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virt-sysprep(1) 		      Virtualization Support			  virt-sysprep(1)

NAME
       virt-sysprep - Reset, unconfigure or customize a virtual machine so clones can be made

SYNOPSIS
	virt-sysprep [--options] -d domname

	virt-sysprep [--options] -a disk.img [-a disk.img ...]

DESCRIPTION
       Virt-sysprep can reset or unconfigure a virtual machine so that clones can be made from
       it.  Steps in this process include removing SSH host keys, removing persistent network MAC
       configuration, and removing user accounts.  Virt-sysprep can also customize a virtual
       machine, for instance by adding SSH keys, users or logos.  Each step can be enabled or
       disabled as required.

       Virt-sysprep modifies the guest or disk image in place.	The guest must be shut down.  If
       you want to preserve the existing contents of the guest, you must snapshot, copy or clone
       the disk first.	See "COPYING AND CLONING" below.

       You do not need to run virt-sysprep as root.  In fact we'd generally recommend that you
       don't.  The time you might want to run it as root is when you need root in order to access
       the disk image, but even in this case it would be better to change the permissions on the
       disk image to be writable as the non-root user running virt-sysprep.

       "Sysprep" stands for "system preparation" tool.	The name comes from the Microsoft program
       "sysprep.exe" which is used to unconfigure Windows machines in preparation for cloning
       them.  Having said that, virt-sysprep does not currently work on Microsoft Windows guests.
       We plan to support Windows sysprepping in a future version, and we already have code to do
       it.

OPTIONS
       --help
	   Display brief help.

       -a file
       --add file
	   Add file which should be a disk image from a virtual machine.

	   The format of the disk image is auto-detected.  To override this and force a
	   particular format use the --format option.

       -a URI
       --add URI
	   Add a remote disk.  The URI format is compatible with guestfish.  See "ADDING REMOTE
	   STORAGE" in guestfish(1).

       -c URI
       --connect URI
	   If using libvirt, connect to the given URI.	If omitted, then we connect to the
	   default libvirt hypervisor.

	   If you specify guest block devices directly (-a), then libvirt is not used at all.

       -d guest
       --domain guest
	   Add all the disks from the named libvirt guest.  Domain UUIDs can be used instead of
	   names.

       -n
       --dry-run
	   Perform a read-only "dry run" on the guest.	This runs the sysprep operation, but
	   throws away any changes to the disk at the end.

       --enable operations
	   Choose which sysprep operations to perform.	Give a comma-separated list of
	   operations, for example:

	    --enable ssh-hostkeys,udev-persistent-net

	   would enable ONLY "ssh-hostkeys" and "udev-persistent-net" operations.

	   If the --enable option is not given, then we default to trying most sysprep operations
	   (see --list-operations to show which are enabled).

	   Regardless of the --enable option, sysprep operations are skipped for some guest
	   types.

	   Use --list-operations to list operations supported by a particular version of virt-
	   sysprep.

	   See "OPERATIONS" below for a list and an explanation of each operation.

       --format raw|qcow2|..
       --format auto
	   The default for the -a option is to auto-detect the format of the disk image.  Using
	   this forces the disk format for -a options which follow on the command line.  Using
	   --format auto switches back to auto-detection for subsequent -a options.

	   For example:

	    virt-sysprep --format raw -a disk.img

	   forces raw format (no auto-detection) for "disk.img".

	    virt-sysprep --format raw -a disk.img --format auto -a another.img

	   forces raw format (no auto-detection) for "disk.img" and reverts to auto-detection for
	   "another.img".

	   If you have untrusted raw-format guest disk images, you should use this option to
	   specify the disk format.  This avoids a possible security problem with malicious
	   guests (CVE-2010-3851).

       --list-operations
	   List the operations supported by the virt-sysprep program.

	   These are listed one per line, with one or more single-space-separated fields, eg:

	    $ virt-sysprep --list-operations
	    bash-history * Remove the bash history in the guest
	    cron-spool * Remove user at-jobs and cron-jobs
	    dhcp-client-state * Remove DHCP client leases
	    dhcp-server-state * Remove DHCP server leases
	    [etc]

	   The first field is the operation name, which can be supplied to --enable.  The second
	   field is a "*" character if the operation is enabled by default or blank if not.
	   Subsequent fields on the same line are the description of the operation.

	   Before libguestfs 1.17.33 only the first (operation name) field was shown and all
	   operations were enabled by default.

       -q
       --quiet
	   Don't print log messages.

