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FIND(1) 										  FIND(1)

NAME
       find - search for files in a directory hierarchy

SYNOPSIS
       find [-H] [-L] [-P] [-D debugopts] [-Olevel] [path...] [expression]

DESCRIPTION
       This  manual page documents the GNU version of find.  GNU find searches the directory tree
       rooted at each given file name by evaluating the given  expression  from  left  to  right,
       according  to  the rules of precedence (see section OPERATORS), until the outcome is known
       (the left hand side is false for and operations, true for or), at which point  find  moves
       on to the next file name.

       If  you	are  using find in an environment where security is important (for example if you
       are using it to search directories that are writable by other users), you should read  the
       "Security  Considerations" chapter of the findutils documentation, which is called Finding
       Files and comes with findutils.	 That document also includes a lot more detail	and  dis-
       cussion than this manual page, so you may find it a more useful source of information.

OPTIONS
       The -H, -L and -P options control the treatment of symbolic links.  Command-line arguments
       following these are taken to be names of files or directories to be examined,  up  to  the
       first  argument	that  begins with `-', or the argument `(' or `!'.  That argument and any
       following arguments are taken to be the expression describing what is to be searched  for.
       If  no  paths  are  given,  the current directory is used.  If no expression is given, the
       expression -print is used (but you should probably consider using  -print0  instead,  any-
       way).

       This  manual page talks about `options' within the expression list.  These options control
       the behaviour of find but are specified immediately after the last path	name.	The  five
       `real' options -H, -L, -P, -D and -O must appear before the first path name, if at all.	A
       double dash -- can also be used to signal that any remaining  arguments	are  not  options
       (though ensuring that all start points begin with either `./' or `/' is generally safer if
       you use wildcards in the list of start points).

       -P     Never follow symbolic links.  This is the default behaviour.  When find examines or
	      prints  information  a  file, and the file is a symbolic link, the information used
	      shall be taken from the properties of the symbolic link itself.

       -L     Follow symbolic links.  When find examines or prints information about  files,  the
	      information  used  shall be taken from the properties of the file to which the link
	      points, not from the link itself (unless it is a broken symbolic link  or  find  is
	      unable  to  examine the file to which the link points).  Use of this option implies
	      -noleaf.	If you later use the -P option, -noleaf will still be in effect.   If  -L
	      is  in  effect  and  find  discovers  a  symbolic link to a subdirectory during its
	      search, the subdirectory pointed to by the symbolic link will be searched.

	      When the -L option is in effect, the -type predicate will always match against  the
	      type of the file that a symbolic link points to rather than the link itself (unless
	      the symbolic link is broken).  Using -L causes the -lname  and  -ilname  predicates
	      always to return false.

       -H     Do  not  follow symbolic links, except while processing the command line arguments.
	      When find examines or prints information about files, the information used shall be
	      taken from the properties of the symbolic link itself.   The only exception to this
	      behaviour is when a file specified on the command line is a symbolic link, and  the
	      link can be resolved.  For that situation, the information used is taken from what-
	      ever the link points to (that is, the link is followed).	The information about the
	      link  itself is used as a fallback if the file pointed to by the symbolic link can-
	      not be examined.	If -H is in effect and one of the paths specified on the  command
	      line  is	a  symbolic  link  to a directory, the contents of that directory will be
	      examined (though of course -maxdepth 0 would prevent this).

       If more than one of -H, -L and -P is specified, each overrides the others;  the	last  one
       appearing on the command line takes effect.  Since it is the default, the -P option should
       be considered to be in effect unless either -H or -L is specified.

       GNU find frequently stats files during the processing of the command line  itself,  before
       any  searching  has  begun.   These options also affect how those arguments are processed.
       Specifically, there are a number of tests that compare files listed on  the  command  line
       against a file we are currently considering.  In each case, the file specified on the com-
       mand line will have been examined and some of its properties will have been saved.  If the
       named  file  is	in fact a symbolic link, and the -P option is in effect (or if neither -H
       nor -L were specified), the information used for the comparison will  be  taken	from  the
       properties  of  the symbolic link.  Otherwise, it will be taken from the properties of the
       file the link points to.  If find cannot follow the  link  (for	example  because  it  has
       insufficient  privileges  or  the link points to a nonexistent file) the properties of the
       link itself will be used.

       When the -H or -L options are in effect, any symbolic links  listed  as	the  argument  of
       -newer  will  be  dereferenced, and the timestamp will be taken from the file to which the
       symbolic link points.  The same consideration applies to -newerXY, -anewer and -cnewer.

       The -follow option has a similar effect to -L, though it takes effect at the  point  where
       it  appears (that is, if -L is not used but -follow is, any symbolic links appearing after
       -follow on the command line will be dereferenced, and those before it will not).

       -D debugoptions
	      Print diagnostic information; this can be helpful to  diagnose  problems	with  why
	      find  is	not doing what you want.  The list of debug options should be comma sepa-
	      rated.  Compatibility of the debug options is not guaranteed  between  releases  of
	      findutils.   For	a complete list of valid debug options, see the output of find -D
	      help.  Valid debug options include

	      help   Explain the debugging options

	      tree   Show the expression tree in its original and optimised form.

	      stat   Print messages as files are examined with the stat and lstat  system  calls.
		     The find program tries to minimise such calls.

	      opt    Prints diagnostic information relating to the optimisation of the expression
		     tree; see the -O option.

	      rates  Prints a summary indicating how often each predicate succeeded or failed.

       -Olevel
	      Enables query optimisation.   The find program reorders tests to speed up execution
	      while  preserving the overall effect; that is, predicates with side effects are not
	      reordered relative to each other.  The optimisations performed at each optimisation
	      level are as follows.

	      0      Equivalent to optimisation level 1.

	      1      This  is  the  default optimisation level and corresponds to the traditional
		     behaviour.  Expressions are reordered so that tests based only on the  names
		     of files (for example -name and -regex) are performed first.

	      2      Any  -type  or  -xtype tests are performed after any tests based only on the
		     names of files, but before any  tests  that  require  information	from  the
		     inode.   On  many	modern versions of Unix, file types are returned by read-
		     dir() and so these predicates are faster to evaluate than	predicates  which
		     need to stat the file first.  If you use the -fstype FOO predicate and spec-
		     ify  a  filsystem	type  FOO  which  is  not  known  (that  is,  present  in
		     `/etc/mtab')  at  the  time  find	starts,  that  predicate is equivalent to
		     -false.

	      3      At this optimisation level, the full cost-based query optimiser is  enabled.
		     The order of tests is modified so that cheap (i.e. fast) tests are performed
		     first and more expensive ones are performed  later,  if  necessary.   Within
		     each  cost  band,	predicates  are  evaluated  earlier or later according to
		     whether they are likely to succeed or not.  For  -o,  predicates  which  are
		     likely  to  succeed  are evaluated earlier, and for -a, predicates which are
		     likely to fail are evaluated earlier.

