flag. "compressed" Use "zgrep" instead of "grep". This allows the input to be compress- or gzip- compressed. This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS". Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3). grepi grepi regex path This calls the external "grep -i" program and returns the matching lines. Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3). This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "grep" call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. grub-install grub-install root device This command installs GRUB 1 (the Grand Unified Bootloader) on "device", with the root directory being "root". Notes: o There is currently no way in the API to install grub2, which is used by most modern Linux guests. It is possible to run the grub2 command from the guest, although see the caveats in "RUNNING COMMANDS" in guestfs(3). o This uses "grub-install" from the host. Unfortunately grub is not always compatible with itself, so this only works in rather narrow circumstances. Careful testing with each guest version is advisable. o If grub-install reports the error "No suitable drive was found in the generated device map." it may be that you need to create a "/boot/grub/device.map" file first that contains the mapping between grub device names and Linux device names. It is usually sufficient to create a file containing: (hd0) /dev/vda replacing "/dev/vda" with the name of the installation device. head head path This command returns up to the first 10 lines of a file as a list of strings. Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3). head-n head-n nrlines path If the parameter "nrlines" is a positive number, this returns the first "nrlines" lines of the file "path". If the parameter "nrlines" is a negative number, this returns lines from the file "path", excluding the last "nrlines" lines. If the parameter "nrlines" is zero, this returns an empty list. Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3). hexdump hexdump path This runs "hexdump -C" on the given "path". The result is the human-readable, canonical hex dump of the file. Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3). hivex-close hivex-close Close the current hivex handle. This is a wrapper around the hivex(3) call of the same name. hivex-commit hivex-commit filename Commit (write) changes to the hive. If the optional "filename" parameter is null, then the changes are written back to the same hive that was opened. If this is not null then they are written to the alternate filename given and the original hive is left untouched. This is a wrapper around the hivex(3) call of the same name. hivex-node-add-child hivex-node-add-child parent name Add a child node to "parent" named "name". This is a wrapper around the hivex(3) call of the same name. hivex-node-children hivex-node-children nodeh Return the list of nodes which are subkeys of "nodeh". This is a wrapper around the hivex(3) call of the same name. hivex-node-delete-child hivex-node-delete-child nodeh Delete "nodeh", recursively if necessary. This is a wrapper around the hivex(3) call of the same name. hivex-node-get-child hivex-node-get-child nodeh name Return the child of "nodeh" with the name "name", if it exists. This can return 0 meaning the name was not found. This is a wrapper around the hivex(3) call of the same name. hivex-node-get-value hivex-node-get-value nodeh key Return the value attached to "nodeh" which has the name "key", if it exists. This can return 0 meaning the key was not found. This is a wrapper around the hivex(3) call of the same name. hivex-node-name hivex-node-name nodeh Return the name of "nodeh". This is a wrapper around the hivex(3) call of the same name. hivex-node-parent hivex-node-parent nodeh Return the parent node of "nodeh". This is a wrapper around the hivex(3) call of the same name. hivex-node-set-value hivex-node-set-value nodeh key t val Set or replace a single value under the node "nodeh". The "key" is the name, "t" is the type, and "val" is the data. This is a wrapper around the hivex(3) call of the same name. hivex-node-values hivex-node-values nodeh Return the array of (key, datatype, data) tuples attached to "nodeh". This is a wrapper around the hivex(3) call of the same name. hivex-open hivex-open filename [verbose:true|false] [debug:true|false] [write:true|false] Open the Windows Registry hive file named "filename". If there was any previous hivex handle associated with this guestfs session, then it is closed. This is a wrapper around the hivex(3) call of the same name. This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS". hivex-root hivex-root Return the root node of the hive. This is a wrapper around the hivex(3) call of the same name. hivex-value-key hivex-value-key valueh Return the key (name) field of a (key, datatype, data) tuple. This is a wrapper around the hivex(3) call of the same name. hivex-value-type hivex-value-type valueh Return the data type field from a (key, datatype, data) tuple. This is a wrapper around the hivex(3) call of the same name. hivex-value-utf8 hivex-value-utf8 valueh This calls "hivex-value-value" (which returns the data field from a hivex value tuple). It then assumes that the field is a UTF-16LE string and converts the result to UTF-8 (or if this is not possible, it returns an error). This is useful for reading strings out of the Windows registry. However it is not foolproof because the registry is not strongly-typed and fields can contain arbitrary or unexpected data. hivex-value-value hivex-value-value valueh Return the data field of a (key, datatype, data) tuple. This is a wrapper around the hivex(3) call of the same name. See also: "hivex-value-utf8". initrd-cat initrd-cat initrdpath filename This command unpacks the file "filename" from the initrd file called "initrdpath". The filename must be given without the initial "/" character. For example, in guestfish you could use the following command to examine the boot script (usually called "/init") contained in a Linux initrd or initramfs image: initrd-cat /boot/initrd-.img init See also "initrd-list". Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3). initrd-list initrd-list path This command lists out files contained in an initrd. The files are listed without any initial "/" character. The files are listed in the order they appear (not necessarily alphabetical). Directory names are listed as separate items. Old Linux kernels (2.4 and earlier) used a compressed ext2 filesystem as initrd. We only support the newer initramfs format (compressed cpio files). inotify-add-watch inotify-add-watch path mask Watch "path" for the events listed in "mask". Note that if "path" is a directory then events within that directory are watched, but this does not happen recursively (in subdirectories). Note for non-C or non-Linux callers: the inotify events are defined by the Linux kernel ABI and are listed in "/usr/include/sys/inotify.h". inotify-close inotify-close This closes the inotify handle which was previously opened by inotify_init. It removes all watches, throws away any pending events, and deallocates all resources. inotify-files inotify-files This function is a helpful wrapper around "inotify-read" which just returns a list of pathnames of objects that were touched. The returned pathnames are sorted and deduplicated. inotify-init inotify-init maxevents This command creates a new inotify handle. The inotify subsystem can be used to notify events which happen to objects in the guest filesystem. "maxevents" is the maximum number of events which will be queued up between calls to "inotify-read" or "inotify-files". If this is passed as 0, then the kernel (or previously set) default is used. For Linux 2.6.29 the default was 16384 events. Beyond this limit, the kernel throws away events, but records the fact that it threw them away by setting a flag "IN_Q_OVERFLOW" in the returned structure list (see "inotify-read"). Before any events are generated, you have to add some watches to the internal watch list. See: "inotify-add-watch" and "inotify-rm-watch". Queued up events should be read periodically by calling "inotify-read" (or "inotify-files" which is just a helpful wrapper around "inotify-read"). If you don't read the events out often enough then you risk the internal queue overflowing. The handle should be closed after use by calling "inotify-close". This also removes any watches automatically. See also inotify(7) for an overview of the inotify interface as exposed by the Linux kernel, which is roughly what we expose via libguestfs. Note that there is one global inotify handle per libguestfs instance. inotify-read inotify-read Return the complete queue of events that have happened since the previous read call. If no events have happened, this returns an empty list. Note: In order to make sure that all events have been read, you must call this function repeatedly until it returns an empty list. The reason is that the call will read events up to the maximum appliance-to-host message size and leave remaining events in the queue. inotify-rm-watch inotify-rm-watch wd Remove a previously defined inotify watch. See "inotify-add-watch". inspect-get-arch inspect-get-arch root This returns the architecture of the inspected operating system. The possible return values are listed under "file-architecture". If the architecture could not be determined, then the string "unknown" is returned. Please read "INSPECTION" in guestfs(3) for more details. inspect-get-distro inspect-get-distro root This returns the distro (distribution) of the inspected operating system. Currently defined distros are: "archlinux" Arch Linux. "buildroot" Buildroot-derived distro, but not one we specifically recognize. "centos" CentOS. "cirros" Cirros. "debian" Debian. "fedora" Fedora. "freedos" FreeDOS. "gentoo" Gentoo. "linuxmint" Linux Mint. "mageia" Mageia. "mandriva" Mandriva. "meego" MeeGo. "openbsd" OpenBSD. "opensuse" OpenSUSE. "pardus" Pardus. "redhat-based" Some Red Hat-derived distro. "rhel" Red Hat Enterprise Linux. "scientificlinux" Scientific Linux. "slackware" Slackware. "sles" SuSE Linux Enterprise Server or Desktop. "suse-based" Some openSuSE-derived distro. "ttylinux" ttylinux. "ubuntu" Ubuntu. "unknown" The distro could not be determined. "windows" Windows does not have distributions. This string is returned if the OS type is Windows. Future versions of libguestfs may return other strings here. The caller should be prepared to handle any string. Please read "INSPECTION" in guestfs(3) for more details. inspect-get-drive-mappings inspect-get-drive-mappings root This call is useful for Windows which uses a primitive system of assigning drive letters (like "C:") to partitions. This inspection API examines the Windows Registry to find out how disks/partitions are mapped to drive letters, and returns a hash table as in the example below: C => /dev/vda2 E => /dev/vdb1 F => /dev/vdc1 Note that keys are drive letters. For Windows, the key is case insensitive and just contains the drive letter, without the customary colon separator character. In future we may support other operating systems that also used drive letters, but the keys for those might not be case insensitive and might be longer than 1 character. For example in OS-9, hard drives were named "h0", "h1" etc. For Windows guests, currently only hard drive mappings are returned. Removable disks (eg. DVD-ROMs) are ignored. For guests that do not use drive mappings, or if the drive mappings could not be determined, this returns an empty hash table. Please read "INSPECTION" in guestfs(3) for more details. See also "inspect-get- mountpoints", "inspect-get-filesystems". inspect-get-filesystems inspect-get-filesystems root This returns a list of all the filesystems that we think are associated with this operating system. This includes the root filesystem, other ordinary filesystems, and non- mounted devices like swap partitions. In the case of a multi-boot virtual machine, it is possible for a filesystem to be shared between operating systems. Please read "INSPECTION" in guestfs(3) for more details. See also "inspect-get- mountpoints". inspect-get-format inspect-get-format root This returns the format of the inspected operating system. You can use it to detect install images, live CDs and similar. Currently defined formats are: "installed" This is an installed operating system. "installer" The disk image being inspected is not an installed operating system, but a bootable install disk, live CD, or similar. "unknown" The format of this disk image is not known. Future versions of libguestfs may return other strings here. The caller should be prepared to handle any string. Please read "INSPECTION" in guestfs(3) for more details. inspect-get-hostname inspect-get-hostname root This function returns the hostname of the operating system as found by inspection of the guest's configuration files. If the hostname could not be determined, then the string "unknown" is returned. Please read "INSPECTION" in guestfs(3) for more details. inspect-get-icon inspect-get-icon root [favicon:true|false] [highquality:true|false] This function returns an icon corresponding to the inspected operating system. The icon is returned as a buffer containing a PNG image (re-encoded to PNG if necessary). If it was not possible to get an icon this function returns a zero-length (non-NULL) buffer. Callers must check for this case. Libguestfs will start by looking for a file called "/etc/favicon.png" or "C:\etc\favicon.png" and if it has the correct format, the contents of this file will be returned. You can disable favicons by passing the optional "favicon" boolean as false (default is true). If finding the favicon fails, then we look in other places in the guest for a suitable icon. If the optional "highquality" boolean is true then only high quality icons are returned, which means only icons of high resolution with an alpha channel. The default (false) is to return any icon we can, even if it is of substandard quality. Notes: o Unlike most other inspection API calls, the guest's disks must be mounted up before you call this, since it needs to read information from the guest filesystem during the call. o Security: The icon data comes from the untrusted guest, and should be treated with caution. PNG files have been known to contain exploits. Ensure that libpng (or other relevant libraries) are fully up to date before trying to process or display the icon. o The PNG image returned can be any size. It might not be square. Libguestfs tries to return the largest, highest quality icon available. The application must scale the icon to the required size. o Extracting icons from Windows guests requires the external "wrestool" program from the "icoutils" package, and several programs ("bmptopnm", "pnmtopng", "pamcut") from the "netpbm" package. These must be installed separately. o Operating system icons are usually trademarks. Seek legal advice before using trademarks in applications. This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS". inspect-get-major-version inspect-get-major-version root This returns the major version number of the inspected operating system. Windows uses a consistent versioning scheme which is not reflected in the popular public names used by the operating system. Notably the operating system known as "Windows 7" is really version 6.1 (ie. major = 6, minor = 1). You can find out the real versions corresponding to releases of Windows by consulting Wikipedia or MSDN. If the version could not be determined, then 0 is returned. Please read "INSPECTION" in guestfs(3) for more details. inspect-get-minor-version inspect-get-minor-version root This returns the minor version number of the inspected operating system. If the version could not be determined, then 0 is returned. Please read "INSPECTION" in guestfs(3) for more details. See also "inspect-get-major- version". inspect-get-mountpoints inspect-get-mountpoints root This returns a hash of where we think the filesystems associated with this operating system should be mounted. Callers should note that this is at best an educated guess made by reading configuration files such as "/etc/fstab". In particular note that this may return filesystems which are non-existent or not mountable and callers should be prepared to handle or ignore failures if they try to mount them. Each element in the returned hashtable has a key which is the path of the mountpoint (eg. "/boot") and a value which is the filesystem that would be mounted there (eg. "/dev/sda1"). Non-mounted devices such as swap devices are not returned in this list. For operating systems like Windows which still use drive letters, this call will only return an entry for the first drive "mounted on" "/". For information about the mapping of drive letters to partitions, see "inspect-get-drive-mappings". Please read "INSPECTION" in guestfs(3) for more details. See also "inspect-get- filesystems". inspect-get-package-format inspect-get-package-format