	   To enable detailed logging of individual file operations, use -x.

       --selinux-relabel
       --no-selinux-relabel
	   --selinux-relabel forces SELinux relabelling next time the guest boots.
	   --no-selinux-relabel disables relabelling.

	   The default is to try to detect if SELinux relabelling is required.	See "SELINUX
	   RELABELLING" below for more details.

       -v
       --verbose
	   Enable verbose messages for debugging.

       -V
       --version
	   Display version number and exit.

       -x  Enable tracing of libguestfs API calls.

       --firstboot firstboot (see "firstboot" below)
	   Run script(s) once next time the guest boots.  You can supply the --firstboot option
	   as many times as needed.

       --hostname hostname (see "hostname" below)
	   Change the hostname.  If not given, defaults to "localhost.localdomain".

       --script script (see "script" below)
	   Run the named "script" (a shell script or program) against the guest.  The script can
	   be any program on the host.	The script's current directory will be the guest's root
	   directory.

	   Note: If the script is not on the $PATH, then you must give the full absolute path to
	   the script.

       --scriptdir scriptdir (see "script" below)
	   The mount point (an empty directory on the host) used when the "script" operation is
	   enabled and one or more scripts are specified using --script parameter(s).

	   Note: "scriptdir" must be an absolute path.

	   If --scriptdir is not specified then a temporary mountpoint will be created.

OPERATIONS
       If the --enable option is not given, then most sysprep operations are enabled.

       Use "virt-sysprep --list-operations" to list all operations for your virt-sysprep binary.
       The ones which are enabled by default are marked with a "*" character.  Regardless of the
       --enable option, sysprep operations are skipped for some guest types.

       Operations can be individually enabled using the --enable option.  Use a comma-separated
       list, for example:

	virt-sysprep --enable=ssh-hostkeys,udev-persistent-net [etc..]

       Future versions of virt-sysprep may add more operations.  If you are using virt-sysprep
       and want predictable behaviour, specify only the operations that you want to have enabled.

       "*" = enabled by default when no --enable option is given.

   abrt-data *
       Remove the crash data generated by ABRT.

       Remove the automatically generated ABRT crash data in "/var/spool/abrt/".

   bash-history *
       Remove the bash history in the guest.

       Remove the bash history of user "root" and any other users who have a ".bash_history" file
       in their home directory.

       Notes on bash-history

       Currently this only looks in "/root" and "/home/*" for home directories, so users with
       home directories in other locations won't have the bash history removed.

   blkid-tab *
       Remove blkid tab in the guest.

   ca-certificates
       Remove CA certificates in the guest.

   crash-data *
       Remove the crash data generated by kexec-tools.

       Remove the automatically generated kdump kernel crash data.

   cron-spool *
       Remove user at-jobs and cron-jobs.

   dhcp-client-state *
       Remove DHCP client leases.

   dhcp-server-state *
       Remove DHCP server leases.

   dovecot-data *
       Remove Dovecot (mail server) data.

   firstboot *
       Add scripts to run once at next boot.

       Supply one of more shell scripts (using the --firstboot option).

       These are run the first time the guest boots, and then are deleted.  So these are useful
       for performing last minute configuration that must run in the context of the guest
       operating system, for example "yum update".

       Output or errors from the scripts are written to "~root/virt-sysprep-firstboot.log" (in
       the guest).

       Notes on firstboot

       Currently this is only implemented for Linux guests using either SysVinit-style scripts,
       Upstart or systemd.

   flag-reconfiguration
       Flag the system for reconfiguration.

       Note that this may require user intervention when the guest is booted.

   fs-uuids
       Change filesystem UUIDs.

       On guests and filesystem types where this is supported, new random UUIDs are generated and
       assigned to filesystems.

   hostname *
       Change the hostname of the guest.

       This operation changes the hostname of the guest to the value given in the --hostname
       parameter.

       If the --hostname parameter is not given, then the hostname is changed to
       "localhost.localdomain".

       Notes on hostname

       Currently this can only set the hostname on Linux guests.

   kerberos-data
       Remove Kerberos data in the guest.

   logfiles *
       Remove many log files from the guest.