	      The cost-based optimiser has a fixed idea of how likely any given test is  to  suc-
	      ceed.   In  some	cases the probability takes account of the specific nature of the
	      test (for example, -type f is assumed to be more likely to succeed than  -type  c).
	      The  cost-based  optimiser  is currently being evaluated.   If it does not actually
	      improve the performance of find, it will be removed again.   Conversely,	optimisa-
	      tions that prove to be reliable, robust and effective may be enabled at lower opti-
	      misation levels over time.  However, the default behaviour (i.e. optimisation level
	      1)  will not be changed in the 4.3.x release series.  The findutils test suite runs
	      all the tests on find at each optimisation level and ensures that the result is the
	      same.

EXPRESSIONS
       The  expression is made up of options (which affect overall operation rather than the pro-
       cessing of a specific file, and always return true), tests (which return a true	or  false
       value),	and actions (which have side effects and return a true or false value), all sepa-
       rated by operators.  -and is assumed where the operator is omitted.

       If the expression contains no actions other than -prune, -print is performed on all  files
       for which the expression is true.

   OPTIONS
       All options always return true.	Except for -daystart, -follow and -regextype, the options
       affect all tests, including tests specified  before  the  option.   This  is  because  the
       options	are  processed when the command line is parsed, while the tests don't do anything
       until files are examined.  The -daystart, -follow and -regextype options are different  in
       this  respect,  and  have  an effect only on tests which appear later in the command line.
       Therefore, for clarity, it is best to place them at the beginning of  the  expression.	A
       warning is issued if you don't do this.

       -d     A synonym for -depth, for compatibility with FreeBSD, NetBSD, MacOS X and OpenBSD.

       -daystart
	      Measure times (for -amin, -atime, -cmin, -ctime, -mmin, and -mtime) from the begin-
	      ning of today rather than from 24 hours ago.  This option only affects tests  which
	      appear later on the command line.

       -depth Process  each directory's contents before the directory itself.  The -delete action
	      also implies -depth.

       -follow
	      Deprecated; use the  -L  option  instead.   Dereference  symbolic  links.   Implies
	      -noleaf.	 The -follow option affects only those tests which appear after it on the
	      command line.  Unless the -H or -L option has been specified, the position  of  the
	      -follow  option  changes the behaviour of the -newer predicate; any files listed as
	      the argument of -newer will be dereferenced if they are symbolic links.	The  same
	      consideration applies to -newerXY, -anewer and -cnewer.  Similarly, the -type pred-
	      icate will always match against the type of the file that a symbolic link points to
	      rather  than  the  link itself.  Using -follow causes the -lname and -ilname predi-
	      cates always to return false.

       -help, --help
	      Print a summary of the command-line usage of find and exit.

       -ignore_readdir_race
	      Normally, find will emit an error message when it fails to stat  a  file.   If  you
	      give  this option and a file is deleted between the time find reads the name of the
	      file from the directory and the time it tries to stat the file,  no  error  message
	      will  be issued.	  This also applies to files or directories whose names are given
	      on the command line.  This option takes effect at the  time  the	command  line  is
	      read,  which  means  that  you  cannot  search one part of the filesystem with this
	      option on and part of it with this option off (if you need to  do  that,	you  will
	      need to issue two find commands instead, one with the option and one without it).

       -maxdepth levels
	      Descend  at  most  levels  (a non-negative integer) levels of directories below the
	      command line arguments.  -maxdepth 0
	       means only apply the tests and actions to the command line arguments.

       -mindepth levels
	      Do not apply any tests or actions at levels less than levels (a non-negative  inte-
	      ger).  -mindepth 1 means process all files except the command line arguments.

       -mount Don't  descend  directories on other filesystems.  An alternate name for -xdev, for
	      compatibility with some other versions of find.

       -noignore_readdir_race
	      Turns off the effect of -ignore_readdir_race.

       -noleaf
	      Do not optimize by assuming that directories contain 2  fewer  subdirectories  than
	      their  hard  link  count.  This option is needed when searching filesystems that do
	      not follow the Unix directory-link convention, such as CD-ROM or MS-DOS filesystems
	      or  AFS  volume  mount  points.	Each directory on a normal Unix filesystem has at
	      least 2 hard links: its name and its `.'	entry.	Additionally, its  subdirectories
	      (if  any) each have a `..'  entry linked to that directory.  When find is examining
	      a directory, after it has statted 2 fewer subdirectories than the directory's  link
	      count,  it  knows that the rest of the entries in the directory are non-directories
	      (`leaf' files in the directory tree).  If only the files' names need  to	be  exam-
	      ined,  there  is	no need to stat them; this gives a significant increase in search
	      speed.

       -regextype type
	      Changes the regular expression syntax understood by -regex and -iregex tests  which
	      occur  later  on	the command line.  Currently-implemented types are emacs (this is
	      the default), posix-awk, posix-basic, posix-egrep and posix-extended.

       -version, --version
	      Print the find version number and exit.

       -warn, -nowarn
	      Turn warning messages on or off.	These warnings apply only  to  the  command  line
	      usage,  not  to  any conditions that find might encounter when it searches directo-
	      ries.  The default behaviour corresponds to -warn if standard input is a	tty,  and
	      to -nowarn otherwise.

       -xautofs
	      Don't descend directories on autofs filesystems.

       -xdev  Don't descend directories on other filesystems.

   TESTS
       Some  tests,  for  example  -newerXY and -samefile, allow comparison between the file cur-
       rently being examined and some reference file specified on the command line.   When  these
       tests  are used, the interpretation of the reference file is determined by the options -H,
       -L and -P and any previous -follow, but the reference file is only examined once,  at  the
       time  the  command line is parsed.  If the reference file cannot be examined (for example,
       the stat(2) system call fails for it), an error message is issued, and find exits  with	a
       nonzero status.

       Numeric arguments can be specified as

       +n     for greater than n,

       -n     for less than n,

       n      for exactly n.

       -amin n
	      File was last accessed n minutes ago.

       -anewer file
	      File was last accessed more recently than file was modified.  If file is a symbolic
	      link and the -H option or the -L option is in effect, the access time of	the  file
	      it points to is always used.

       -atime n
	      File  was  last  accessed  n*24  hours ago.  When find figures out how many 24-hour
	      periods ago the file was last accessed, any fractional part is ignored, so to match
	      -atime +1, a file has to have been accessed at least two days ago.

       -cmin n
	      File's status was last changed n minutes ago.

       -cnewer file
	      File's  status was last changed more recently than file was modified.  If file is a
	      symbolic link and the -H option or the -L option is in  effect,  the  status-change
	      time of the file it points to is always used.

       -ctime n
	      File's  status  was  last  changed  n*24 hours ago.  See the comments for -atime to
	      understand how rounding affects the interpretation of file status change times.

       -empty File is empty and is either a regular file or a directory.