root This function and "inspect-get-package-management" return the package format and package management tool used by the inspected operating system. For example for Fedora these functions would return "rpm" (package format) and "yum" (package management). This returns the string "unknown" if we could not determine the package format or if the operating system does not have a real packaging system (eg. Windows). Possible strings include: "rpm", "deb", "ebuild", "pisi", "pacman", "pkgsrc". Future versions of libguestfs may return other strings. Please read "INSPECTION" in guestfs(3) for more details. inspect-get-package-management inspect-get-package-management root "inspect-get-package-format" and this function return the package format and package management tool used by the inspected operating system. For example for Fedora these functions would return "rpm" (package format) and "yum" (package management). This returns the string "unknown" if we could not determine the package management tool or if the operating system does not have a real packaging system (eg. Windows). Possible strings include: "yum", "up2date", "apt" (for all Debian derivatives), "portage", "pisi", "pacman", "urpmi", "zypper". Future versions of libguestfs may return other strings. Please read "INSPECTION" in guestfs(3) for more details. inspect-get-product-name inspect-get-product-name root This returns the product name of the inspected operating system. The product name is generally some freeform string which can be displayed to the user, but should not be parsed by programs. If the product name could not be determined, then the string "unknown" is returned. Please read "INSPECTION" in guestfs(3) for more details. inspect-get-product-variant inspect-get-product-variant root This returns the product variant of the inspected operating system. For Windows guests, this returns the contents of the Registry key "HKLM\Software\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion" "InstallationType" which is usually a string such as "Client" or "Server" (other values are possible). This can be used to distinguish consumer and enterprise versions of Windows that have the same version number (for example, Windows 7 and Windows 2008 Server are both version 6.1, but the former is "Client" and the latter is "Server"). For enterprise Linux guests, in future we intend this to return the product variant such as "Desktop", "Server" and so on. But this is not implemented at present. If the product variant could not be determined, then the string "unknown" is returned. Please read "INSPECTION" in guestfs(3) for more details. See also "inspect-get-product- name", "inspect-get-major-version". inspect-get-roots inspect-get-roots This function is a convenient way to get the list of root devices, as returned from a previous call to "inspect-os", but without redoing the whole inspection process. This returns an empty list if either no root devices were found or the caller has not called "inspect-os". Please read "INSPECTION" in guestfs(3) for more details. inspect-get-type inspect-get-type root This returns the type of the inspected operating system. Currently defined types are: "linux" Any Linux-based operating system. "windows" Any Microsoft Windows operating system. "freebsd" FreeBSD. "netbsd" NetBSD. "openbsd" OpenBSD. "hurd" GNU/Hurd. "dos" MS-DOS, FreeDOS and others. "unknown" The operating system type could not be determined. Future versions of libguestfs may return other strings here. The caller should be prepared to handle any string. Please read "INSPECTION" in guestfs(3) for more details. inspect-get-windows-current-control-set inspect-get-windows-current-control-set root This returns the Windows CurrentControlSet of the inspected guest. The CurrentControlSet is a registry key name such as "ControlSet001". This call assumes that the guest is Windows and that the Registry could be examined by inspection. If this is not the case then an error is returned. Please read "INSPECTION" in guestfs(3) for more details. inspect-get-windows-systemroot inspect-get-windows-systemroot root This returns the Windows systemroot of the inspected guest. The systemroot is a directory path such as "/WINDOWS". This call assumes that the guest is Windows and that the systemroot could be determined by inspection. If this is not the case then an error is returned. Please read "INSPECTION" in guestfs(3) for more details. inspect-is-live inspect-is-live root If "inspect-get-format" returns "installer" (this is an install disk), then this returns true if a live image was detected on the disk. Please read "INSPECTION" in guestfs(3) for more details. inspect-is-multipart inspect-is-multipart root If "inspect-get-format" returns "installer" (this is an install disk), then this returns true if the disk is part of a set. Please read "INSPECTION" in guestfs(3) for more details. inspect-is-netinst inspect-is-netinst root If "inspect-get-format" returns "installer" (this is an install disk), then this returns true if the disk is a network installer, ie. not a self-contained install CD but one which is likely to require network access to complete the install. Please read "INSPECTION" in guestfs(3) for more details. inspect-list-applications inspect-list-applications root Return the list of applications installed in the operating system. Note: This call works differently from other parts of the inspection API. You have to call "inspect-os", then "inspect-get-mountpoints", then mount up the disks, before calling this. Listing applications is a significantly more difficult operation which requires access to the full filesystem. Also note that unlike the other "inspect-get-*" calls which are just returning data cached in the libguestfs handle, this call actually reads parts of the mounted filesystems during the call. This returns an empty list if the inspection code was not able to determine the list of applications. The application structure contains the following fields: "app_name" The name of the application. For Red Hat-derived and Debian-derived Linux guests, this is the package name. "app_display_name" The display name of the application, sometimes localized to the install language of the guest operating system. If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "". Callers needing to display something can use "app_name" instead. "app_epoch" For package managers which use epochs, this contains the epoch of the package (an integer). If unavailable, this is returned as 0. "app_version" The version string of the application or package. If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "". "app_release" The release string of the application or package, for package managers that use this. If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "". "app_install_path" The installation path of the application (on operating systems such as Windows which use installation paths). This path is in the format used by the guest operating system, it is not a libguestfs path. If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "". "app_trans_path" The install path translated into a libguestfs path. If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "". "app_publisher" The name of the publisher of the application, for package managers that use this. If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "". "app_url" The URL (eg. upstream URL) of the application. If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "". "app_source_package" For packaging systems which support this, the name of the source package. If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "". "app_summary" A short (usually one line) description of the application or package. If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "". "app_description" A longer description of the application or package. If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "". Please read "INSPECTION" in guestfs(3) for more details. This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "inspect-list-applications2" call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. inspect-list-applications2 inspect-list-applications2 root Return the list of applications installed in the operating system. Note: This call works differently from other parts of the inspection API. You have to call "inspect-os", then "inspect-get-mountpoints", then mount up the disks, before calling this. Listing applications is a significantly more difficult operation which requires access to the full filesystem. Also note that unlike the other "inspect-get-*" calls which are just returning data cached in the libguestfs handle, this call actually reads parts of the mounted filesystems during the call. This returns an empty list if the inspection code was not able to determine the list of applications. The application structure contains the following fields: "app2_name" The name of the application. For Red Hat-derived and Debian-derived Linux guests, this is the package name. "app2_display_name" The display name of the application, sometimes localized to the install language of the guest operating system. If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "". Callers needing to display something can use "app2_name" instead. "app2_epoch" For package managers which use epochs, this contains the epoch of the package (an integer). If unavailable, this is returned as 0. "app2_version" The version string of the application or package. If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "". "app2_release" The release string of the application or package, for package managers that use this. If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "". "app2_arch" The architecture string of the application or package, for package managers that use this. If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "". "app2_install_path" The installation path of the application (on operating systems such as Windows which use installation paths). This path is in the format used by the guest operating system, it is not a libguestfs path. If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "". "app2_trans_path" The install path translated into a libguestfs path. If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "". "app2_publisher" The name of the publisher of the application, for package managers that use this. If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "". "app2_url" The URL (eg. upstream URL) of the application. If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "". "app2_source_package" For packaging systems which support this, the name of the source package. If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "". "app2_summary" A short (usually one line) description of the application or package. If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "". "app2_description" A longer description of the application or package. If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "". Please read "INSPECTION" in guestfs(3) for more details. inspect-os inspect-os This function uses other libguestfs functions and certain heuristics to inspect the disk(s) (usually disks belonging to a virtual machine), looking for operating systems. The list returned is empty if no operating systems were found. If one operating system was found, then this returns a list with a single element, which is the name of the root filesystem of this operating system. It is also possible for this function to return a list containing more than one element, indicating a dual-boot or multi-boot virtual machine, with each element being the root filesystem of one of the operating systems. You can pass the root string(s) returned to other "inspect-get-*" functions in order to query further information about each operating system, such as the name and version. This function uses other libguestfs features such as "mount-ro" and "umount-all" in order to mount and unmount filesystems and look at the contents. This should be called with no disks currently mounted. The function may also use Augeas, so any existing Augeas handle will be closed. This function cannot decrypt encrypted disks. The caller must do that first (supplying the necessary keys) if the disk is encrypted. Please read "INSPECTION" in guestfs(3) for more details. See also "list-filesystems". is-blockdev is-blockdev-opts is-blockdev path [followsymlinks:true|false] This returns "true" if and only if there is a block device with the given "path" name. If the optional flag "followsymlinks" is true, then a symlink (or chain of symlinks) that ends with a block device also causes the function to return true. See also "stat". This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS". is-chardev is-chardev-opts is-chardev path [followsymlinks:true|false] This returns "true" if and only if there is a character device with the given "path" name. If the optional flag "followsymlinks" is true, then a symlink (or chain of symlinks) that ends with a chardev also causes the function to return true. See also "stat". This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS". is-config is-config This returns true iff this handle is being configured (in the "CONFIG" state). For more information on states, see guestfs(3). is-dir is-dir-opts is-dir path [followsymlinks:true|false] This returns "true" if and only if there is a directory with the given "path" name. Note that it returns false for other objects like files. If the optional flag "followsymlinks" is true, then a symlink (or chain of symlinks) that ends with a directory also causes the function to return true. See also "stat". This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS". is-fifo is-fifo-opts is-fifo path [followsymlinks:true|false] This returns "true" if and only if there is a FIFO (named pipe) with the given "path" name. If the optional flag "followsymlinks" is true, then a symlink (or chain of symlinks) that ends with a FIFO also causes the function to return true. See also "stat". This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS". is-file is-file-opts is-file path [followsymlinks:true|false] This returns "true" if and only if there is a regular file with the given "path" name. Note that it returns false for other objects like directories. If the optional flag "followsymlinks" is true, then a symlink (or chain of symlinks) that ends with a file also causes the function to return true. See also "stat". This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS". is-lv is-lv device This command tests whether "device" is a logical volume, and returns true iff this is the case. is-socket is-socket-opts is-socket path [followsymlinks:true|false] This returns "true" if and only if there is a Unix domain socket with the given "path" name. If the optional flag "followsymlinks" is true, then a symlink (or chain of symlinks) that ends with a socket also causes the function to return true. See also "stat". This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS". is-symlink is-symlink path This returns "true" if and only if there is a symbolic link with the given "path" name. See also "stat". is-whole-device is-whole-device device This returns "true" if and only if "device" refers to a whole block device. That is, not a partition or a logical device. is-zero is-zero path This returns true iff the file exists and the file is empty or it contains all zero bytes. is-zero-device is-zero-device device This returns true iff the device exists and contains all zero bytes. Note that for large devices this can take a long time to run. isoinfo isoinfo isofile This is the same as "isoinfo-device" except that it works for an ISO file located inside some other mounted filesystem. Note that in the common case where you have added an ISO file as a libguestfs device, you would not call this. Instead you would call "isoinfo- device". isoinfo-device isoinfo-device device "device" is an ISO device. This returns a struct of information read from the primary volume descriptor (the ISO equivalent of the superblock) of the device. Usually it is more efficient to use the isoinfo(1) command with the -d option on the host to analyze ISO files, instead of going through libguestfs. For information on the primary volume descriptor fields, see http://wiki.osdev.org/ISO_9660#The_Primary_Volume_Descriptor kill-subprocess kill-subprocess This kills the qemu subprocess. Do not call this. See: "shutdown" instead. This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "shutdown" call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. launch run launch Internally libguestfs is implemented by running a virtual machine using qemu(1). You should call this after configuring the handle (eg. adding drives) but before performing any actions. Do not call "launch" twice on the same handle. Although it will not give an error (for historical reasons), the precise behaviour when you do this is not well defined. Handles are very cheap to create, so create a new one for each launch. lchown lchown owner group