       On Linux the following files are removed:

	/root/anaconda-ks.cfg
	/root/install.log
	/root/install.log.syslog
	/var/cache/fontconfig/*
	/var/cache/gdm/*
	/var/cache/man/*
	/var/lib/AccountService/users/*
	/var/lib/fprint/*
	/var/lib/logrotate.status
	/var/log/*.log*
	/var/log/BackupPC/LOG
	/var/log/apache2/*_log
	/var/log/apache2/*_log-*
	/var/log/audit/*
	/var/log/audit/audit.log
	/var/log/btmp*
	/var/log/ceph/*.log
	/var/log/chrony/*.log
	/var/log/cron*
	/var/log/cups/*_log
	/var/log/dmesg*
	/var/log/glusterfs/*glusterd.vol.log
	/var/log/glusterfs/glusterfs.log
	/var/log/httpd/*log
	/var/log/jetty/jetty-console.log
	/var/log/lastlog*
	/var/log/libvirt/libvirtd.log
	/var/log/libvirt/lxc/*.log
	/var/log/libvirt/qemu/*.log
	/var/log/libvirt/uml/*.log
	/var/log/mail/*
	/var/log/maillog*
	/var/log/messages*
	/var/log/ntp
	/var/log/ppp/connect-errors
	/var/log/secure*
	/var/log/setroubleshoot/*.log
	/var/log/spooler*
	/var/log/squid/*.log
	/var/log/tallylog*
	/var/log/wtmp*
	/var/named/data/named.run

   lvm-uuids *
       Change LVM2 PV and VG UUIDs.

       On Linux guests that have LVM2 physical volumes (PVs) or volume groups (VGs), new random
       UUIDs are generated and assigned to those PVs and VGs.

   machine-id *
       Remove the local machine ID.

       The machine ID is usually generated from a random source during system installation and
       stays constant for all subsequent boots.  Optionally, for stateless systems it is
       generated during runtime at boot if it is found to be empty.

   mail-spool *
       Remove email from the local mail spool directory.

   net-hostname *
       Remove HOSTNAME in network interface configuration.

       For Fedora and Red Hat Enterprise Linux, this is removed from "ifcfg-*" files.

   net-hwaddr *
       Remove HWADDR (hard-coded MAC address) configuration.

       For Fedora and Red Hat Enterprise Linux, this is removed from "ifcfg-*" files.

   pacct-log *
       Remove the process accounting log files.

       The system wide process accounting will store to the pacct log files if the process
       accounting is on.

   package-manager-cache *
       Remove package manager cache.

   pam-data *
       Remove the PAM data in the guest.

   puppet-data-log *
       Remove the data and log files of puppet.

   random-seed *
       Generate random seed for guest.

       Write some random bytes from the host into the random seed file of the guest.

       See "RANDOM SEED" below.

   rhn-systemid *
       Remove the RHN system ID.

   samba-db-log *
       Remove the database and log files of Samba.

   script *
       Run arbitrary scripts against the guest.

       The "script" module lets you run arbitrary shell scripts or programs against the guest.

       Note this feature requires FUSE support.  You may have to enable this in your host, for
       example by adding the current user to the "fuse" group, or by loading a kernel module.

       Use one or more --script parameters to specify scripts or programs that will be run
       against the guest.

       The script or program is run with its current directory being the guest's root directory,
       so relative paths should be used.  For example: "rm etc/resolv.conf" in the script would
       remove a Linux guest's DNS configuration file, but "rm /etc/resolv.conf" would (try to)
       remove the host's file.

       Normally a temporary mount point for the guest is used, but you can choose a specific one
       by using the --scriptdir parameter.

       Note: This is different from --firstboot scripts (which run in the context of the guest
       when it is booting first time).	--script scripts run on the host, not in the guest.

   smolt-uuid *
       Remove the Smolt hardware UUID.

   ssh-hostkeys *
       Remove the SSH host keys in the guest.

       The SSH host keys are regenerated (differently) next time the guest is booted.

       If, after cloning, the guest gets the same IP address, ssh will give you a stark warning
       about the host key changing:

	@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
	@    WARNING: REMOTE HOST IDENTIFICATION HAS CHANGED!	  @
	@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
	IT IS POSSIBLE THAT SOMEONE IS DOING SOMETHING NASTY!

   ssh-userdir *
       Remove ".ssh" directories in the guest.

       Remove the ".ssh" directory of user "root" and any other users who have a ".ssh" directory
       in their home directory.

       Notes on ssh-userdir

       Currently this only looks in "/root" and "/home/*" for home directories, so users with
       home directories in other locations won't have the ssh files removed.

   sssd-db-log *
       Remove the database and log files of sssd.

   udev-persistent-net *
       Remove udev persistent net rules.

       Remove udev persistent net rules which map the guest's existing MAC address to a fixed
       ethernet device (eg. eth0).