       -executable
	      Matches files which are executable and directories which are searchable (in a  file
	      name  resolution	sense).   This	takes into account access control lists and other
	      permissions artefacts which the -perm test ignores.  This test  makes  use  of  the
	      access(2) system call, and so can be fooled by NFS servers which do UID mapping (or
	      root-squashing), since many systems implement access(2) in the client's kernel  and
	      so cannot make use of the UID mapping information held on the server.  Because this
	      test is based only on the result of the access(2) system call, there is no  guaran-
	      tee that a file for which this test succeeds can actually be executed.

       -false Always false.

       -fstype type
	      File  is	on a filesystem of type type.  The valid filesystem types vary among dif-
	      ferent versions of Unix; an incomplete list of filesystem types that  are  accepted
	      on  some	version  of Unix or another is: ufs, 4.2, 4.3, nfs, tmp, mfs, S51K, S52K.
	      You can use -printf with the %F directive to see the types of your filesystems.

       -gid n File's numeric group ID is n.

       -group gname
	      File belongs to group gname (numeric group ID allowed).

       -ilname pattern
	      Like -lname, but the match is case insensitive.  If the -L option  or  the  -follow
	      option is in effect, this test returns false unless the symbolic link is broken.

       -iname pattern
	      Like -name, but the match is case insensitive.  For example, the patterns `fo*' and
	      `F??' match the file names `Foo', `FOO', `foo', `fOo', etc.   The  pattern  `*foo*`
	      will also match a file called '.foobar'.

       -inum n
	      File has inode number n.	It is normally easier to use the -samefile test instead.

       -ipath pattern
	      Like -path.  but the match is case insensitive.

       -iregex pattern
	      Like -regex, but the match is case insensitive.

       -iwholename pattern
	      See -ipath.    This alternative is less portable than -ipath.

       -links n
	      File has n links.

       -lname pattern
	      File  is a symbolic link whose contents match shell pattern pattern.  The metachar-
	      acters do not treat `/' or `.' specially.  If the -L option or the  -follow  option
	      is in effect, this test returns false unless the symbolic link is broken.

       -mmin n
	      File's data was last modified n minutes ago.

       -mtime n
	      File's  data  was  last  modified  n*24  hours ago.  See the comments for -atime to
	      understand how rounding affects the interpretation of file modification times.

       -name pattern
	      Base of file name (the path with the leading  directories  removed)  matches  shell
	      pattern  pattern.  Because the leading directories are removed, the file names con-
	      sidered for a match with -name will never include a  slash,  so  `-name  a/b'  will
	      never  match anything (you probably need to use -path instead).  The metacharacters
	      (`*', `?', and `[]') match a `.' at the start of the base name (this is a change in
	      findutils-4.2.2;	see  section STANDARDS CONFORMANCE below).  To ignore a directory
	      and the files under it, use -prune; see an example in  the  description  of  -path.
	      Braces  are  not	recognised  as	being  special, despite the fact that some shells
	      including Bash imbue braces with a special meaning in shell patterns.  The filename
	      matching is performed with the use of the fnmatch(3) library function.   Don't for-
	      get to enclose the pattern in quotes in order to protect it from expansion  by  the
	      shell.

       -newer file
	      File  was  modified more recently than file.  If file is a symbolic link and the -H
	      option or the -L option is in effect, the modification time of the file  it  points
	      to is always used.

       -newerXY reference
	      Compares	the timestamp of the current file with reference.  The reference argument
	      is normally the name of a file (and one of its timestamps is used for the  compari-
	      son)  but  it may also be a string describing an absolute time.  X and Y are place-
	      holders for other letters, and these letters select which  time  belonging  to  how
	      reference is used for the comparison.

	      a   The access time of the file reference
	      B   The birth time of the file reference
	      c   The inode status change time of reference
	      m   The modification time of the file reference
	      t   reference is interpreted directly as a time

	      Some combinations are invalid; for example, it is invalid for X to be t.	Some com-
	      binations are not implemented on all systems; for example B is not supported on all
	      systems.	 If  an  invalid  or  unsupported combination of XY is specified, a fatal
	      error results.  Time specifications are interpreted as for the argument to  the  -d
	      option  of GNU date.  If you try to use the birth time of a reference file, and the
	      birth time cannot be determined, a fatal error message results.  If you  specify	a
	      test  which  refers  to the birth time of files being examined, this test will fail
	      for any files where the birth time is unknown.

       -nogroup
	      No group corresponds to file's numeric group ID.

       -nouser
	      No user corresponds to file's numeric user ID.

       -path pattern
	      File name matches shell pattern pattern.	The metacharacters do not  treat  `/'  or
	      `.' specially; so, for example,
			find . -path "./sr*sc"
	      will print an entry for a directory called `./src/misc' (if one exists).	To ignore
	      a whole directory tree, use -prune rather than checking every  file  in  the  tree.
	      For  example, to skip the directory `src/emacs' and all files and directories under
	      it, and print the names of the other files found, do something like this:
			find . -path ./src/emacs -prune -o -print
	      Note that the pattern match test applies to the whole file name, starting from  one
	      of  the start points named on the command line.  It would only make sense to use an
	      absolute path name here if the relevant start point is also an absolute path.  This
	      means that this command will never match anything:
			find bar -path /foo/bar/myfile -print
	      Find compares the -path argument with the concatenation of a directory name and the
	      base name of the file it's examining.  Since the concatenation will never end  with
	      a  slash,  -path	arguments  ending in a slash will match nothing (except perhaps a
	      start point specified on the command line).  The predicate -path is also	supported
	      by HP-UX find and will be in a forthcoming version of the POSIX standard.

       -perm mode
	      File's  permission bits are exactly mode (octal or symbolic).  Since an exact match
	      is required, if you want to use this form for symbolic modes, you may have to spec-
	      ify  a  rather  complex mode string.  For example `-perm g=w' will only match files
	      which have mode 0020 (that is, ones for which group write permission  is	the  only
	      permission set).	It is more likely that you will want to use the `/' or `-' forms,
	      for example `-perm -g=w', which matches any file with group write permission.   See
	      the EXAMPLES section for some illustrative examples.

       -perm -mode
	      All  of the permission bits mode are set for the file.  Symbolic modes are accepted
	      in this form, and this is usually the way in which would want  to  use  them.   You
	      must specify `u', `g' or `o' if you use a symbolic mode.	 See the EXAMPLES section
	      for some illustrative examples.

       -perm /mode
	      Any of the permission bits mode are set for the file.  Symbolic modes are  accepted
	      in  this	form.	You must specify `u', `g' or `o' if you use a symbolic mode.  See
	      the EXAMPLES section for some illustrative examples.  If no permission bits in mode
	      are set, this test matches any file (the idea here is to be consistent with the be-
	      haviour of -perm -000).