path Change the file owner to "owner" and group to "group". This is like "chown" but if "path" is a symlink then the link itself is changed, not the target. Only numeric uid and gid are supported. If you want to use names, you will need to locate and parse the password file yourself (Augeas support makes this relatively easy). ldmtool-create-all ldmtool-create-all This function scans all block devices looking for Windows dynamic disk volumes and partitions, and creates devices for any that were found. Call "list-ldm-volumes" and "list-ldm-partitions" to return all devices. Note that you don't normally need to call this explicitly, since it is done automatically at "launch" time. However you might want to call this function if you have hotplugged disks or have just created a Windows dynamic disk. ldmtool-diskgroup-disks ldmtool-diskgroup-disks diskgroup Return the disks in a Windows dynamic disk group. The "diskgroup" parameter should be the GUID of a disk group, one element from the list returned by "ldmtool-scan". ldmtool-diskgroup-name ldmtool-diskgroup-name diskgroup Return the name of a Windows dynamic disk group. The "diskgroup" parameter should be the GUID of a disk group, one element from the list returned by "ldmtool-scan". ldmtool-diskgroup-volumes ldmtool-diskgroup-volumes diskgroup Return the volumes in a Windows dynamic disk group. The "diskgroup" parameter should be the GUID of a disk group, one element from the list returned by "ldmtool-scan". ldmtool-remove-all ldmtool-remove-all This is essentially the opposite of "ldmtool-create-all". It removes the device mapper mappings for all Windows dynamic disk volumes ldmtool-scan ldmtool-scan This function scans for Windows dynamic disks. It returns a list of identifiers (GUIDs) for all disk groups that were found. These identifiers can be passed to other "ldmtool-*" functions. This function scans all block devices. To scan a subset of block devices, call "ldmtool- scan-devices" instead. ldmtool-scan-devices ldmtool-scan-devices 'devices ...' This function scans for Windows dynamic disks. It returns a list of identifiers (GUIDs) for all disk groups that were found. These identifiers can be passed to other "ldmtool-*" functions. The parameter "devices" is a list of block devices which are scanned. If this list is empty, all block devices are scanned. ldmtool-volume-hint ldmtool-volume-hint diskgroup volume Return the hint field of the volume named "volume" in the disk group with GUID "diskgroup". This may not be defined, in which case the empty string is returned. The hint field is often, though not always, the name of a Windows drive, eg. "E:". ldmtool-volume-partitions ldmtool-volume-partitions diskgroup volume Return the list of partitions in the volume named "volume" in the disk group with GUID "diskgroup". ldmtool-volume-type ldmtool-volume-type diskgroup volume Return the type of the volume named "volume" in the disk group with GUID "diskgroup". Possible volume types that can be returned here include: "simple", "spanned", "striped", "mirrored", "raid5". Other types may also be returned. lgetxattr lgetxattr path name Get a single extended attribute from file "path" named "name". If "path" is a symlink, then this call returns an extended attribute from the symlink. Normally it is better to get all extended attributes from a file in one go by calling "getxattrs". However some Linux filesystem implementations are buggy and do not provide a way to list out attributes. For these filesystems (notably ntfs-3g) you have to know the names of the extended attributes you want in advance and call this function. Extended attribute values are blobs of binary data. If there is no extended attribute named "name", this returns an error. See also: "lgetxattrs", "getxattr", attr(5). lgetxattrs lgetxattrs path This is the same as "getxattrs", but if "path" is a symbolic link, then it returns the extended attributes of the link itself. list-devices list-devices List all the block devices. The full block device names are returned, eg. "/dev/sda". See also "list-filesystems". list-disk-labels list-disk-labels If you add drives using the optional "label" parameter of "add-drive-opts", you can use this call to map between disk labels, and raw block device and partition names (like "/dev/sda" and "/dev/sda1"). This returns a hashtable, where keys are the disk labels (without the "/dev/disk/guestfs" prefix), and the values are the full raw block device and partition names (eg. "/dev/sda" and "/dev/sda1"). list-dm-devices list-dm-devices List all device mapper devices. The returned list contains "/dev/mapper/*" devices, eg. ones created by a previous call to "luks-open". Device mapper devices which correspond to logical volumes are not returned in this list. Call "lvs" if you want to list logical volumes. list-filesystems list-filesystems This inspection command looks for filesystems on partitions, block devices and logical volumes, returning a list of "mountables" containing filesystems and their type. The return value is a hash, where the keys are the devices containing filesystems, and the values are the filesystem types. For example: "/dev/sda1" => "ntfs" "/dev/sda2" => "ext2" "/dev/vg_guest/lv_root" => "ext4" "/dev/vg_guest/lv_swap" => "swap" The key is not necessarily a block device. It may also be an opaque 'mountable' string which can be passed to "mount". The value can have the special value "unknown", meaning the content of the device is undetermined or empty. "swap" means a Linux swap partition. This command runs other libguestfs commands, which might include "mount" and "umount", and therefore you should use this soon after launch and only when nothing is mounted. Not all of the filesystems returned will be mountable. In particular, swap partitions are returned in the list. Also this command does not check that each filesystem found is valid and mountable, and some filesystems might be mountable but require special options. Filesystems may not all belong to a single logical operating system (use "inspect-os" to look for OSes). list-ldm-partitions list-ldm-partitions This function returns all Windows dynamic disk partitions that were found at launch time. It returns a list of device names. list-ldm-volumes list-ldm-volumes This function returns all Windows dynamic disk volumes that were found at launch time. It returns a list of device names. list-md-devices list-md-devices List all Linux md devices. list-partitions list-partitions List all the partitions detected on all block devices. The full partition device names are returned, eg. "/dev/sda1" This does not return logical volumes. For that you will need to call "lvs". See also "list-filesystems". ll ll directory List the files in "directory" (relative to the root directory, there is no cwd) in the format of 'ls -la'. This command is mostly useful for interactive sessions. It is not intended that you try to parse the output string. llz llz directory List the files in "directory" in the format of 'ls -laZ'. This command is mostly useful for interactive sessions. It is not intended that you try to parse the output string. ln ln target linkname This command creates a hard link using the "ln" command. ln-f ln-f target linkname This command creates a hard link using the "ln -f" command. The -f option removes the link ("linkname") if it exists already. ln-s ln-s target linkname This command creates a symbolic link using the "ln -s" command. ln-sf ln-sf target linkname This command creates a symbolic link using the "ln -sf" command, The -f option removes the link ("linkname") if it exists already. lremovexattr lremovexattr xattr path This is the same as "removexattr", but if "path" is a symbolic link, then it removes an extended attribute of the link itself. ls ls directory List the files in "directory" (relative to the root directory, there is no cwd). The '.' and '..' entries are not returned, but hidden files are shown. ls0 ls0 dir (filenames|-) This specialized command is used to get a listing of the filenames in the directory "dir". The list of filenames is written to the local file "filenames" (on the host). In the output file, the filenames are separated by "\0" characters. "." and ".." are not returned. The filenames are not sorted. Use "-" instead of a filename to read/write from stdin/stdout. lsetxattr lsetxattr xattr val vallen path This is the same as "setxattr", but if "path" is a symbolic link, then it sets an extended attribute of the link itself. lstat lstat path Returns file information for the given "path". This is the same as "stat" except that if "path" is a symbolic link, then the link is stat-ed, not the file it refers to. This is the same as the lstat(2) system call. lstatlist lstatlist path 'names ...' This call allows you to perform the "lstat" operation on multiple files, where all files are in the directory "path". "names" is the list of files from this directory. On return you get a list of stat structs, with a one-to-one correspondence to the "names" list. If any name did not exist or could not be lstat'd, then the "ino" field of that structure is set to "-1". This call is intended for programs that want to efficiently list a directory contents without making many round-trips. See also "lxattrlist" for a similarly efficient call for getting extended attributes. luks-add-key luks-add-key device keyslot This command adds a new key on LUKS device "device". "key" is any existing key, and is used to access the device. "newkey" is the new key to add. "keyslot" is the key slot that will be replaced. Note that if "keyslot" already contains a key, then this command will fail. You have to use "luks-kill-slot" first to remove that key. This command has one or more key or passphrase parameters. Guestfish will prompt for these separately. luks-close luks-close device This closes a LUKS device that was created earlier by "luks-open" or "luks-open-ro". The "device" parameter must be the name of the LUKS mapping device (ie. "/dev/mapper/mapname") and not the name of the underlying block device. luks-format luks-format device keyslot This command erases existing data on "device" and formats the device as a LUKS encrypted device. "key" is the initial key, which is added to key slot "slot". (LUKS supports 8 key slots, numbered 0-7). This command has one or more key or passphrase parameters. Guestfish will prompt for these separately. luks-format-cipher luks-format-cipher device keyslot cipher This command is the same as "luks-format" but it also allows you to set the "cipher" used. This command has one or more key or passphrase parameters. Guestfish will prompt for these separately. luks-kill-slot luks-kill-slot device keyslot This command deletes the key in key slot "keyslot" from the encrypted LUKS device "device". "key" must be one of the other keys. This command has one or more key or passphrase parameters. Guestfish will prompt for these separately. luks-open luks-open device mapname This command opens a block device which has been encrypted according to the Linux Unified Key Setup (LUKS) standard. "device" is the encrypted block device or partition. The caller must supply one of the keys associated with the LUKS block device, in the "key" parameter. This creates a new block device called "/dev/mapper/mapname". Reads and writes to this block device are decrypted from and encrypted to the underlying "device" respectively. If this block device contains LVM volume groups, then calling "vgscan" followed by "vg- activate-all" will make them visible. Use "list-dm-devices" to list all device mapper devices. This command has one or more key or passphrase parameters. Guestfish will prompt for these separately. luks-open-ro luks-open-ro device mapname This is the same as "luks-open" except that a read-only mapping is created. This command has one or more key or passphrase parameters. Guestfish will prompt for these separately. lvcreate lvcreate logvol volgroup mbytes This creates an LVM logical volume called "logvol" on the volume group "volgroup", with "size" megabytes. lvcreate-free lvcreate-free logvol volgroup percent Create an LVM logical volume called "/dev/volgroup/logvol", using approximately "percent" % of the free space remaining in the volume group. Most usefully, when "percent" is 100 this will create the largest possible LV. lvm-canonical-lv-name lvm-canonical-lv-name lvname This converts alternative naming schemes for LVs that you might find to the canonical name. For example, "/dev/mapper/VG-LV" is converted to "/dev/VG/LV". This command returns an error if the "lvname" parameter does not refer to a logical volume. See also "is-lv", "canonical-device-name". lvm-clear-filter lvm-clear-filter This undoes the effect of "lvm-set-filter". LVM will be able to see every block device. This command also clears the LVM cache and performs a volume group scan. lvm-remove-all lvm-remove-all This command removes all LVM logical volumes, volume groups and physical volumes. lvm-set-filter lvm-set-filter 'devices ...' This sets the LVM device filter so that LVM will only be able to "see" the block devices in the list "devices", and will ignore all other attached block devices. Where disk image(s) contain duplicate PVs or VGs, this command is useful to get LVM to ignore the duplicates, otherwise LVM can get confused. Note also there are two types of duplication possible: either cloned PVs/VGs which have identical UUIDs; or VGs that are not cloned but just happen to have the same name. In normal operation you cannot create this situation, but you can do it outside LVM, eg. by cloning disk images or by bit twiddling inside the LVM metadata. This command also clears the LVM cache and performs a volume group scan. You can filter whole block devices or individual partitions. You cannot use this if any VG is currently in use (eg. contains a mounted filesystem), even if you are not filtering out that VG. lvremove lvremove device Remove an LVM logical volume "device", where "device" is the path to the LV, such as "/dev/VG/LV". You can also remove all LVs in a volume group by specifying the VG name, "/dev/VG". lvrename lvrename logvol newlogvol Rename a logical volume "logvol" with the new name "newlogvol". lvresize lvresize device mbytes This resizes (expands or shrinks) an existing LVM logical volume to "mbytes". When reducing, data in the reduced part is lost. lvresize-free lvresize-free lv percent This expands an existing logical volume "lv" so that it fills "pc"% of the remaining free space in the volume group. Commonly you would call this with pc = 100 which expands the logical volume as much as possible, using all remaining free space in the volume group. lvs lvs List all the logical volumes detected. This is the equivalent of the lvs(8) command. This returns a list of the logical volume device names (eg. "/dev/VolGroup00/LogVol00"). See also "lvs-full", "list-filesystems". lvs-full lvs-full List all the logical volumes detected. This is the equivalent of the lvs(8) command. The "full" version includes all fields. lvuuid lvuuid device This command returns the UUID of the LVM LV "device". lxattrlist lxattrlist path 'names ...' This call allows you to get the extended attributes of multiple files, where all files are in the directory "path". "names" is the list of files from this directory. On return you get a flat list of xattr structs which must be interpreted sequentially. The first xattr struct always has a zero-length "attrname". "attrval" in this struct is zero-length to indicate there was an error doing "lgetxattr" for this file, or is a C string which is a decimal number (the number of following attributes for this file, which could be "0"). Then after the first xattr struct are the zero or more attributes for the first named file. This repeats for the second and subsequent files. This call is intended for programs that want to efficiently list a directory contents without making many round-trips. See also "lstatlist" for a similarly efficient call for getting standard stats. max-disks max-disks Return the maximum number of disks that may be added to a handle (eg. by "add-drive-opts" and similar calls). This function was added in libguestfs 1.19.7. In previous versions of libguestfs the limit was 25. See "MAXIMUM NUMBER OF DISKS" in guestfs(3) for additional information on this topic. md-create md-create name 'devices ...' [missingbitmap:N] [nrdevices:N] [spare:N] [chunk:N] [level:..] Create a Linux md (RAID) device named "name" on the devices in the list "devices". The optional parameters are: "missingbitmap" A bitmap of missing devices. If a bit is set it means that a missing device is added to the array. The least significant bit corresponds to the first device in the array. As examples: If "devices = ["/dev/sda"]" and "missingbitmap = 0x1" then the resulting array would be "[, "/dev/sda"]". If "devices = ["/dev/sda"]" and "missingbitmap = 0x2" then the resulting array would be "["/dev/sda", ]". This defaults to 0 (no missing devices). The