       After a guest is cloned, the MAC address usually changes.  Since the old MAC address
       occupies the old name (eg. eth0), this means the fresh MAC address is assigned to a new
       name (eg. eth1) and this is usually undesirable.  Erasing the udev persistent net rules
       avoids this.

   user-account
       Remove the user accounts in the guest.

       Remove all the user accounts and their home directories.  The "root" account is not
       removed.

       Notes on user-account

       Currently this does not remove the user accounts from "/etc/shadow".  This is because
       there is no lens for the shadow password file in Augeas.

   utmp *
       Remove the utmp file.

       This file records who is currently logged in on a machine.  In modern Linux distros it is
       stored in a ramdisk and hence not part of the virtual machine's disk, but it was stored on
       disk in older distros.

   yum-uuid *
       Remove the yum UUID.

       Yum creates a fresh UUID the next time it runs when it notices that the original UUID has
       been erased.

COPYING AND CLONING
       Virt-sysprep can be used as part of a process of cloning guests, or to prepare a template
       from which guests can be cloned.  There are many different ways to achieve this using the
       virt tools, and this section is just an introduction.

       A virtual machine (when switched off) consists of two parts:

       configuration
	   The configuration or description of the guest.  eg. The libvirt XML (see "virsh
	   dumpxml"), the running configuration of the guest, or another external format like
	   OVF.

	   Some configuration items that might need to be changed:

	   o   name

	   o   UUID

	   o   path to block device(s)

	   o   network card MAC address

       block device(s)
	   One or more hard disk images, themselves containing files, directories, applications,
	   kernels, configuration, etc.

	   Some things inside the block devices that might need to be changed:

	   o   hostname and other net configuration

	   o   UUID

	   o   SSH host keys

	   o   Windows unique security ID (SID)

	   o   Puppet registration

   COPYING THE BLOCK DEVICE
       Starting with an original guest, you probably wish to copy the guest block device and its
       configuration to make a template.  Then once you are happy with the template, you will
       want to make many clones from it.

			       virt-sysprep
				    |
				    v
	original guest --------> template ---------->
					     \------> cloned
					      \-----> guests
					       \---->

       You can, of course, just copy the block device on the host using cp(1) or dd(1).

			  dd		     dd
	original guest --------> template ---------->
					     \------> cloned
					      \-----> guests
					       \---->

       There are some smarter (and faster) ways too:

				 snapshot
		       template ---------->
				   \------> cloned
				    \-----> guests
				     \---->

       You may want to run virt-sysprep twice, once to reset the guest (to make a template) and a
       second time to customize the guest for a specific user:

			   virt-sysprep        virt-sysprep
			     (reset)	  (add user, keys, logos)
				|		    |
			dd	v	   dd	    v
	original guest ----> template ---------> copied ------> custom
						 template	guest

       o   Create a snapshot using qemu-img:

	    qemu-img create -f qcow2 -o backing_file=original snapshot.qcow

	   The advantage is that you don't need to copy the original (very fast) and only changes
	   are stored (less storage required).

	   Note that writing to the backing file once you have created guests on top of it is not
	   possible: you will corrupt the guests.

       o   Create a snapshot using "lvcreate --snapshot".

       o   Other ways to create snapshots include using filesystems-level tools (for filesystems
	   such as btrfs).

	   Most Network Attached Storage (NAS) devices can also create cheap snapshots from files
	   or LUNs.

       o   Get your NAS to duplicate the LUN.  Most NAS devices can also duplicate LUNs very
	   cheaply (they copy them on-demand in the background).

       o   Prepare your template using virt-sparsify(1).  See below.

   VIRT-CLONE
       A separate tool, virt-clone(1), can be used to duplicate the block device and/or modify
       the external libvirt configuration of a guest.  It will reset the name, UUID and MAC
       address of the guest in the libvirt XML.

       virt-clone(1) does not use libguestfs and cannot look inside the disk image.  This was the
       original motivation to write virt-sysprep.

   SPARSIFY
		     virt-sparsify
	original guest --------> template

       virt-sparsify(1) can be used to make the cloning template smaller, making it easier to
       compress and/or faster to copy.

       Notice that since virt-sparsify also copies the image, you can use it to make the initial
       copy (instead of "dd").

   RESIZE
				virt-resize
		       template ---------->
				   \------> cloned
				    \-----> guests
				     \---->

       If you want to give people cloned guests, but let them pick the size of the guest
       themselves (eg. depending on how much they are prepared to pay for disk space), then
       instead of copying the template, you can run virt-resize(1).  Virt-resize performs a copy
       and resize, and thus is ideal for cloning guests from a template.