       -perm +mode
	      Deprecated, old way of searching for files with any of the permission bits in  mode
	      set.   You  should  use -perm /mode instead. Trying to use the `+' syntax with sym-
	      bolic modes will yield surprising results.  For example, `+u+x' is a valid symbolic
	      mode  (equivalent to +u,+x, i.e. 0111) and will therefore not be evaluated as -perm
	      +mode but instead as the exact mode specifier -perm mode and so  it  matches  files
	      with  exact  permissions	0111  instead  of files with any execute bit set.  If you
	      found this paragraph confusing, you're not alone - just use -perm /mode.	This form
	      of the -perm test is deprecated because the POSIX specification requires the inter-
	      pretation of a leading `+' as being part of a symbolic mode, and so we switched  to
	      using `/' instead.

       -readable
	      Matches files which are readable.  This takes into account access control lists and
	      other permissions artefacts which the -perm test ignores.  This test makes  use  of
	      the access(2) system call, and so can be fooled by NFS servers which do UID mapping
	      (or root-squashing), since many systems implement access(2) in the client's  kernel
	      and so cannot make use of the UID mapping information held on the server.

       -regex pattern
	      File  name  matches regular expression pattern.  This is a match on the whole path,
	      not a search.  For example, to match a file named `./fubar3', you can use the regu-
	      lar  expression  `.*bar.'  or  `.*b.*3',	but not `f.*r3'.  The regular expressions
	      understood by find are by default  Emacs	Regular  Expressions,  but  this  can  be
	      changed with the -regextype option.

       -samefile name
	      File  refers  to	the  same inode as name.   When -L is in effect, this can include
	      symbolic links.

       -size n[cwbkMG]
	      File uses n units of space.  The following suffixes can be used:

	      `b'    for 512-byte blocks (this is the default if no suffix is used)

	      `c'    for bytes

	      `w'    for two-byte words

	      `k'    for Kilobytes (units of 1024 bytes)

	      `M'    for Megabytes (units of 1048576 bytes)

	      `G'    for Gigabytes (units of 1073741824 bytes)

	      The size does not count indirect blocks, but it does count blocks in  sparse  files
	      that are not actually allocated.	Bear in mind that the `%k' and `%b' format speci-
	      fiers of -printf handle sparse files differently.  The `b'  suffix  always  denotes
	      512-byte blocks and never 1 Kilobyte blocks, which is different to the behaviour of
	      -ls.

       -true  Always true.

       -type c
	      File is of type c:

	      b      block (buffered) special

	      c      character (unbuffered) special

	      d      directory

	      p      named pipe (FIFO)

	      f      regular file

	      l      symbolic link; this is never true if the -L option or the -follow option  is
		     in  effect,  unless  the symbolic link is broken.	If you want to search for
		     symbolic links when -L is in effect, use -xtype.

	      s      socket

	      D      door (Solaris)

       -uid n File's numeric user ID is n.

       -used n
	      File was last accessed n days after its status was last changed.

       -user uname
	      File is owned by user uname (numeric user ID allowed).

       -wholename pattern
	      See -path.    This alternative is less portable than -path.

       -writable
	      Matches files which are writable.  This takes into account access control lists and
	      other  permissions  artefacts which the -perm test ignores.  This test makes use of
	      the access(2) system call, and so can be fooled by NFS servers which do UID mapping
	      (or  root-squashing), since many systems implement access(2) in the client's kernel
	      and so cannot make use of the UID mapping information held on the server.

       -xtype c
	      The same as -type unless the file is a symbolic link.  For symbolic links:  if  the
	      -H  or  -P option was specified, true if the file is a link to a file of type c; if
	      the -L option has been given, true if c is  `l'.	 In  other  words,  for  symbolic
	      links, -xtype checks the type of the file that -type does not check.

       -context pattern
	      (SELinux only) Security context of the file matches glob pattern.

   ACTIONS
       -delete
	      Delete  files;  true if removal succeeded.  If the removal failed, an error message
	      is issued.  If -delete fails, find's exit status will be nonzero (when  it  eventu-
	      ally exits).  Use of -delete automatically turns on the `-depth' option.

	      Warnings: Don't forget that the find command line is evaluated as an expression, so
	      putting -delete first will make find try to delete everything  below  the  starting
	      points  you  specified.	When testing a find command line that you later intend to
	      use with -delete, you should explicitly specify -depth in order to avoid later sur-
	      prises.  Because -delete implies -depth, you cannot usefully use -prune and -delete
	      together.

       -exec command ;
	      Execute command; true if 0 status is returned.  All following arguments to find are
	      taken to be arguments to the command until an argument consisting of `;' is encoun-
	      tered.  The string `{}' is replaced by the current file name being processed every-
	      where  it occurs in the arguments to the command, not just in arguments where it is
	      alone, as in some versions of find.  Both of these constructions might need  to  be
	      escaped  (with  a  `\') or quoted to protect them from expansion by the shell.  See
	      the EXAMPLES section for examples of the use of the -exec  option.   The	specified
	      command is run once for each matched file.  The command is executed in the starting
	      directory.   There are unavoidable security problems surrounding use of  the  -exec
	      action; you should use the -execdir option instead.

       -exec command {} +
	      This  variant of the -exec action runs the specified command on the selected files,
	      but the command line is built by appending each selected file name at the end;  the
	      total  number  of  invocations  of the command will be much less than the number of
	      matched files.  The command line is built in much the same way  that  xargs  builds
	      its  command  lines.  Only one instance of `{}' is allowed within the command.  The
	      command is executed in the starting directory.

       -execdir command ;

       -execdir command {} +
	      Like -exec, but the specified command is run from the subdirectory  containing  the
	      matched  file, which is not normally the directory in which you started find.  This
	      a much more secure method for invoking commands, as it avoids race conditions  dur-
	      ing  resolution  of  the paths to the matched files.  As with the -exec action, the
	      `+' form of -execdir will build a command line to process  more  than  one  matched
	      file,  but  any  given invocation of command will only list files that exist in the
	      same subdirectory.  If you use this option, you must ensure that your  $PATH  envi-
	      ronment  variable  does  not reference `.'; otherwise, an attacker can run any com-
	      mands they like by leaving an appropriately-named file in a directory in which  you
	      will  run -execdir.  The same applies to having entries in $PATH which are empty or
	      which are not absolute directory names.

       -fls file
	      True; like -ls but write to file like -fprint.  The output file is always  created,
	      even  if	the  predicate	is  never matched.  See the UNUSUAL FILENAMES section for
	      information about how unusual characters in filenames are handled.

       -fprint file
	      True; print the full file name into file file.  If file does not exist when find is
	      run,  it	is created; if it does exist, it is truncated.	The file names `/dev/std-
	      out' and `/dev/stderr' are handled specially; they refer to the standard output and
	      standard	error  output,	respectively.  The output file is always created, even if
	      the predicate is never matched.  See the UNUSUAL FILENAMES section for  information
	      about how unusual characters in filenames are handled.