length of "devices" + the number of bits set in "missingbitmap" must equal "nrdevices" + "spare". "nrdevices" The number of active RAID devices. If not set, this defaults to the length of "devices" plus the number of bits set in "missingbitmap". "spare" The number of spare devices. If not set, this defaults to 0. "chunk" The chunk size in bytes. "level" The RAID level, which can be one of: linear, raid0, 0, stripe, raid1, 1, mirror, raid4, 4, raid5, 5, raid6, 6, raid10, 10. Some of these are synonymous, and more levels may be added in future. If not set, this defaults to "raid1". This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS". md-detail md-detail md This command exposes the output of 'mdadm -DY '. The following fields are usually present in the returned hash. Other fields may also be present. "level" The raid level of the MD device. "devices" The number of underlying devices in the MD device. "metadata" The metadata version used. "uuid" The UUID of the MD device. "name" The name of the MD device. md-stat md-stat md This call returns a list of the underlying devices which make up the single software RAID array device "md". To get a list of software RAID devices, call "list-md-devices". Each structure returned corresponds to one device along with additional status information: "mdstat_device" The name of the underlying device. "mdstat_index" The index of this device within the array. "mdstat_flags" Flags associated with this device. This is a string containing (in no specific order) zero or more of the following flags: "W" write-mostly "F" device is faulty "S" device is a RAID spare "R" replacement md-stop md-stop md This command deactivates the MD array named "md". The device is stopped, but it is not destroyed or zeroed. mkdir mkdir path Create a directory named "path". mkdir-mode mkdir-mode path mode This command creates a directory, setting the initial permissions of the directory to "mode". For common Linux filesystems, the actual mode which is set will be "mode & ~umask & 01777". Non-native-Linux filesystems may interpret the mode in other ways. See also "mkdir", "umask" mkdir-p mkdir-p path Create a directory named "path", creating any parent directories as necessary. This is like the "mkdir -p" shell command. mkdtemp mkdtemp tmpl This command creates a temporary directory. The "tmpl" parameter should be a full pathname for the temporary directory name with the final six characters being "XXXXXX". For example: "/tmp/myprogXXXXXX" or "/Temp/myprogXXXXXX", the second one being suitable for Windows filesystems. The name of the temporary directory that was created is returned. The temporary directory is created with mode 0700 and is owned by root. The caller is responsible for deleting the temporary directory and its contents after use. See also: mkdtemp(3) mke2fs mke2fs device [blockscount:N] [blocksize:N] [fragsize:N] [blockspergroup:N] [numberofgroups:N] [bytesperinode:N] [inodesize:N] [journalsize:N] [numberofinodes:N] [stridesize:N] [stripewidth:N] [maxonlineresize:N] [reservedblockspercentage:N] [mmpupdateinterval:N] [journaldevice:..] [label:..] [lastmounteddir:..] [creatoros:..] [fstype:..] [usagetype:..] [uuid:..] [forcecreate:true|false] [writesbandgrouponly:true|false] [lazyitableinit:true|false] [lazyjournalinit:true|false] [testfs:true|false] [discard:true|false] [quotatype:true|false] [extent:true|false] [filetype:true|false] [flexbg:true|false] [hasjournal:true|false] [journaldev:true|false] [largefile:true|false] [quota:true|false] [resizeinode:true|false] [sparsesuper:true|false] [uninitbg:true|false] "mke2fs" is used to create an ext2, ext3, or ext4 filesystem on "device". The optional "blockscount" is the size of the filesystem in blocks. If omitted it defaults to the size of "device". Note if the filesystem is too small to contain a journal, "mke2fs" will silently create an ext2 filesystem instead. This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS". mke2fs-J mke2fs-J fstype blocksize device journal This creates an ext2/3/4 filesystem on "device" with an external journal on "journal". It is equivalent to the command: mke2fs -t fstype -b blocksize -J device= See also "mke2journal". This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "mke2fs" call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. mke2fs-JL mke2fs-JL fstype blocksize device label This creates an ext2/3/4 filesystem on "device" with an external journal on the journal labeled "label". See also "mke2journal-L". This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "mke2fs" call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. mke2fs-JU mke2fs-JU fstype blocksize device uuid This creates an ext2/3/4 filesystem on "device" with an external journal on the journal with UUID "uuid". See also "mke2journal-U". This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "mke2fs" call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. mke2journal mke2journal blocksize device This creates an ext2 external journal on "device". It is equivalent to the command: mke2fs -O journal_dev -b blocksize device This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "mke2fs" call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. mke2journal-L mke2journal-L blocksize label device This creates an ext2 external journal on "device" with label "label". This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "mke2fs" call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. mke2journal-U mke2journal-U blocksize uuid device This creates an ext2 external journal on "device" with UUID "uuid". This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "mke2fs" call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. mkfifo mkfifo mode path This call creates a FIFO (named pipe) called "path" with mode "mode". It is just a convenient wrapper around "mknod". The mode actually set is affected by the umask. mkfs mkfs-opts mkfs fstype device [blocksize:N] [features:..] [inode:N] [sectorsize:N] This function creates a filesystem on "device". The filesystem type is "fstype", for example "ext3". The optional arguments are: "blocksize" The filesystem block size. Supported block sizes depend on the filesystem type, but typically they are 1024, 2048 or 4096 for Linux ext2/3 filesystems. For VFAT and NTFS the "blocksize" parameter is treated as the requested cluster size. For UFS block sizes, please see mkfs.ufs(8). "features" This passes the -O parameter to the external mkfs program. For certain filesystem types, this allows extra filesystem features to be selected. See mke2fs(8) and mkfs.ufs(8) for more details. You cannot use this optional parameter with the "gfs" or "gfs2" filesystem type. "inode" This passes the -I parameter to the external mke2fs(8) program which sets the inode size (only for ext2/3/4 filesystems at present). "sectorsize" This passes the -S parameter to external mkfs.ufs(8) program, which sets sector size for ufs filesystem. This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS". mkfs-b mkfs-b fstype blocksize device This call is similar to "mkfs", but it allows you to control the block size of the resulting filesystem. Supported block sizes depend on the filesystem type, but typically they are 1024, 2048 or 4096 only. For VFAT and NTFS the "blocksize" parameter is treated as the requested cluster size. This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "mkfs" call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. mkfs-btrfs mkfs-btrfs 'devices ...' [allocstart:N] [bytecount:N] [datatype:..] [leafsize:N] [label:..] [metadata:..] [nodesize:N] [sectorsize:N] Create a btrfs filesystem, allowing all configurables to be set. For more information on the optional arguments, see mkfs.btrfs(8). Since btrfs filesystems can span multiple devices, this takes a non-empty list of devices. To create general filesystems, use "mkfs". This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS". mklost-and-found mklost-and-found mountpoint Make the "lost+found" directory, normally in the root directory of an ext2/3/4 filesystem. "mountpoint" is the directory under which we try to create the "lost+found" directory. mkmountpoint mkmountpoint exemptpath "mkmountpoint" and "rmmountpoint" are specialized calls that can be used to create extra mountpoints before mounting the first filesystem. These calls are only necessary in some very limited circumstances, mainly the case where you want to mount a mix of unrelated and/or read-only filesystems together. For example, live CDs often contain a "Russian doll" nest of filesystems, an ISO outer layer, with a squashfs image inside, with an ext2/3 image inside that. You can unpack this as follows in guestfish: add-ro Fedora-11-i686-Live.iso run mkmountpoint /cd mkmountpoint /sqsh mkmountpoint /ext3fs mount /dev/sda /cd mount-loop /cd/LiveOS/squashfs.img /sqsh mount-loop /sqsh/LiveOS/ext3fs.img /ext3fs The inner filesystem is now unpacked under the /ext3fs mountpoint. "mkmountpoint" is not compatible with "umount-all". You may get unexpected errors if you try to mix these calls. It is safest to manually unmount filesystems and remove mountpoints after use. "umount-all" unmounts filesystems by sorting the paths longest first, so for this to work for manual mountpoints, you must ensure that the innermost mountpoints have the longest pathnames, as in the example code above. For more details see https://bugzilla.redhat.com/show_bug.cgi?id=599503 Autosync [see "set-autosync", this is set by default on handles] can cause "umount-all" to be called when the handle is closed which can also trigger these issues. mknod mknod mode devmajor devminor path This call creates block or character special devices, or named pipes (FIFOs). The "mode" parameter should be the mode, using the standard constants. "devmajor" and "devminor" are the device major and minor numbers, only used when creating block and character special devices. Note that, just like mknod(2), the mode must be bitwise OR'd with S_IFBLK, S_IFCHR, S_IFIFO or S_IFSOCK (otherwise this call just creates a regular file). These constants are available in the standard Linux header files, or you can use "mknod-b", "mknod-c" or "mkfifo" which are wrappers around this command which bitwise OR in the appropriate constant for you. The mode actually set is affected by the umask. mknod-b mknod-b mode devmajor devminor path This call creates a block device node called "path" with mode "mode" and device major/minor "devmajor" and "devminor". It is just a convenient wrapper around "mknod". The mode actually set is affected by the umask. mknod-c mknod-c mode devmajor devminor path This call creates a char device node called "path" with mode "mode" and device major/minor "devmajor" and "devminor". It is just a convenient wrapper around "mknod". The mode actually set is affected by the umask. mkswap mkswap-opts mkswap device [label:..] [uuid:..] Create a Linux swap partition on "device". The option arguments "label" and "uuid" allow you to set the label and/or UUID of the new swap partition. This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS". mkswap-L mkswap-L label device Create a swap partition on "device" with label "label". Note that you cannot attach a swap label to a block device (eg. "/dev/sda"), just to a partition. This appears to be a limitation of the kernel or swap tools. This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "mkswap" call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. mkswap-U mkswap-U uuid device Create a swap partition on "device" with UUID "uuid". This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "mkswap" call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. mkswap-file mkswap-file path Create a swap file. This command just writes a swap file signature to an existing file. To create the file itself, use something like "fallocate". mktemp mktemp tmpl [suffix:..] This command creates a temporary file. The "tmpl" parameter should be a full pathname for the temporary directory name with the final six characters being "XXXXXX". For example: "/tmp/myprogXXXXXX" or "/Temp/myprogXXXXXX", the second one being suitable for Windows filesystems. The name of the temporary file that was created is returned. The temporary file is created with mode 0600 and is owned by root. The caller is responsible for deleting the temporary file after use. If the optional "suffix" parameter is given, then the suffix (eg. ".txt") is appended to the temporary name. See also: "mkdtemp". This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS". modprobe modprobe modulename This loads a kernel module in the appliance. The kernel module must have been whitelisted when libguestfs was built (see "appliance/kmod.whitelist.in" in the source). mount mount mountable mountpoint Mount a guest disk at a position in the filesystem. Block devices are named "/dev/sda", "/dev/sdb" and so on, as they were added to the guest. If those block devices contain partitions, they will have the usual names (eg. "/dev/sda1"). Also LVM "/dev/VG/LV"-style names can be used, or 'mountable' strings returned by "list-filesystems" or "inspect-get- mountpoints". The rules are the same as for mount(2): A filesystem must first be mounted on "/" before others can be mounted. Other filesystems can only be mounted on directories which already exist. The mounted filesystem is writable, if we have sufficient permissions on the underlying device. Before libguestfs 1.13.16, this call implicitly added the options "sync" and "noatime". The "sync" option greatly slowed writes and caused many problems for users. If your program might need to work with older versions of libguestfs, use "mount-options" instead (using an empty string for the first parameter if you don't want any options). mount-local mount-local localmountpoint [readonly:true|false] [options:..] [cachetimeout:N] [debugcalls:true|false] This call exports the libguestfs-accessible filesystem to a local mountpoint (directory) called "localmountpoint". Ordinary reads and writes to files and directories under "localmountpoint" are redirected through libguestfs. If the optional "readonly" flag is set to true, then writes to the filesystem return error "EROFS". "options" is a comma-separated list of mount options. See guestmount(1) for some useful options. "cachetimeout" sets the timeout (in seconds) for cached directory entries. The default is 60 seconds. See guestmount(1) for further information. If "debugcalls" is set to true, then additional debugging information is generated for every FUSE call. When "mount-local" returns, the filesystem is ready, but is not processing requests (access to it will block). You have to call "mount-local-run" to run the main loop. See "MOUNT LOCAL" in guestfs(3) for full documentation. This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS". mount-local-run mount-local-run Run the main loop which translates kernel calls to libguestfs calls. This should only be called after "mount-local" returns successfully. The call will not return until the filesystem is unmounted. Note you must not make concurrent libguestfs calls on the same handle from another thread. You may call this from a different thread than the one which called "mount-local", subject to the usual rules for threads and libguestfs (see "MULTIPLE HANDLES AND MULTIPLE THREADS" in guestfs(3)). See "MOUNT LOCAL" in guestfs(3) for full documentation. mount-loop mount-loop file mountpoint This command lets you mount "file" (a filesystem image in a file) on a mount point. It is entirely equivalent to the command "mount -o loop file mountpoint". mount-options mount-options options mountable mountpoint This is the same as the "mount" command, but it allows you to set the mount options as for the mount(8) -o flag. If the "options" parameter is an empty string, then no options are passed (all options default to whatever the filesystem uses). mount-ro mount-ro mountable mountpoint This is the same as the "mount" command, but it mounts the filesystem with the read-only (-o ro) flag. mount-vfs mount-vfs options vfstype mountable mountpoint This is the same as the "mount" command, but it allows you to set both the mount options and the vfstype as for the mount(8) -o and -t flags. mountpoints mountpoints This call is similar to "mounts". That call returns a list of devices. This one returns a hash table (map) of device name to directory where the device is mounted. mounts mounts This returns the list of currently mounted filesystems. It returns the list of devices (eg. "/dev/sda1", "/dev/VG/LV"). Some internal mounts are not shown. See also: "mountpoints" mv mv src dest This moves a file from "src" to "dest" where "dest" is either a destination filename or destination directory. See also: "rename". nr-devices nr-devices This returns the number of whole block devices that were added. This is the same as the number of devices that would be returned if you called "list-devices". To find out the maximum number of devices that could be added, call "max-disks". ntfs-3g-probe ntfs-3g-probe true|false device This command runs the ntfs-3g.probe(8) command which probes an NTFS "device" for mountability. (Not all NTFS volumes can be mounted read-write, and some cannot be mounted at all). "rw" is a boolean flag. Set it to true if you want to test if the volume can be mounted read-write. Set it to false if you want to test if the volume can be mounted read-only. The return value is an integer which 0 if the operation would succeed, or some non-zero value documented in the ntfs-3g.probe(8) manual page. ntfsclone-in ntfsclone-in (backupfile|-) device Restore the "backupfile" (from a previous call to "ntfsclone-out") to "device", overwriting any existing contents of this device. Use "-" instead of a filename to read/write from stdin/stdout. ntfsclone-out ntfsclone-out device (backupfile|-) [metadataonly:true|false] [rescue:true|false] [ignorefscheck:true|false] [preservetimestamps:true|false] [force:true|false] Stream the NTFS filesystem "device" to the local file "backupfile". The format used for the backup file is a special format used by the ntfsclone(8) tool. If the optional "metadataonly" flag is true, then only the metadata is saved, losing all the user data (this is useful for diagnosing some filesystem problems). The optional "rescue", "ignorefscheck", "preservetimestamps" and "force" flags have precise meanings detailed in the ntfsclone(8) man page. Use "ntfsclone-in" to restore the file back to a libguestfs device. Use "-" instead of a filename to read/write from stdin/stdout. This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS". ntfsfix ntfsfix device [clearbadsectors:true|false] This command repairs some fundamental NTFS inconsistencies, resets the NTFS journal file, and schedules an NTFS consistency check for the first boot into Windows. This is not an equivalent of Windows "chkdsk". It does not scan the filesystem for inconsistencies. The optional "clearbadsectors" flag clears the list of bad sectors. This is useful after cloning a disk with bad sectors to a new disk. This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS". ntfsresize ntfsresize-opts ntfsresize device [size:N] [force:true|false] This command resizes an NTFS filesystem, expanding or shrinking it to the size of the underlying device. The optional parameters are: "size" The new size (in bytes) of the filesystem. If omitted, the filesystem is resized to fit the container (eg. partition). "force" If this option is true, then force the resize of the filesystem even if the filesystem is marked as requiring a consistency check. After the resize operation, the filesystem is always marked as requiring a consistency check (for safety). You have to boot into Windows to perform this check and clear this condition. If you don't set the "force" option then it is not possible to call "ntfsresize" multiple times on a single filesystem without booting into Windows between each resize. See also ntfsresize(8). This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS". ntfsresize-size ntfsresize-size device size This command is the same as "ntfsresize" except that it allows you to specify the new size (in bytes) explicitly. This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "ntfsresize" call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. parse-environment parse-environment Parse the program's environment and set flags in the handle accordingly. For example if "LIBGUESTFS_DEBUG=1" then the 'verbose' flag is set in the handle. Most programs do not need to call this. It is done implicitly when you call "create". See "ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES" in guestfs(3) for a list of environment variables that can affect libguestfs handles. See also "guestfs_create_flags" in guestfs(3), and "parse- environment-list". parse-environment-list parse-environment-list 'environment ...' Parse the list of strings in the argument "environment" and set flags in the handle accordingly. For example if "LIBGUESTFS_DEBUG=1" is a string in the list, then the 'verbose' flag is set in the handle. This is the same as "parse-environment" except that it parses an explicit list of strings instead of the program's environment. part-add part-add device prlogex startsect endsect This command adds a partition to "device". If there is no partition table on the device, call "part-init" first. The "prlogex" parameter is the type of partition. Normally you should pass "p" or "primary" here, but MBR partition tables also support "l" (or "logical") and "e" (or "extended") partition types. "startsect" and "endsect" are the start and end of the partition in sectors. "endsect" may be negative, which means it counts backwards from the end of the disk ("-1" is the last sector). Creating a partition which covers the whole disk is not so easy. Use "part-disk" to do that. part-del part-del device partnum This command deletes the partition numbered "partnum" on "device". Note that in the case of MBR partitioning, deleting an extended partition also deletes any logical partitions it contains. part-disk part-disk device parttype This command is simply a combination of "part-init" followed by "part-add" to create a single primary partition covering the whole disk. "parttype" is the partition table type, usually "mbr" or "gpt", but other possible values are described in "part-init". part-get-bootable part-get-bootable device partnum This command returns true if the partition "partnum" on "device" has the bootable flag set. See also "part-set-bootable". part-get-gpt-type part-get-gpt-type device partnum Return the type GUID of numbered GPT partition "partnum". For MBR partitions, return an appropriate GUID corresponding to the MBR type. Behaviour is undefined for other partition types. part-get-mbr-id part-get-mbr-id device partnum Returns the MBR type byte (also known as the ID byte) from the numbered partition "partnum". Note that only MBR (old DOS-style) partitions have type bytes. You will get undefined results for other partition table types (see "part-get-parttype"). part-get-parttype part-get-parttype device This command examines the partition table on "device" and returns the partition table type (format) being used. Common return values include: "msdos" (a DOS/Windows style MBR partition table), "gpt" (a GPT/EFI-style partition table). Other values are possible, although unusual. See "part- init" for a full list. part-init part-init device parttype This creates an empty partition table on "device" of one of the partition types listed below. Usually "parttype" should be either "msdos" or "gpt" (for large disks). Initially there are no partitions. Following this, you should call "part-add" for each partition required. Possible values for "parttype" are: efi gpt Intel EFI / GPT partition table. This is recommended for >= 2 TB partitions that will be accessed from Linux and Intel- based Mac OS X. It also has limited backwards compatibility with the "mbr" format. mbr msdos The standard PC "Master Boot Record" (MBR) format used by MS-DOS and Windows. This partition type will only work for device sizes up to 2 TB. For large disks we recommend using "gpt". Other partition table types that may work but are not supported include: aix AIX disk labels. amiga rdb Amiga "Rigid Disk Block" format. bsd BSD disk labels. dasd DASD, used on IBM mainframes. dvh MIPS/SGI volumes. mac Old Mac partition format. Modern Macs use "gpt". pc98 NEC PC-98 format, common in Japan apparently. sun Sun disk labels. part-list part-list device This command parses the partition table on "device" and returns the list of partitions found. The fields in the returned structure are: part_num Partition number, counting from 1. part_start Start of the partition in bytes. To get sectors you have to divide by the device's sector size, see "blockdev-getss". part_end End of the partition in bytes. part_size Size of the partition in bytes. part-set-bootable part-set-bootable device partnum true|false This sets the bootable flag on partition numbered "partnum" on device "device". Note that partitions are numbered from 1. The bootable flag is used by some operating systems (notably Windows) to determine which partition to boot from. It is by no means universally recognized. part-set-gpt-type part-set-gpt-type device partnum guid Set the type GUID of numbered GPT partition "partnum" to "guid". Return an error if the partition table of "device" isn't GPT, or if "guid" is not a valid GUID. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GUID_Partition_Table#Partition_type_GUIDs for a useful list of type GUIDs. part-set-mbr-id part-set-mbr-id device partnum idbyte Sets the MBR type byte (also known as the ID byte) of the numbered partition "partnum" to "idbyte". Note that the type bytes quoted in most documentation are in fact hexadecimal numbers, but usually documented without any leading "0x" which might be confusing. Note that only MBR (old DOS-style) partitions have type bytes. You will get undefined results for other partition table types (see "part-get-parttype"). part-set-name part-set-name device partnum name This sets the partition name on partition numbered "partnum" on device "device". Note that partitions are numbered from 1. The partition name can only be set on certain types of partition table. This works on "gpt" but not on "mbr" partitions. part-to-dev part-to-dev partition This function takes a partition name (eg. "/dev/sdb1") and removes the partition number, returning the device name (eg. "/dev/sdb"). The named partition must exist, for example as a string returned from "list-partitions". See also "part-to-partnum", "device-index". part-to-partnum part-to-partnum partition This function takes a partition name (eg. "/dev/sdb1") and returns the partition number (eg. 1). The named partition must exist, for example as a string returned from "list-partitions". See also "part-to-dev". ping-daemon ping-daemon This is a test probe into the guestfs daemon running inside the qemu subprocess. Calling this function checks that the daemon responds to the ping message, without affecting the daemon or attached block device(s) in any other way. pread pread path count offset This command lets you read part of a file. It reads "count" bytes of the file, starting at "offset", from file "path". This may read fewer bytes than requested. For further details see the pread(2) system call. See also "pwrite", "pread-device". Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3). pread-device pread-device device count offset This command lets you read part of a block device. It reads "count" bytes of "device", starting at "offset". This may read fewer bytes than requested. For further details see the pread(2) system call. See also "pread". Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3). pvchange-uuid pvchange-uuid device Generate a new random UUID for the physical volume "device". pvchange-uuid-all pvchange-uuid-all Generate new random UUIDs for all physical volumes. pvcreate pvcreate device This creates an LVM physical volume on the named "device", where "device" should usually be a partition name such as "/dev/sda1". pvremove pvremove device This wipes a physical volume "device" so that LVM will no longer recognise it. The implementation uses the "pvremove" command which refuses to wipe physical volumes that contain any volume groups, so you have to remove those first. pvresize pvresize device This resizes (expands or shrinks) an existing LVM physical volume to match the new size of the underlying device. pvresize-size pvresize-size device size This command is the same as "pvresize" except that it allows you to specify the new size (in bytes) explicitly. pvs pvs List all the physical volumes detected. This is the equivalent of the pvs(8) command. This returns a list of just the device names that contain PVs (eg. "/dev/sda2"). See also "pvs-full". pvs-full pvs-full List all the physical volumes detected. This is the equivalent of the pvs(8) command. The "full" version includes all fields. pvuuid pvuuid device This command returns the UUID of the LVM PV "device". pwrite pwrite path content offset This command writes to part of a file. It writes the data buffer "content" to the file "path" starting at offset "offset". This command implements the pwrite(2) system call, and like that system call it may not write the full data requested. The return value is the number of bytes that were actually written to the file. This could even be 0, although short writes are unlikely for regular files in ordinary circumstances. See also "pread", "pwrite-device". Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3). pwrite-device pwrite-device device content offset This command writes to part of a device. It writes the data buffer "content" to "device" starting at offset "offset". This command implements the pwrite(2) system call, and like that system call it may not write the full data requested (although short writes to disk devices and partitions are probably impossible with standard Linux kernels). See also "pwrite". Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3). read-file read-file path This calls returns the contents of the file "path" as a buffer. Unlike "cat", this function can correctly handle files that contain embedded ASCII NUL characters. read-lines read-lines path Return the contents of the file named "path". The file contents are returned as a list of lines. Trailing "LF" and "CRLF" character sequences are not returned. Note that this function cannot correctly handle binary files (specifically, files containing "\0" character which is treated as end of string). For those you need to use the "read-file" function and split the buffer into lines yourself. readdir readdir dir This returns the list of directory entries in directory "dir". All entries in the directory are returned, including "." and "..". The entries are not sorted, but returned in the same order as the underlying filesystem. Also this call returns basic file type information about each file. The "ftyp" field will contain one of the following characters: 'b' Block special 'c' Char special 'd' Directory 'f' FIFO (named pipe) 'l' Symbolic link 'r' Regular file 's' Socket 'u' Unknown file type '?' The readdir(3) call returned a "d_type" field with an unexpected value This function is primarily intended for use by programs. To get a simple list of names, use "ls". To get a printable directory for human consumption, use "ll". Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3). readlink readlink path This command reads the target of a symbolic link. readlinklist readlinklist path 'names ...' This call allows you to do a "readlink" operation on multiple files, where all files are in the directory "path". "names" is the list of files from this directory. On return you get a list of strings, with a one-to-one correspondence to the "names" list. Each string is the value of the symbolic link. If the readlink(2) operation fails on any name, then the corresponding result string is the empty string "". However the whole operation is completed even if there were readlink(2) errors, and so you can call this function with names where you don't know if they are symbolic links already (albeit slightly less efficient). This call is intended for programs that want to efficiently list a directory contents without making many round-trips. realpath realpath path Return the canonicalized absolute pathname of "path". The returned path has no ".", ".." or symbolic link path elements. remount remount mountpoint [rw:true|false] This call allows you to change the "rw" (readonly/read-write) flag on an already mounted filesystem at "mountpoint", converting a readonly filesystem to be read-write, or vice- versa. Note that at the moment you must supply the "optional" "rw" parameter. In future we may allow other flags to be adjusted. This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS". remove-drive remove-drive label This function is conceptually the opposite of "add-drive-opts". It removes the drive that was previously added with label "label". Note that in order to remove drives, you have to add them with labels (see the optional "label" argument to "add-drive-opts"). If you didn't use a label, then they cannot be removed. You can call this function before or after launching the handle. If called after launch, if the backend supports it, we try to hot unplug the drive: see "HOTPLUGGING" in guestfs(3). The disk must not be in use (eg. mounted) when you do this. We try to detect if the disk is in use and stop you from doing this. removexattr removexattr xattr path This call removes the extended attribute named "xattr" of the file "path". See also: "lremovexattr", attr(5). rename rename oldpath newpath Rename a file to a new place on the same filesystem. This is the same as the Linux rename(2) system call. In most cases you are better to use "mv" instead. resize2fs resize2fs device This resizes an ext2, ext3 or ext4 filesystem to match the size of the underlying device. See also "RESIZE2FS ERRORS" in guestfs(3). resize2fs-M resize2fs-M device This command is the same as "resize2fs", but the filesystem is resized to its minimum size. This works like the -M option to the "resize2fs" command. To get the resulting size of the filesystem you should call "tune2fs-l" and read the "Block size" and "Block count" values. These two numbers, multiplied together, give the resulting size of the minimal filesystem in bytes. See also "RESIZE2FS ERRORS" in guestfs(3). resize2fs-size resize2fs-size device size This command is the same as "resize2fs" except that it allows you to specify the new size (in bytes) explicitly. See also "RESIZE2FS ERRORS" in guestfs(3). rm rm path Remove the single file "path". rm-f rm-f path Remove the file "path". If the file doesn't exist, that error is ignored. (Other errors, eg. I/O errors or bad paths, are not ignored) This call cannot remove directories. Use "rmdir" to remove an empty directory, or "rm-rf" to remove directories recursively. rm-rf rm-rf path Remove the file or directory "path", recursively removing the contents if its a directory. This is like the "rm -rf" shell command. rmdir rmdir path Remove the single directory "path". rmmountpoint rmmountpoint exemptpath This calls removes a mountpoint that was previously created with "mkmountpoint". See "mkmountpoint" for full details. rsync rsync src dest [archive:true|false] [deletedest:true|false] This call may be used to copy or synchronize two directories under the same libguestfs handle. This uses the rsync(1) program which uses a fast algorithm that avoids copying files unnecessarily. "src" and "dest" are the source and destination directories. Files are copied from "src" to "dest". The optional arguments are: "archive" Turns on archive mode. This is the same as passing the --archive flag to "rsync". "deletedest" Delete files at the destination that do not exist at the source. This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS". rsync-in rsync-in remote dest [archive:true|false] [deletedest:true|false] This call may be used to copy or synchronize the filesystem on the host or on a remote computer with the filesystem within libguestfs. This uses the rsync(1) program which uses a fast algorithm that avoids copying files unnecessarily. This call only works if the network is enabled. See "set-network" or the --network option to various tools like guestfish(1). Files are copied from the remote server and directory specified by "remote" to the destination directory "dest". The format of the remote server string is defined by rsync(1). Note that there is no way to supply a password or passphrase so the target must be set up not to require one. The optional arguments are the same as those of "rsync". This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS". rsync-out rsync-out src remote [archive:true|false] [deletedest:true|false] This call may be used to copy or synchronize the filesystem within libguestfs with a filesystem on the host or on a remote computer. This uses the rsync(1) program which uses a fast algorithm that avoids copying files unnecessarily. This call only works if the network is enabled. See "set-network" or the --network option to various tools like guestfish(1). Files are copied from the source directory "src" to the remote server and directory specified by "remote". The format of the remote server string is defined by rsync(1). Note that there is no way to supply a password or passphrase so the target must be set up not to require one. The optional arguments are the same as those of "rsync". Globbing does not happen on the "src" parameter. In programs which use the API directly you have to expand wildcards yourself (see "glob-expand"). In guestfish you can use the "glob" command (see "glob" in guestfish(1)), for example: > glob rsync-out /* rsync://remote/ This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS". scrub-device scrub-device device This command writes patterns over "device" to make data retrieval more difficult. It is an interface to the scrub(1) program. See that manual page for more details. scrub-file scrub-file file This command writes patterns over a file to make data retrieval more difficult. The file is removed after scrubbing. It is an interface to the scrub(1) program. See that manual page for more details. scrub-freespace scrub-freespace dir This command creates the directory "dir" and then fills it with files until the filesystem is full, and scrubs the files as for "scrub-file", and deletes them. The intention is to scrub any free space on the partition containing "dir". It is an interface to the scrub(1) program. See that manual page for more details. set-append append set-append append This function is used to add additional options to the guest kernel command line. The default is "NULL" unless overridden by setting "LIBGUESTFS_APPEND" environment variable. Setting "append" to "NULL" means no additional options are passed (libguestfs always adds a few of its own). set-attach-method attach-method set-attach-method backend Set the method that libguestfs uses to connect to the backend guestfsd daemon. See "BACKEND" in guestfs(3). This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "set-backend" call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. set-autosync autosync set-autosync true|false If "autosync" is true, this enables autosync. Libguestfs will make a best effort attempt to make filesystems consistent and synchronized when the handle is closed (also if the program exits without closing handles). This is enabled by default (since libguestfs 1.5.24, previously it was disabled by default). set-backend backend set-backend backend Set the method that libguestfs uses to connect to the backend guestfsd daemon. This handle property was previously called the "attach method". See "BACKEND" in guestfs(3). set-cachedir cachedir set-cachedir cachedir Set the directory used by the handle to store the appliance cache, when using a supermin appliance. The appliance is cached and shared between all handles which have the same effective user ID. The environment variables "LIBGUESTFS_CACHEDIR" and "TMPDIR" control the default value: If "LIBGUESTFS_CACHEDIR" is set, then that is the default. Else if "TMPDIR" is set, then that is the default. Else "/var/tmp" is the default. set-direct direct set-direct true|false If the direct appliance mode flag is enabled, then stdin and stdout are passed directly through to the appliance once it is launched. One consequence of this is that log messages aren't caught by the library and handled by "set-log-message-callback", but go straight to stdout. You probably don't want to use this unless you know what you are doing. The default is disabled. set-e2attrs set-e2attrs file attrs [clear:true|false] This sets or clears the file attributes "attrs" associated with the inode "file". "attrs" is a string of characters representing file attributes. See "get-e2attrs" for a list of possible attributes. Not all attributes can be changed. If optional boolean "clear" is not present or false, then the "attrs" listed are set in the inode. If "clear" is true, then the "attrs" listed are cleared in the inode. In both cases, other attributes not present in the "attrs" string are left unchanged. These attributes are only present when the file is located on an ext2/3/4 filesystem. Using this call on other filesystem types will result in an error. This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS". set-e2generation set-e2generation file generation This sets the ext2 file generation of a file. See "get-e2generation". set-e2label set-e2label device label This sets the ext2/3/4 filesystem label of the filesystem on "device" to "label". Filesystem labels are limited to 16 characters. You can use either "tune2fs-l" or "get-e2label" to return the existing label on a filesystem. This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "set-label" call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. set-e2uuid set-e2uuid device uuid This sets the ext2/3/4 filesystem UUID of the filesystem on "device" to "uuid". The format of the UUID and alternatives such as "clear", "random" and "time" are described in the tune2fs(8) manpage. You can use "vfs-uuid" to return the existing UUID of a filesystem. This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "set-uuid" call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. set-label set-label mountable label Set the filesystem label on "mountable" to "label". Only some filesystem types support labels, and libguestfs supports setting labels on only a subset of these. ext2, ext3, ext4 Labels are limited to 16 bytes. NTFS Labels are limited to 128 unicode characters. XFS The label is limited to 12 bytes. The filesystem must not be mounted when trying to set the label. btrfs The label is limited to 256 bytes and some characters are not allowed. Setting the label on a btrfs subvolume will set the label on its parent filesystem. The filesystem must not be mounted when trying to set the label. To read the label on a filesystem, call "vfs-label". set-libvirt-requested-credential set-libvirt-requested-credential index cred After requesting the "index"'th credential from the user, call this function to pass the answer back to libvirt. See "LIBVIRT AUTHENTICATION" in guestfs(3) for documentation and example code. set-libvirt-supported-credentials set-libvirt-supported-credentials 'creds ...' Call this function before setting an event handler for "GUESTFS_EVENT_LIBVIRT_AUTH", to supply the list of credential types that the program knows how to process. The "creds" list must be a non-empty list of strings. Possible strings are: "username" "authname" "language" "cnonce" "passphrase" "echoprompt" "noechoprompt" "realm" "external" See libvirt documentation for the meaning of these credential types. See "LIBVIRT AUTHENTICATION" in guestfs(3) for documentation and example code. set-memsize memsize set-memsize memsize This sets the memory size in megabytes allocated to the qemu subprocess. This only has any effect if called before "launch". You can also change this by setting the environment variable "LIBGUESTFS_MEMSIZE" before the handle is created. For more information on the architecture of libguestfs, see guestfs(3). set-network network set-network true|false If "network" is true, then the network is enabled in the libguestfs appliance. The default is false. This affects whether commands are able to access the network (see "RUNNING COMMANDS" in guestfs(3)). You must call this before calling "launch", otherwise it has no effect. set-path path set-path searchpath Set the path that libguestfs searches for kernel and initrd.img. The default is "$libdir/guestfs" unless overridden by setting "LIBGUESTFS_PATH" environment variable. Setting "path" to "NULL" restores the default path. set-pgroup pgroup set-pgroup true|false If "pgroup" is true, child processes are placed into their own process group. The practical upshot of this is that signals like "SIGINT" (from users pressing "^C") won't be received by the child process. The default for this flag is false, because usually you want "^C" to kill the subprocess. Guestfish sets this flag to true when used interactively, so that "^C" can cancel long- running commands gracefully (see "user-cancel"). set-program program set-program program Set the program name. This is an informative string which the main program may optionally set in the handle. When the handle is created, the program name in the handle is set to the basename from "argv[0]". If that was not possible, it is set to the empty string (but never "NULL"). set-qemu qemu set-qemu qemu Set the qemu binary that we will use. The default is chosen when the library was compiled by the configure script. You can also override this by setting the "LIBGUESTFS_QEMU" environment variable. Setting "qemu" to "NULL" restores the default qemu binary. Note that you should call this function as early as possible after creating the handle. This is because some pre-launch operations depend on testing qemu features (by running "qemu -help"). If the qemu binary changes, we don't retest features, and so you might see inconsistent results. Using the environment variable "LIBGUESTFS_QEMU" is safest of all since that picks the qemu binary at the same time as the handle is created. set-recovery-proc recovery-proc set-recovery-proc true|false If this is called with the parameter "false" then "launch" does not create a recovery process. The purpose of the recovery process is to stop runaway qemu processes in the case where the main program aborts abruptly. This only has any effect if called before "launch", and the default is true. About the only time when you would want to disable this is if the main process will fork itself into the background ("daemonize" itself). In this case the recovery process thinks that the main program has disappeared and so kills qemu, which is not very helpful. set-selinux selinux set-selinux true|false This sets the selinux flag that is passed to the appliance at boot time. The default is "selinux=0" (disabled). Note that if SELinux is enabled, it is always in Permissive mode ("enforcing=0"). For more information on the architecture of libguestfs, see guestfs(3). set-smp smp set-smp smp Change the number of virtual CPUs assigned to the appliance. The default is 1. Increasing this may improve performance, though often it has no effect. This function must be called before "launch". set-tmpdir tmpdir set-tmpdir tmpdir Set the directory used by the handle to store temporary files. The environment variables "LIBGUESTFS_TMPDIR" and "TMPDIR" control the default value: If "LIBGUESTFS_TMPDIR" is set, then that is the default. Else if "TMPDIR" is set, then that is the default. Else "/tmp" is the default. set-trace trace set-trace true|false If the command trace flag is set to 1, then libguestfs calls, parameters and return values are traced. If you want to trace C API calls into libguestfs (and other libraries) then possibly a better way is to use the external ltrace(1) command. Command traces are disabled unless the environment variable "LIBGUESTFS_TRACE" is defined and set to 1. Trace messages are normally sent to "stderr", unless you register a callback to send them somewhere else (see "set-event-callback"). set-uuid set-uuid device uuid Set the filesystem UIUD on "device" to "label". Only some filesystem types support setting UUIDs. To read the UUID on a filesystem, call "vfs-uuid". set-verbose verbose set-verbose true|false If "verbose" is true, this turns on verbose messages. Verbose messages are disabled unless the environment variable "LIBGUESTFS_DEBUG" is defined and set to 1. Verbose messages are normally sent to "stderr", unless you register a callback to send them somewhere else (see "set-event-callback"). setcon setcon context This sets the SELinux security context of the daemon to the string "context". See the documentation about SELINUX in guestfs(3). setxattr setxattr xattr val vallen path This call sets the extended attribute named "xattr" of the file "path" to the value "val" (of length "vallen"). The value is arbitrary 8 bit data. See also: "lsetxattr", attr(5). sfdisk sfdisk device cyls heads sectors 'lines ...' This is a direct interface to the sfdisk(8) program for creating partitions on block devices. "device" should be a block device, for example "/dev/sda". "cyls", "heads" and "sectors" are the number of cylinders, heads and sectors on the device, which are passed directly to sfdisk as the -C, -H and -S parameters. If you pass 0 for any of these, then the corresponding parameter is omitted. Usually for 'large' disks, you can just pass 0 for these, but for small (floppy-sized) disks, sfdisk (or rather, the kernel) cannot work out the right geometry and you will need to tell it. "lines" is a list of lines that we feed to "sfdisk". For more information refer to the sfdisk(8) manpage. To create a single partition occupying the whole disk, you would pass "lines" as a single element list, when the single element being the string "," (comma). See also: "sfdisk-l", "sfdisk-N", "part-init" This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "part-add" call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. sfdiskM sfdiskM device 'lines ...' This is a simplified interface to the "sfdisk" command, where partition sizes are specified in megabytes only (rounded to the nearest cylinder) and you don't need to specify the cyls, heads and sectors parameters which were rarely if ever used anyway. See also: "sfdisk", the sfdisk(8) manpage and "part-disk" This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "part-add" call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. sfdisk-N sfdisk-N device partnum cyls heads sectors line This runs sfdisk(8) option to modify just the single partition "n" (note: "n" counts from 1). For other parameters, see "sfdisk". You