FIRSTBOOT VS SCRIPT
       The two options --firstboot and --script both supply shell scripts that are run against
       the guest.  However these two options are significantly different.

       --firstboot script uploads the file "script" into the guest and arranges that it will run,
       in the guest, when the guest is next booted.  (The script will only run once, at the
       "first boot").

       --script script runs the shell "script" on the host, with its current directory inside the
       guest filesystem.

       If you needed, for example, to "yum install" new packages, then you must not use --script
       for this, since that would (a) run the "yum" command on the host and (b) wouldn't have
       access to the same resources (repositories, keys, etc.) as the guest.  Any command that
       needs to run on the guest must be run via --firstboot.

       On the other hand if you need to make adjustments to the guest filesystem (eg. copying in
       files), then --script is ideal since (a) it has access to the host filesystem and (b) you
       will get immediate feedback on errors.

       Either or both options can be used multiple times on the command line.

SECURITY
       Although virt-sysprep removes some sensitive information from the guest, it does not
       pretend to remove all of it.  You should examine the "OPERATIONS" above and the guest
       afterwards.

       Sensitive files are simply removed.  The data they contained may still exist on the disk,
       easily recovered with a hex editor or undelete tool.  Use virt-sparsify(1) as one way to
       remove this content.  See also the scrub(1) command to get rid of deleted content in
       directory entries and inodes.

   RANDOM SEED
       (This section applies to Linux guests only)

       The virt-sysprep "random-seed" operation writes a few bytes of randomness from the host
       into the guest's random seed file.

       If this is just done once and the guest is cloned from the same template, then each guest
       will start with the same entropy, and things like SSH host keys and TCP sequence numbers
       may be predictable.

       Therefore you should arrange to add more randomness after cloning from a template too,
       which can be done by just enabling the "random-seed" operation:

	cp template.img newguest.img
	virt-sysprep --enable random-seed -a newguest.img

   SELINUX RELABELLING
       (This section applies to Linux guests using SELinux only)

       If any new files are created by virt-sysprep, then virt-sysprep touches "/.autorelabel" so
       that these will be correctly labelled by SELinux the next time the guest is booted.  This
       process interrupts boot and can take some time.

       You can force relabelling for all guests by supplying the --selinux-relabel option.

       You can disable relabelling entirely by supplying the --no-selinux-relabel option.

WINDOWS 8
       Windows 8 "fast startup" can prevent virt-sysprep from working.	See "WINDOWS HIBERNATION
       AND WINDOWS 8 FAST STARTUP" in guestfs(3).

SHELL QUOTING
       Libvirt guest names can contain arbitrary characters, some of which have meaning to the
       shell such as "#" and space.  You may need to quote or escape these characters on the
       command line.  See the shell manual page sh(1) for details.

EXIT STATUS
       This program returns 0 on success, or 1 if there was an error.

SEE ALSO
       guestfs(3), guestfish(1), virt-clone(1), virt-rescue(1), virt-resize(1), virt-sparsify(1),
       virsh(1), lvcreate(8), qemu-img(1), scrub(1), http://libguestfs.org/, http://libvirt.org/.

AUTHORS
       Richard W.M. Jones http://people.redhat.com/~rjones/

       Wanlong Gao, Fujitsu Ltd.

COPYRIGHT
       Copyright (C) 2011-2013 Red Hat Inc.

       Copyright (C) 2012 Fujitsu Ltd.

LICENSE
       This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of
       the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either
       version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.

       This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY;
       without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
       See the GNU General Public License for more details.

       You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program;
       if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor,
       Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.

BUGS
       To get a list of bugs against libguestfs, use this link:
       https://bugzilla.redhat.com/buglist.cgi?component=libguestfs&product=Virtualization+Tools

       To report a new bug against libguestfs, use this link:
       https://bugzilla.redhat.com/enter_bug.cgi?component=libguestfs&product=Virtualization+Tools

       When reporting a bug, please supply:

       o   The version of libguestfs.

       o   Where you got libguestfs (eg. which Linux distro, compiled from source, etc)

       o   Describe the bug accurately and give a way to reproduce it.

       o   Run libguestfs-test-tool(1) and paste the complete, unedited output into the bug
	   report.

libguestfs-1.22.6			    2013-08-24				  virt-sysprep(1)
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