       -fprint0 file
	      True;  like -print0 but write to file like -fprint.  The output file is always cre-
	      ated, even if the predicate is never matched.  See the  UNUSUAL  FILENAMES  section
	      for information about how unusual characters in filenames are handled.

       -fprintf file format
	      True;  like -printf but write to file like -fprint.  The output file is always cre-
	      ated, even if the predicate is never matched.  See the  UNUSUAL  FILENAMES  section
	      for information about how unusual characters in filenames are handled.

       -ls    True;  list  current  file in ls -dils format on standard output.  The block counts
	      are of 1K blocks, unless the environment variable POSIXLY_CORRECT is set, in  which
	      case  512-byte  blocks are used.	See the UNUSUAL FILENAMES section for information
	      about how unusual characters in filenames are handled.

       -ok command ;
	      Like -exec but ask the user first.  If the user agrees, run the command.	Otherwise
	      just  return  false.   If the command is run, its standard input is redirected from
	      /dev/null.

	      The response to the prompt is matched against a  pair  of  regular  expressions  to
	      determine if it is an affirmative or negative response.  This regular expression is
	      obtained from the system if the `POSIXLY_CORRECT' environment variable is  set,  or
	      otherwise  from find's message translations.  If the system has no suitable defini-
	      tion, find's own definition will be used.   In either case, the  interpretation  of
	      the  regular  expression	itself	will  be  affected  by	the environment variables
	      'LC_CTYPE' (character classes) and 'LC_COLLATE' (character ranges  and  equivalence
	      classes).

       -okdir command ;
	      Like  -execdir but ask the user first in the same way as for -ok.  If the user does
	      not agree, just return false.  If the command is run, its standard input	is  redi-
	      rected from /dev/null.

       -print True;  print the full file name on the standard output, followed by a newline.   If
	      you are piping the output of find into another program and there	is  the  faintest
	      possibility  that  the  files  which you are searching for might contain a newline,
	      then you should seriously consider using the -print0 option instead of -print.  See
	      the UNUSUAL FILENAMES section for information about how unusual characters in file-
	      names are handled.

       -print0
	      True; print the full file name on the standard output, followed by a null character
	      (instead	of  the newline character that -print uses).  This allows file names that
	      contain newlines or other types of white space to be correctly interpreted by  pro-
	      grams  that  process  the find output.  This option corresponds to the -0 option of
	      xargs.

       -printf format
	      True; print format on the standard output, interpreting `\' escapes and `%'  direc-
	      tives.   Field  widths and precisions can be specified as with the `printf' C func-
	      tion.  Please note that many of the fields are printed as %s rather  than  %d,  and
	      this  may mean that flags don't work as you might expect.  This also means that the
	      `-' flag does work (it forces fields to be left-aligned).  Unlike  -print,  -printf
	      does not add a newline at the end of the string.	The escapes and directives are:

	      \a     Alarm bell.

	      \b     Backspace.

	      \c     Stop printing from this format immediately and flush the output.

	      \f     Form feed.

	      \n     Newline.

	      \r     Carriage return.

	      \t     Horizontal tab.

	      \v     Vertical tab.

	      \0     ASCII NUL.

	      \\     A literal backslash (`\').

	      \NNN   The character whose ASCII code is NNN (octal).

	      A  `\'  character followed by any other character is treated as an ordinary charac-
	      ter, so they both are printed.

	      %%     A literal percent sign.

	      %a     File's last access time in the format returned by the C `ctime' function.

	      %Ak    File's last access time in the format specified by k, which is either `@' or
		     a	directive  for	the C `strftime' function.  The possible values for k are
		     listed below; some of them might not be available on  all	systems,  due  to
		     differences in `strftime' between systems.

		     @	    seconds since Jan. 1, 1970, 00:00 GMT, with fractional part.

		     Time fields:

		     H	    hour (00..23)

		     I	    hour (01..12)

		     k	    hour ( 0..23)

		     l	    hour ( 1..12)

		     M	    minute (00..59)

		     p	    locale's AM or PM

		     r	    time, 12-hour (hh:mm:ss [AP]M)

		     S	    Second (00.00 .. 61.00).  There is a fractional part.

		     T	    time, 24-hour (hh:mm:ss)

		     +	    Date and time, separated by `+', for example `2004-04-28+22:22:05.0'.
			    This is a GNU extension.  The time is given in the	current  timezone
			    (which  may be affected by setting the TZ environment variable).  The
			    seconds field includes a fractional part.

		     X	    locale's time representation (H:M:S)

		     Z	    time zone (e.g., EDT), or nothing if no time zone is determinable

		     Date fields:

		     a	    locale's abbreviated weekday name (Sun..Sat)

		     A	    locale's full weekday name, variable length (Sunday..Saturday)

		     b	    locale's abbreviated month name (Jan..Dec)

		     B	    locale's full month name, variable length (January..December)

		     c	    locale's date and time (Sat Nov 04 12:02:33 EST 1989).  The format is
			    the  same  as for ctime(3) and so to preserve compatibility with that
			    format, there is no fractional part in the seconds field.

		     d	    day of month (01..31)

		     D	    date (mm/dd/yy)

		     h	    same as b

		     j	    day of year (001..366)

		     m	    month (01..12)

		     U	    week number of year with Sunday as first day of week (00..53)

		     w	    day of week (0..6)

		     W	    week number of year with Monday as first day of week (00..53)

		     x	    locale's date representation (mm/dd/yy)

		     y	    last two digits of year (00..99)

		     Y	    year (1970...)

	      %b     The amount of disk space used for this file in 512-byte blocks.  Since  disk
		     space is allocated in multiples of the filesystem block size this is usually
		     greater than %s/512, but it can also be smaller if  the  file  is	a  sparse
		     file.

	      %c     File's last status change time in the format returned by the C `ctime' func-
		     tion.

	      %Ck    File's last status change time in the format specified by k,  which  is  the
		     same as for %A.

	      %d     File's depth in the directory tree; 0 means the file is a command line argu-
		     ment.

	      %D     The device number on which the file  exists  (the	st_dev	field  of  struct
		     stat), in decimal.

	      %f     File's name with any leading directories removed (only the last element).

	      %F     Type of the filesystem the file is on; this value can be used for -fstype.

	      %g     File's group name, or numeric group ID if the group has no name.

	      %G     File's numeric group ID.

	      %h     Leading  directories of file's name (all but the last element).  If the file
		     name contains no slashes (since it is in the current directory) the %h spec-
		     ifier expands to ".".

	      %H     Command line argument under which file was found.

	      %i     File's inode number (in decimal).

	      %k     The  amount  of disk space used for this file in 1K blocks. Since disk space
		     is allocated in multiples of the  filesystem  block  size	this  is  usually
		     greater  than  %s/1024,  but  it can also be smaller if the file is a sparse
		     file.

	      %l     Object of symbolic link (empty string if file is not a symbolic link).