should usually pass 0 for the cyls/heads/sectors parameters. See also: "part-add" This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "part-add" call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. sfdisk-disk-geometry sfdisk-disk-geometry device This displays the disk geometry of "device" read from the partition table. Especially in the case where the underlying block device has been resized, this can be different from the kernel's idea of the geometry (see "sfdisk-kernel-geometry"). The result is in human-readable format, and not designed to be parsed. sfdisk-kernel-geometry sfdisk-kernel-geometry device This displays the kernel's idea of the geometry of "device". The result is in human-readable format, and not designed to be parsed. sfdisk-l sfdisk-l device This displays the partition table on "device", in the human-readable output of the sfdisk(8) command. It is not intended to be parsed. See also: "part-list" This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "part-list" call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. sh sh command This call runs a command from the guest filesystem via the guest's "/bin/sh". This is like "command", but passes the command to: /bin/sh -c "command" Depending on the guest's shell, this usually results in wildcards being expanded, shell expressions being interpolated and so on. All the provisos about "command" apply to this call. sh-lines sh-lines command This is the same as "sh", but splits the result into a list of lines. See also: "command-lines" shutdown shutdown This is the opposite of "launch". It performs an orderly shutdown of the backend process(es). If the autosync flag is set (which is the default) then the disk image is synchronized. If the subprocess exits with an error then this function will return an error, which should not be ignored (it may indicate that the disk image could not be written out properly). It is safe to call this multiple times. Extra calls are ignored. This call does not close or free up the handle. You still need to call "close" afterwards. "close" will call this if you don't do it explicitly, but note that any errors are ignored in that case. sleep sleep secs Sleep for "secs" seconds. stat stat path Returns file information for the given "path". This is the same as the stat(2) system call. statvfs statvfs path Returns file system statistics for any mounted file system. "path" should be a file or directory in the mounted file system (typically it is the mount point itself, but it doesn't need to be). This is the same as the statvfs(2) system call. strings strings path This runs the strings(1) command on a file and returns the list of printable strings found. Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3). strings-e strings-e encoding path This is like the "strings" command, but allows you to specify the encoding of strings that are looked for in the source file "path". Allowed encodings are: s Single 7-bit-byte characters like ASCII and the ASCII-compatible parts of ISO-8859-X (this is what "strings" uses). S Single 8-bit-byte characters. b 16-bit big endian strings such as those encoded in UTF-16BE or UCS-2BE. l (lower case letter L) 16-bit little endian such as UTF-16LE and UCS-2LE. This is useful for examining binaries in Windows guests. B 32-bit big endian such as UCS-4BE. L 32-bit little endian such as UCS-4LE. The returned strings are transcoded to UTF-8. Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3). swapoff-device swapoff-device device This command disables the libguestfs appliance swap device or partition named "device". See "swapon-device". swapoff-file swapoff-file file This command disables the libguestfs appliance swap on file. swapoff-label swapoff-label label This command disables the libguestfs appliance swap on labeled swap partition. swapoff-uuid swapoff-uuid uuid This command disables the libguestfs appliance swap partition with the given UUID. swapon-device swapon-device device This command enables the libguestfs appliance to use the swap device or partition named "device". The increased memory is made available for all commands, for example those run using "command" or "sh". Note that you should not swap to existing guest swap partitions unless you know what you are doing. They may contain hibernation information, or other information that the guest doesn't want you to trash. You also risk leaking information about the host to the guest this way. Instead, attach a new host device to the guest and swap on that. swapon-file swapon-file file This command enables swap to a file. See "swapon-device" for other notes. swapon-label swapon-label label This command enables swap to a labeled swap partition. See "swapon-device" for other notes. swapon-uuid swapon-uuid uuid This command enables swap to a swap partition with the given UUID. See "swapon-device" for other notes. sync sync This syncs the disk, so that any writes are flushed through to the underlying disk image. You should always call this if you have modified a disk image, before closing the handle. syslinux syslinux device [directory:..] Install the SYSLINUX bootloader on "device". The device parameter must be either a whole disk formatted as a FAT filesystem, or a partition formatted as a FAT filesystem. In the latter case, the partition should be marked as "active" ("part-set-bootable") and a Master Boot Record must be installed (eg. using "pwrite-device") on the first sector of the whole disk. The SYSLINUX package comes with some suitable Master Boot Records. See the syslinux(1) man page for further information. The optional arguments are: "directory" Install SYSLINUX in the named subdirectory, instead of in the root directory of the FAT filesystem. Additional configuration can be supplied to SYSLINUX by placing a file called "syslinux.cfg" on the FAT filesystem, either in the root directory, or under "directory" if that optional argument is being used. For further information about the contents of this file, see syslinux(1). See also "extlinux". This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS". tail tail path This command returns up to the last 10 lines of a file as a list of strings. Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3). tail-n tail-n nrlines path If the parameter "nrlines" is a positive number, this returns the last "nrlines" lines of the file "path". If the parameter "nrlines" is a negative number, this returns lines from the file "path", starting with the "-nrlines"th line. If the parameter "nrlines" is zero, this returns an empty list. Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3). tar-in tar-in-opts tar-in (tarfile|-) directory [compress:..] This command uploads and unpacks local file "tarfile" into "directory". The optional "compress" flag controls compression. If not given, then the input should be an uncompressed tar file. Otherwise one of the following strings may be given to select the compression type of the input file: "compress", "gzip", "bzip2", "xz", "lzop". (Note that not all builds of libguestfs will support all of these compression types). Use "-" instead of a filename to read/write from stdin/stdout. This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS". tar-out tar-out-opts tar-out directory (tarfile|-) [compress:..] [numericowner:true|false] [excludes:..] This command packs the contents of "directory" and downloads it to local file "tarfile". The optional "compress" flag controls compression. If not given, then the output will be an uncompressed tar file. Otherwise one of the following strings may be given to select the compression type of the output file: "compress", "gzip", "bzip2", "xz", "lzop". (Note that not all builds of libguestfs will support all of these compression types). The other optional arguments are: "excludes" A list of wildcards. Files are excluded if they match any of the wildcards. "numericowner" If set to true, the output tar file will contain UID/GID numbers instead of user/group names. Use "-" instead of a filename to read/write from stdin/stdout. This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS". tgz-in tgz-in (tarball|-) directory This command uploads and unpacks local file "tarball" (a gzip compressed tar file) into "directory". Use "-" instead of a filename to read/write from stdin/stdout. This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "tar-in" call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. tgz-out tgz-out directory (tarball|-) This command packs the contents of "directory" and downloads it to local file "tarball". Use "-" instead of a filename to read/write from stdin/stdout. This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "tar-out" call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. touch touch path Touch acts like the touch(1) command. It can be used to update the timestamps on a file, or, if the file does not exist, to create a new zero-length file. This command only works on regular files, and will fail on other file types such as directories, symbolic links, block special etc. truncate truncate path This command truncates "path" to a zero-length file. The file must exist already. truncate-size truncate-size path size This command truncates "path" to size "size" bytes. The file must exist already. If the current file size is less than "size" then the file is extended to the required size with zero bytes. This creates a sparse file (ie. disk blocks are not allocated for the file until you write to it). To create a non-sparse file of zeroes, use "fallocate64" instead. tune2fs tune2fs device [force:true|false] [maxmountcount:N] [mountcount:N] [errorbehavior:..] [group:N] [intervalbetweenchecks:N] [reservedblockspercentage:N] [lastmounteddirectory:..] [reservedblockscount:N] [user:N] This call allows you to adjust various filesystem parameters of an ext2/ext3/ext4 filesystem called "device". The optional parameters are: "force" Force tune2fs to complete the operation even in the face of errors. This is the same as the tune2fs "-f" option. "maxmountcount" Set the number of mounts after which the filesystem is checked by e2fsck(8). If this is 0 then the number of mounts is disregarded. This is the same as the tune2fs "-c" option. "mountcount" Set the number of times the filesystem has been mounted. This is the same as the tune2fs "-C" option. "errorbehavior" Change the behavior of the kernel code when errors are detected. Possible values currently are: "continue", "remount-ro", "panic". In practice these options don't really make any difference, particularly for write errors. This is the same as the tune2fs "-e" option. "group" Set the group which can use reserved filesystem blocks. This is the same as the tune2fs "-g" option except that it can only be specified as a number. "intervalbetweenchecks" Adjust the maximal time between two filesystem checks (in seconds). If the option is passed as 0 then time-dependent checking is disabled. This is the same as the tune2fs "-i" option. "reservedblockspercentage" Set the percentage of the filesystem which may only be allocated by privileged processes. This is the same as the tune2fs "-m" option. "lastmounteddirectory" Set the last mounted directory. This is the same as the tune2fs "-M" option. "reservedblockscount" Set the number of reserved filesystem blocks. This is the same as the tune2fs "-r" option. "user" Set the user who can use the reserved filesystem blocks. This is the same as the tune2fs "-u" option except that it can only be specified as a number. To get the current values of filesystem parameters, see "tune2fs-l". For precise details of how tune2fs works, see the tune2fs(8) man page. This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS". tune2fs-l tune2fs-l device This returns the contents of the ext2, ext3 or ext4 filesystem superblock on "device". It is the same as running "tune2fs -l device". See tune2fs(8) manpage for more details. The list of fields returned isn't clearly defined, and depends on both the version of "tune2fs" that libguestfs was built against, and the filesystem itself. txz-in txz-in (tarball|-) directory This command uploads and unpacks local file "tarball" (an xz compressed tar file) into "directory". Use "-" instead of a filename to read/write from stdin/stdout. This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "tar-in" call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. txz-out txz-out directory (tarball|-) This command packs the contents of "directory" and downloads it to local file "tarball" (as an xz compressed tar archive). Use "-" instead of a filename to read/write from stdin/stdout. This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "tar-out" call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. umask umask mask This function sets the mask used for creating new files and device nodes to "mask & 0777". Typical umask values would be 022 which creates new files with permissions like "-rw-r--r--" or "-rwxr-xr-x", and 002 which creates new files with permissions like "-rw-rw-r--" or "-rwxrwxr-x". The default umask is 022. This is important because it means that directories and device nodes will be created with 0644 or 0755 mode even if you specify 0777. See also "get-umask", umask(2), "mknod", "mkdir". This call returns the previous umask. umount unmount umount-opts umount pathordevice [force:true|false] [lazyunmount:true|false] This unmounts the given filesystem. The filesystem may be specified either by its mountpoint (path) or the device which contains the filesystem. This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS". umount-all unmount-all umount-all This unmounts all mounted filesystems. Some internal mounts are not unmounted by this call. umount-local umount-local [retry:true|false] If libguestfs is exporting the filesystem on a local mountpoint, then this unmounts it. See "MOUNT LOCAL" in guestfs(3) for full documentation. This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS". upload upload (filename|-) remotefilename Upload local file "filename" to "remotefilename" on the filesystem. "filename" can also be a named pipe. See also "download". Use "-" instead of a filename to read/write from stdin/stdout. upload-offset upload-offset (filename|-) remotefilename offset Upload local file "filename" to "remotefilename" on the filesystem. "remotefilename" is overwritten starting at the byte "offset" specified. The intention is to overwrite parts of existing files or devices, although if a non-existant file is specified then it is created with a "hole" before "offset". The size of the data written is implicit in the size of the source "filename". Note that there is no limit on the amount of data that can be uploaded with this call, unlike with "pwrite", and this call always writes the full amount unless an error occurs. See also "upload", "pwrite". Use "-" instead of a filename to read/write from stdin/stdout. user-cancel user-cancel This function cancels the current upload or download operation. Unlike most other libguestfs calls, this function is signal safe and thread safe. You can call it from a signal handler or from another thread, without needing to do any locking. The transfer that was in progress (if there is one) will stop shortly afterwards, and will return an error. The errno (see "guestfs_last_errno") is set to "EINTR", so you can test for this to find out if the operation was cancelled or failed because of another error. No cleanup is performed: for example, if a file was being uploaded then after cancellation there may be a partially uploaded file. It is the caller's responsibility to clean up if necessary. There are two common places that you might call "user-cancel": In an interactive text-based program, you might call it from a "SIGINT" signal handler so that pressing "^C" cancels the current operation. (You also need to call "guestfs_set_pgroup" so that child processes don't receive the "^C" signal). In a graphical program, when the main thread is displaying a progress bar with a cancel button, wire up the cancel button to call this function. utimens utimens path atsecs atnsecs mtsecs mtnsecs This command sets the timestamps of a file with nanosecond precision. "atsecs, atnsecs" are the last access time (atime) in secs and nanoseconds from the epoch. "mtsecs, mtnsecs" are the last modification time (mtime) in secs and nanoseconds from the epoch. If the *nsecs field contains the special value "-1" then the corresponding timestamp is set to the current time. (The *secs field is ignored in this case). If the *nsecs field contains the special value "-2" then the corresponding timestamp is left unchanged. (The *secs field is ignored in this case). utsname utsname This returns the kernel version of the appliance, where this is available. This information is only useful for debugging. Nothing in the returned structure is defined by the API. version version Return the libguestfs version number that the program is linked against. Note that because of dynamic linking this is not necessarily the version of libguestfs that you compiled against. You can compile the program, and then at runtime dynamically link against a completely different "libguestfs.so" library. This call was added in version 1.0.58. In previous versions of libguestfs there was no way to get the version number. From C code you can use dynamic linker functions to find out if this symbol exists (if it doesn't, then it's an earlier version). The call returns a structure with four elements. The first three ("major", "minor" and "release") are numbers and correspond to the usual version triplet. The fourth element ("extra") is a string and is normally empty, but may be used for distro-specific information. To construct the original version string: "$major.