	      %m     File's permission bits (in octal).  This option uses the `traditional'  num-
		     bers which most Unix implementations use, but if your particular implementa-
		     tion uses an unusual ordering of octal permissions bits, you will see a dif-
		     ference  between  the  actual value of the file's mode and the output of %m.
		     Normally you will want to have a leading zero on  this  number,  and  to  do
		     this, you should use the # flag (as in, for example, `%#m').

	      %M     File's  permissions  (in  symbolic form, as for ls).  This directive is sup-
		     ported in findutils 4.2.5 and later.

	      %n     Number of hard links to file.

	      %p     File's name.

	      %P     File's name with the name of the command line argument under  which  it  was
		     found removed.

	      %s     File's size in bytes.

	      %S     File's  sparseness.   This is calculated as (BLOCKSIZE*st_blocks / st_size).
		     The exact value you will get for an ordinary file of  a  certain  length  is
		     system-dependent.	However, normally sparse files will have values less than
		     1.0, and files which use indirect blocks may have a value which  is  greater
		     than 1.0.	 The value used for BLOCKSIZE is system-dependent, but is usually
		     512 bytes.   If the file size is zero, the value printed is  undefined.   On
		     systems  which lack support for st_blocks, a file's sparseness is assumed to
		     be 1.0.

	      %t     File's last modification time in the format returned by the C `ctime'  func-
		     tion.

	      %Tk    File's  last  modification  time  in the format specified by k, which is the
		     same as for %A.

	      %u     File's user name, or numeric user ID if the user has no name.

	      %U     File's numeric user ID.

	      %y     File's type (like in ls -l), U=unknown type (shouldn't happen)

	      %Y     File's type (like %y), plus follow symlinks: L=loop, N=nonexistent

	      %Z     (SELinux only) file's security context.

	      %{ %[ %(
		     Reserved for future use.

	      A `%' character followed by any other character is discarded, but the other charac-
	      ter  is  printed	(don't	rely  on this, as further format characters may be intro-
	      duced).  A `%' at the end of the format argument causes undefined  behaviour  since
	      there  is  no  following	character.   In some locales, it may hide your door keys,
	      while in others it may remove the final page from the novel you are reading.

	      The %m and %d directives support the # , 0 and + flags, but the other directives do
	      not,  even  if  they  print  numbers.  Numeric directives that do not support these
	      flags include G, U, b, D, k and n.  The `-' format flag is  supported  and  changes
	      the alignment of a field from right-justified (which is the default) to left-justi-
	      fied.

	      See the UNUSUAL FILENAMES section for information about how unusual  characters  in
	      filenames are handled.

       -prune True;  if  the  file  is	a  directory, do not descend into it. If -depth is given,
	      false; no effect.  Because -delete implies -depth, you cannot usefully  use  -prune
	      and -delete together.

       -quit  Exit immediately.  No child processes will be left running, but no more paths spec-
	      ified on the command line will be processed.  For example, find  /tmp/foo  /tmp/bar
	      -print  -quit will print only /tmp/foo.  Any command lines which have been built up
	      with -execdir ... {} + will be invoked before find exits.   The exit status may  or
	      may not be zero, depending on whether an error has already occurred.

   UNUSUAL FILENAMES
       Many  of  the actions of find result in the printing of data which is under the control of
       other users.  This includes file names, sizes, modification  times  and	so  forth.   File
       names  are  a  potential problem since they can contain any character except `\0' and `/'.
       Unusual characters in file names can do unexpected and often undesirable  things  to  your
       terminal  (for  example,  changing  the settings of your function keys on some terminals).
       Unusual characters are handled differently by various actions, as described below.

       -print0, -fprint0
	      Always print the exact filename, unchanged, even if the output is going to a termi-
	      nal.

       -ls, -fls
	      Unusual  characters  are	always escaped.  White space, backslash, and double quote
	      characters are printed using C-style escaping  (for  example  `\f',  `\"').   Other
	      unusual  characters  are printed using an octal escape.  Other printable characters
	      (for -ls and -fls these are the characters between octal 041 and 0176) are  printed
	      as-is.

       -printf, -fprintf
	      If  the  output  is  not	going to a terminal, it is printed as-is.  Otherwise, the
	      result depends on which directive is in use.  The directives %D, %F,  %g,  %G,  %H,
	      %Y,  and	%y  expand to values which are not under control of files' owners, and so
	      are printed as-is.  The directives %a, %b, %c, %d, %i, %k, %m, %M, %n, %s,  %t,  %u
	      and %U have values which are under the control of files' owners but which cannot be
	      used to send arbitrary data to the terminal, and so these are printed  as-is.   The
	      directives %f, %h, %l, %p and %P are quoted.  This quoting is performed in the same
	      way as for GNU ls.  This is not the same quoting mechanism as the one used for  -ls
	      and -fls.  If you are able to decide what format to use for the output of find then
	      it is normally better to use `\0' as a terminator than  to  use  newline,  as  file
	      names  can  contain  white  space  and  newline  characters.   The  setting  of the
	      `LC_CTYPE' environment variable is used to determine which characters  need  to  be
	      quoted.

       -print, -fprint
	      Quoting  is  handled in the same way as for -printf and -fprintf.  If you are using
	      find in a script or in a situation where the matched  files  might  have	arbitrary
	      names, you should consider using -print0 instead of -print.

       The  -ok and -okdir actions print the current filename as-is.  This may change in a future
       release.

   OPERATORS
       Listed in order of decreasing precedence:

       ( expr )
	      Force precedence.  Since parentheses are special to the shell,  you  will  normally
	      need  to	quote them.  Many of the examples in this manual page use backslashes for
	      this purpose: `\(...\)' instead of `(...)'.

       ! expr True if expr is false.  This character  will  also  usually  need  protection  from
	      interpretation by the shell.

       -not expr
	      Same as ! expr, but not POSIX compliant.

       expr1 expr2
	      Two expressions in a row are taken to be joined with an implied "and"; expr2 is not
	      evaluated if expr1 is false.

       expr1 -a expr2
	      Same as expr1 expr2.

       expr1 -and expr2
	      Same as expr1 expr2, but not POSIX compliant.

       expr1 -o expr2
	      Or; expr2 is not evaluated if expr1 is true.

       expr1 -or expr2
	      Same as expr1 -o expr2, but not POSIX compliant.

       expr1 , expr2
	      List; both expr1 and expr2 are always evaluated.	The value of expr1 is  discarded;
	      the  value  of the list is the value of expr2. The comma operator can be useful for
	      searching for several different types of thing, but traversing the filesystem hier-
	      archy only once.	The -fprintf action can be used to list the various matched items
	      into several different output files.

STANDARDS CONFORMANCE
       For closest compliance to the POSIX standard, you should set the POSIXLY_CORRECT  environ-
       ment  variable.	 The  following  options  are  specified  in the POSIX standard (IEEE Std
       1003.1, 2003 Edition):

       -H     This option is supported.

       -L     This option is supported.

       -name  This option is supported, but POSIX conformance depends on the POSIX conformance of
	      the system's fnmatch(3) library function.  As of findutils-4.2.2, shell metacharac-
	      ters (`*', `?' or `[]' for example) will match a leading	`.',  because  IEEE  PASC
	      interpretation  126  requires  this.    This  is a change from previous versions of
	      findutils.

       -type  Supported.   POSIX specifies `b', `c', `d', `l', `p', `f' and `s'.  GNU  find  also
	      supports `D', representing a Door, where the OS provides these.

       -ok    Supported.   Interpretation of the response is according to the "yes" and "no" pat-
	      terns selected  by  setting  the	`LC_MESSAGES'  environment  variable.	When  the
	      `POSIXLY_CORRECT'  environment  variable	is set, these patterns are taken system's
	      definition of a positive (yes) or negative (no) response. See the system's documen-
	      tation  for nl_langinfo(3), in particular YESEXPR and NOEXPR.    When `POSIXLY_COR-
	      RECT' is not set, the patterns are instead taken from find's own message catalogue.

       -newer Supported.  If the file specified is a symbolic link, it	is  always  dereferenced.
	      This is a change from previous behaviour, which used to take the relevant time from
	      the symbolic link; see the HISTORY section below.

       -perm  Supported.  If the POSIXLY_CORRECT environment variable is not set, some mode argu-
	      ments  (for  example +a+x) which are not valid in POSIX are supported for backward-
	      compatibility.

       Other predicates
	      The predicates -atime, -ctime, -depth, -group, -links, -mtime,  -nogroup,  -nouser,
	      -print,  -prune,	-size,	-user  and  -xdev `-atime', `-ctime', `-depth', `-group',
	      `-links', `-mtime', `-nogroup', `-nouser', `-perm',  `-print',  `-prune',  `-size',
	      `-user' and `-xdev', are all supported.

       The  POSIX  standard  specifies	parentheses `(', `)', negation `!' and the `and' and `or'
       operators ( -a, -o).

       All other options, predicates, expressions and so forth are extensions  beyond  the  POSIX
       standard.  Many of these extensions are not unique to GNU find, however.

       The POSIX standard requires that find detects loops:

	      The  find  utility shall detect infinite loops; that is, entering a previously vis-
	      ited directory that is an ancestor of the last file encountered. When it detects an
	      infinite	loop,  find  shall write a diagnostic message to standard error and shall
	      either recover its position in the hierarchy or terminate.

       GNU find complies with these requirements.  The link count of  directories  which  contain
       entries which are hard links to an ancestor will often be lower than they otherwise should
       be.  This can mean that GNU find will sometimes optimise away the visiting of a	subdirec-
       tory  which  is actually a link to an ancestor.	Since find does not actually enter such a
       subdirectory, it is allowed to avoid emitting a diagnostic message.  Although this  behav-
       iour  may  be somewhat confusing, it is unlikely that anybody actually depends on this be-
       haviour.  If the leaf optimisation has been turned off with -noleaf, the  directory  entry
       will always be examined and the diagnostic message will be issued where it is appropriate.
       Symbolic links cannot be used to create filesystem cycles as such, but if the -L option or
       the  -follow  option is in use, a diagnostic message is issued when find encounters a loop
       of symbolic links.  As with loops containing hard links, the leaf optimisation will  often
       mean  that find knows that it doesn't need to call stat() or chdir() on the symbolic link,
       so this diagnostic is frequently not necessary.

       The -d option is supported for compatibility with various BSD systems, but you should  use
       the POSIX-compliant option -depth instead.

       The  POSIXLY_CORRECT  environment  variable does not affect the behaviour of the -regex or
       -iregex tests because those tests aren't specified in the POSIX standard.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       LANG   Provides a default value for the internationalization variables that are	unset  or
	      null.

       LC_ALL If  set  to a non-empty string value, override the values of all the other interna-
	      tionalization variables.

       LC_COLLATE
	      The POSIX standard specifies that this variable affects the pattern matching to  be
	      used  for the -name option.   GNU find uses the fnmatch(3) library function, and so
	      support for `LC_COLLATE' depends on  the	system	library.     This  variable  also
	      affects the interpretation of the response to -ok; while the `LC_MESSAGES' variable
	      selects the actual pattern used to interpret the response to -ok,  the  interpreta-
	      tion of any bracket expressions in the pattern will be affected by `LC_COLLATE'.

       LC_CTYPE
	      This  variable  affects  the treatment of character classes used in regular expres-
	      sions and also with the -name test, if the  system's  fnmatch(3)	library  function
	      supports	this.	This  variable	also  affects the interpretation of any character
	      classes in the regular expressions used to interpret the	response  to  the  prompt
	      issued  by -ok.  The `LC_CTYPE' environment variable will also affect which charac-
	      ters are considered to be unprintable when filenames are printed; see  the  section
	      UNUSUAL FILENAMES.

       LC_MESSAGES
	      Determines   the	locale	to  be	used  for  internationalised  messages.   If  the
	      `POSIXLY_CORRECT' environment variable is set, this also determines the interpreta-
	      tion of the response to the prompt made by the -ok action.

       NLSPATH
	      Determines the location of the internationalisation message catalogues.

       PATH   Affects  the  directories  which	are  searched  to find the executables invoked by
	      -exec, -execdir, -ok and -okdir.

       POSIXLY_CORRECT
	      Determines the block size used by -ls and -fls.  If POSIXLY_CORRECT is set,  blocks
	      are units of 512 bytes.  Otherwise they are units of 1024 bytes.

	      Setting this variable also turns off warning messages (that is, implies -nowarn) by
	      default, because POSIX requires that apart from the output for  -ok,  all  messages
	      printed on stderr are diagnostics and must result in a non-zero exit status.

	      When POSIXLY_CORRECT is not set, -perm +zzz is treated just like -perm /zzz if +zzz
	      is not a valid symbolic mode.  When POSIXLY_CORRECT is  set,  such  constructs  are
	      treated as an error.

	      When  POSIXLY_CORRECT  is set, the response to the prompt made by the -ok action is
	      interpreted according to the system's message catalogue, as opposed to according to
	      find's own message translations.

       TZ     Affects  the  time  zone	used  for  some  of the time-related format directives of
	      -printf and -fprintf.

BINARIES
       The findutils source distribution contains two different  implementations  of  find.   The
       older  implementation  descends	the  file  system  recursively,  while the newer one uses
       fts(3).	Both are normally installed.

       If the option --without-fts was passed  to  configure,  the  recursive  implementation  is
       installed  as  find  and the fts-based implementation is installed as ftsfind.  Otherwise,
       the fts-based implementation is installed as find  and  the  recursive  implementation  is
       installed as oldfind.