$minor.$release$extra" See also: "LIBGUESTFS VERSION NUMBERS" in guestfs(3). Note: Don't use this call to test for availability of features. In enterprise distributions we backport features from later versions into earlier versions, making this an unreliable way to test for features. Use "available" or "feature-available" instead. vfs-label vfs-label mountable This returns the label of the filesystem on "mountable". If the filesystem is unlabeled, this returns the empty string. To find a filesystem from the label, use "findfs-label". vfs-type vfs-type mountable This command gets the filesystem type corresponding to the filesystem on "mountable". For most filesystems, the result is the name of the Linux VFS module which would be used to mount this filesystem if you mounted it without specifying the filesystem type. For example a string such as "ext3" or "ntfs". vfs-uuid vfs-uuid mountable This returns the filesystem UUID of the filesystem on "mountable". If the filesystem does not have a UUID, this returns the empty string. To find a filesystem from the UUID, use "findfs-uuid". vg-activate vg-activate true|false 'volgroups ...' This command activates or (if "activate" is false) deactivates all logical volumes in the listed volume groups "volgroups". This command is the same as running "vgchange -a y|n volgroups..." Note that if "volgroups" is an empty list then all volume groups are activated or deactivated. vg-activate-all vg-activate-all true|false This command activates or (if "activate" is false) deactivates all logical volumes in all volume groups. This command is the same as running "vgchange -a y|n" vgchange-uuid vgchange-uuid vg Generate a new random UUID for the volume group "vg". vgchange-uuid-all vgchange-uuid-all Generate new random UUIDs for all volume groups. vgcreate vgcreate volgroup 'physvols ...' This creates an LVM volume group called "volgroup" from the non-empty list of physical volumes "physvols". vglvuuids vglvuuids vgname Given a VG called "vgname", this returns the UUIDs of all the logical volumes created in this volume group. You can use this along with "lvs" and "lvuuid" calls to associate logical volumes and volume groups. See also "vgpvuuids". vgmeta vgmeta vgname "vgname" is an LVM volume group. This command examines the volume group and returns its metadata. Note that the metadata is an internal structure used by LVM, subject to change at any time, and is provided for information only. vgpvuuids vgpvuuids vgname Given a VG called "vgname", this returns the UUIDs of all the physical volumes that this volume group resides on. You can use this along with "pvs" and "pvuuid" calls to associate physical volumes and volume groups. See also "vglvuuids". vgremove vgremove vgname Remove an LVM volume group "vgname", (for example "VG"). This also forcibly removes all logical volumes in the volume group (if any). vgrename vgrename volgroup newvolgroup Rename a volume group "volgroup" with the new name "newvolgroup". vgs vgs List all the volumes groups detected. This is the equivalent of the vgs(8) command. This returns a list of just the volume group names that were detected (eg. "VolGroup00"). See also "vgs-full". vgs-full vgs-full List all the volumes groups detected. This is the equivalent of the vgs(8) command. The "full" version includes all fields. vgscan vgscan This rescans all block devices and rebuilds the list of LVM physical volumes, volume groups and logical volumes. vguuid vguuid vgname This command returns the UUID of the LVM VG named "vgname". wc-c wc-c path This command counts the characters in a file, using the "wc -c" external command. wc-l wc-l path This command counts the lines in a file, using the "wc -l" external command. wc-w wc-w path This command counts the words in a file, using the "wc -w" external command. wipefs wipefs device This command erases filesystem or RAID signatures from the specified "device" to make the filesystem invisible to libblkid. This does not erase the filesystem itself nor any other data from the "device". Compare with "zero" which zeroes the first few blocks of a device. write write path content This call creates a file called "path". The content of the file is the string "content" (which can contain any 8 bit data). See also "write-append". write-append write-append path content This call appends "content" to the end of file "path". If "path" does not exist, then a new file is created. See also "write". write-file write-file path content size This call creates a file called "path". The contents of the file is the string "content" (which can contain any 8 bit data), with length "size". As a special case, if "size" is 0 then the length is calculated using "strlen" (so in this case the content cannot contain embedded ASCII NULs). NB. Owing to a bug, writing content containing ASCII NUL characters does not work, even if the length is specified. Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3). This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "write" call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. xfs-admin xfs-admin device [extunwritten:true|false] [imgfile:true|false] [v2log:true|false] [projid32bit:true|false] [lazycounter:true|false] [label:..] [uuid:..] Change the parameters of the XFS filesystem on "device". Devices that are mounted cannot be modified. Administrators must unmount filesystems before this call can modify parameters. Some of the parameters of a mounted filesystem can be examined and modified using the "xfs-info" and "xfs-growfs" calls. This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS". xfs-growfs xfs-growfs path [datasec:true|false] [logsec:true|false] [rtsec:true|false] [datasize:N] [logsize:N] [rtsize:N] [rtextsize:N] [maxpct:N] Grow the XFS filesystem mounted at "path". The returned struct contains geometry information. Missing fields are returned as "-1" (for numeric fields) or empty string. This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS". xfs-info xfs-info pathordevice "pathordevice" is a mounted XFS filesystem or a device containing an XFS filesystem. This command returns the geometry of the filesystem. The returned struct contains geometry information. Missing fields are returned as "-1" (for numeric fields) or empty string. xfs-repair xfs-repair device [forcelogzero:true|false] [nomodify:true|false] [noprefetch:true|false] [forcegeometry:true|false] [maxmem:N] [ihashsize:N] [bhashsize:N] [agstride:N] [logdev:..] [rtdev:..] Repair corrupt or damaged XFS filesystem on "device". The filesystem is specified using the "device" argument which should be the device name of the disk partition or volume containing the filesystem. If given the name of a block device, "xfs_repair" will attempt to find the raw device associated with the specified block device and will use the raw device instead. Regardless, the filesystem to be repaired must be unmounted, otherwise, the resulting filesystem may be inconsistent or corrupt. The returned status indicates whether filesystem corruption was detected (returns 1) or was not detected (returns 0). This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS". zegrep zegrep regex path This calls the external "zegrep" program and returns the matching lines. Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3). This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "grep" call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. zegrepi zegrepi regex path This calls the external "zegrep -i" program and returns the matching lines. Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3). This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "grep" call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. zero zero device This command writes zeroes over the first few blocks of "device". How many blocks are zeroed isn't specified (but it's not enough to securely wipe the device). It should be sufficient to remove any partition tables, filesystem superblocks and so on. If blocks are already zero, then this command avoids writing zeroes. This prevents the underlying device from becoming non-sparse or growing unnecessarily. See also: "zero-device", "scrub-device", "is-zero-device" zero-device zero-device device This command writes zeroes over the entire "device". Compare with "zero" which just zeroes the first few blocks of a device. If blocks are already zero, then this command avoids writing zeroes. This prevents the underlying device from becoming non-sparse or growing unnecessarily. zero-free-space zero-free-space directory Zero the free space in the filesystem mounted on "directory". The filesystem must be mounted read-write. The filesystem contents are not affected, but any free space in the filesystem is freed. Free space is not "trimmed". You may want to call "fstrim" either as an alternative to this, or after calling this, depending on your requirements. zerofree zerofree device This runs the zerofree program on "device". This program claims to zero unused inodes and disk blocks on an ext2/3 filesystem, thus making it possible to compress the filesystem more effectively. You should not run this program if the filesystem is mounted. It is possible that using this program can damage the filesystem or data on the filesystem. zfgrep zfgrep pattern path This calls the external "zfgrep" program and returns the matching lines. Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3). This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "grep" call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. zfgrepi zfgrepi pattern path This calls the external "zfgrep -i" program and returns the matching lines. Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3). This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "grep" call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. zfile zfile meth path This command runs "file" after first decompressing "path" using "method". "method" must be one of "gzip", "compress" or "bzip2". Since 1.0.63, use "file" instead which can now process compressed files. This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "file" call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. zgrep zgrep regex path This calls the external "zgrep" program and returns the matching lines. Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3). This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "grep" call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. zgrepi zgrepi regex path This calls the external "zgrep -i" program and returns the matching lines. Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3). This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "grep" call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. EXIT STATUS guestfish returns 0 if the commands completed without error, or 1 if there was an error. ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES EDITOR The "edit" command uses$EDITOR as the editor. If not set, it uses "vi". FEBOOTSTRAP_KERNEL FEBOOTSTRAP_MODULES When using supermin >= 4.1.0, these have been renamed "SUPERMIN_KERNEL" and "SUPERMIN_MODULES". GUESTFISH_DISPLAY_IMAGE The "display" command uses $GUESTFISH_DISPLAY_IMAGE to display images. If not set, it uses display(1). GUESTFISH_PID Used with the --remote option to specify the remote guestfish process to control. See section "REMOTE CONTROL GUESTFISH OVER A SOCKET". GUESTFISH_PS1 Set the command prompt. See "PROMPT". HEXEDITOR The "hexedit" command uses$HEXEDITOR as the external hex editor. If not specified, the external hexedit(1) program is used. HOME If compiled with GNU readline support, various files in the home directory can be used. See "FILES". LIBGUESTFS_APPEND Pass additional options to the guest kernel. LIBGUESTFS_ATTACH_METHOD This is the old way to set "LIBGUESTFS_BACKEND". LIBGUESTFS_BACKEND Choose the default way to create the appliance. See "guestfs_set_backend" in guestfs(3). LIBGUESTFS_CACHEDIR The location where libguestfs will cache its appliance, when using a supermin appliance. The appliance is cached and shared between all handles which have the same effective user ID. If "LIBGUESTFS_CACHEDIR" is not set, then "TMPDIR" is used. If "TMPDIR" is not set, then "/var/tmp" is used. See also "LIBGUESTFS_TMPDIR", "set-cachedir". LIBGUESTFS_DEBUG Set "LIBGUESTFS_DEBUG=1" to enable verbose messages. This has the same effect as using the -v option. LIBGUESTFS_MEMSIZE Set the memory allocated to the qemu process, in megabytes. For example: LIBGUESTFS_MEMSIZE=700 LIBGUESTFS_PATH Set the path that guestfish uses to search for kernel and initrd.img. See the discussion of paths in guestfs(3). LIBGUESTFS_QEMU Set the default qemu binary that libguestfs uses. If not set, then the qemu which was found at compile time by the configure script is used. LIBGUESTFS_TMPDIR The location where libguestfs will store temporary files used by each handle. If "LIBGUESTFS_TMPDIR" is not set, then "TMPDIR" is used. If "TMPDIR" is not set, then "/tmp" is used. See also "LIBGUESTFS_CACHEDIR", "set-tmpdir". LIBGUESTFS_TRACE Set "LIBGUESTFS_TRACE=1" to enable command traces. PAGER The "more" command uses $PAGER as the pager. If not set, it uses "more". PATH Libguestfs and guestfish may run some external programs, and rely on$PATH being set to a reasonable value. If using the libvirt backend, libvirt will not work at all unless $PATH contains the path of qemu/KVM. SUPERMIN_KERNEL SUPERMIN_MODULES These two environment variables allow the kernel that libguestfs uses in the appliance to be selected. If$SUPERMIN_KERNEL is not set, then the most recent host kernel is chosen. For more information about kernel selection, see supermin-helper(8). This feature is only available in supermin / febootstrap >= 3.8. TMPDIR See "LIBGUESTFS_CACHEDIR", "LIBGUESTFS_TMPDIR". FILES $HOME/.libguestfs-tools.rc /etc/libguestfs-tools.conf This configuration file controls the default read-only or read-write mode (--ro or --rw). See libguestfs-tools.conf(5).$HOME/.guestfish If compiled with GNU readline support, then the command history is saved in this file. $HOME/.inputrc /etc/inputrc If compiled with GNU readline support, then these files can be used to configure readline. For further information, please see "INITIALIZATION FILE" in readline(3). To write rules which only apply to guestfish, use:$if guestfish ... \$endif Variables that you can set in inputrc that change the behaviour of guestfish in useful ways include: completion-ignore-case (default: on) By default, guestfish will ignore case when tab-completing paths on the disk. Use: set completion-ignore-case off to make guestfish case sensitive. test1.img test2.img (etc) When using the -N or --new option, the prepared disk or filesystem will be created in the file "test1.img" in the current directory. The second use of -N will use "test2.img" and so on. Any existing file with the same name will be overwritten. SEE ALSO guestfs(3), http://libguestfs.org/, virt-alignment-scan(1), virt-cat(1), virt-copy-in(1), virt-copy-out(1), virt-df(1), virt-edit(1), virt-filesystems(1), virt-inspector(1), virt-list-filesystems(1), virt-list-partitions(1), virt-ls(1), virt-make-fs(1), virt-rescue(1), virt-resize(1), virt-sparsify(1), virt-sysprep(1), virt-tar(1), virt-tar-in(1), virt-tar-out(1), virt-win-reg(1), libguestfs-tools.conf(5), display(1), hexedit(1), supermin-helper(8). AUTHORS Richard W.M. Jones ("rjones at redhat dot com") COPYRIGHT Copyright (C) 2009-2013 Red Hat Inc. LICENSE This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later version. This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA. BUGS To get a list of bugs against libguestfs, use this link: https://bugzilla.redhat.com/buglist.cgi?component=libguestfs&product=Virtualization+Tools To report a new bug against libguestfs, use this link: https://bugzilla.redhat.com/enter_bug.cgi?component=libguestfs&product=Virtualization+Tools When reporting a bug, please supply: o The version of libguestfs. o Where you got libguestfs (eg. which Linux distro, compiled from source, etc) o Describe the bug accurately and give a way to reproduce it. o Run libguestfs-test-tool(1) and paste the complete, unedited output into the bug report. libguestfs-1.22.6 2013-08-24 guestfish(1)
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