EXAMPLES
       find /tmp -name core -type f -print | xargs /bin/rm -f

       Find files named core in or below the directory /tmp and delete them.  Note that this will
       work incorrectly if there are any filenames containing newlines, single or double  quotes,
       or spaces.

       find /tmp -name core -type f -print0 | xargs -0 /bin/rm -f

       Find files named core in or below the directory /tmp and delete them, processing filenames
       in such a way that file or directory names containing single or double quotes,  spaces  or
       newlines  are  correctly  handled.  The -name test comes before the -type test in order to
       avoid having to call stat(2) on every file.

       find . -type f -exec file '{}' \;

       Runs `file' on every file in or below the current directory.  Notice that the  braces  are
       enclosed in single quote marks to protect them from interpretation as shell script punctu-
       ation.  The semicolon is similarly protected by the use	of  a  backslash,  though  single
       quotes could have been used in that case also.

       find / \( -perm -4000 -fprintf /root/suid.txt '%#m %u %p\n' \) , \
       \( -size +100M -fprintf /root/big.txt '%-10s %p\n' \)

       Traverse   the	filesystem   just   once,  listing  setuid  files  and	directories  into
       /root/suid.txt and large files into /root/big.txt.

       find $HOME -mtime 0

       Search for files in your home directory which have been modified in the	last  twenty-four
       hours.	This command works this way because the time since each file was last modified is
       divided by 24 hours and any remainder is discarded.  That means that to match -mtime 0,	a
       file will have to have a modification in the past which is less than 24 hours ago.

       find /sbin /usr/sbin -executable \! -readable -print

       Search for files which are executable but not readable.

       find . -perm 664

       Search  for  files  which  have	read and write permission for their owner, and group, but
       which other users can read but not write to.  Files which meet  these  criteria	but  have
       other  permissions  bits  set  (for  example  if someone can execute the file) will not be
       matched.

       find . -perm -664

       Search for files which have read and write permission for their owner and group, and which
       other  users  can  read,  without regard to the presence of any extra permission bits (for
       example the executable bit).  This will match a file which has mode 0777, for example.

       find . -perm /222

       Search for files which are writable by somebody (their owner, or their group,  or  anybody
       else).

       find . -perm /220
       find . -perm /u+w,g+w
       find . -perm /u=w,g=w

       All  three of these commands do the same thing, but the first one uses the octal represen-
       tation of the file mode, and the other two use the  symbolic  form.   These  commands  all
       search for files which are writable by either their owner or their group.  The files don't
       have to be writable by both the owner and group to be matched; either will do.

       find . -perm -220
       find . -perm -g+w,u+w

       Both these commands do the same thing; search for files which are writable by  both  their
       owner and their group.

       find . -perm -444 -perm /222 ! -perm /111
       find . -perm -a+r -perm /a+w ! -perm /a+x

       These  two  commands both search for files that are readable for everybody ( -perm -444 or
       -perm -a+r), have at least one write bit set ( -perm /222 or -perm /a+w) but are not  exe-
       cutable for anybody ( ! -perm /111 and ! -perm /a+x respectively).

       cd /source-dir
       find . -name .snapshot -prune -o \( \! -name *~ -print0 \)|
       cpio -pmd0 /dest-dir

       This command copies the contents of /source-dir to /dest-dir, but omits files and directo-
       ries named .snapshot (and anything in them).  It also omits  files  or  directories  whose
       name  ends  in  ~,  but	not their contents.  The construct -prune -o \( ... -print0 \) is
       quite common.  The idea here is that the expression before -prune matches things which are
       to be pruned.  However, the -prune action itself returns true, so the following -o ensures
       that the right hand side is evaluated only for those directories which didn't  get  pruned
       (the contents of the pruned directories are not even visited, so their contents are irrel-
       evant).	The expression on the right hand side of the -o is in parentheses only for  clar-
       ity.   It  emphasises that the -print0 action takes place only for things that didn't have
       -prune applied to them.	Because the default `and'  condition  between  tests  binds  more
       tightly	than  -o,  this  is  the default anyway, but the parentheses help to show what is
       going on.

       find repo/ -exec test -d {}/.svn \; -or \
       -exec test -d {}/.git \; -or -exec test -d {}/CVS \; \
       -print -prune

       Given the following directory of projects and their associated SCM administrative directo-
       ries, perform an efficient search for the projects' roots:

       repo/project1/CVS
       repo/gnu/project2/.svn
       repo/gnu/project3/.svn
       repo/gnu/project3/src/.svn
       repo/project4/.git

       In  this  example,  -prune prevents unnecessary descent into directories that have already
       been discovered (for example we do  not	search	project3/src  because  we  already  found
       project3/.svn), but ensures sibling directories (project2 and project3) are found.

EXIT STATUS
       find exits with status 0 if all files are processed successfully, greater than 0 if errors
       occur.	This is deliberately a very broad description, but if the return  value  is  non-
       zero, you should not rely on the correctness of the results of find.

SEE ALSO
       locate(1),  locatedb(5),  updatedb(1),  xargs(1), chmod(1), fnmatch(3), regex(7), stat(2),
       lstat(2), ls(1), printf(3), strftime(3), ctime(3), Finding  Files  (on-line  in	Info,  or
       printed).

HISTORY
       As  of  findutils-4.2.2, shell metacharacters (`*', `?' or `[]' for example) used in file-
       name patterns will match a leading `.', because IEEE  POSIX  interpretation  126  requires
       this.

       The  syntax  -perm +MODE was deprecated in findutils-4.2.21, in favour of -perm /MODE.  As
       of findutils-4.3.3, -perm /000 now matches all files instead of none.

       Nanosecond-resolution timestamps were implemented in findutils-4.3.3.

       As of findutils-4.3.11, the -delete action sets find's exit status to a nonzero value when
       it  fails.   However,  find will not exit immediately.  Previously, find's exit status was
       unaffected by the failure of -delete.

       Feature		      Added in	 Also occurs in
       -newerXY 	      4.3.3	 BSD
       -D		      4.3.1
       -O		      4.3.1
       -readable	      4.3.0
       -writable	      4.3.0
       -executable	      4.3.0
       -regextype	      4.2.24
       -exec ... +	      4.2.12	 POSIX
       -execdir 	      4.2.12	 BSD
       -okdir		      4.2.12
       -samefile	      4.2.11
       -H		      4.2.5	 POSIX
       -L		      4.2.5	 POSIX
       -P		      4.2.5	 BSD
       -delete		      4.2.3
       -quit		      4.2.3
       -d		      4.2.3	 BSD
       -wholename	      4.2.0
       -iwholename	      4.2.0
       -ignore_readdir_race   4.2.0
       -fls		      4.0
       -ilname		      3.8
       -iname		      3.8
       -ipath		      3.8
       -iregex		      3.8

NON-BUGS
       $ find . -name *.c -print
       find: paths must precede expression
       Usage: find [-H] [-L] [-P] [-Olevel] [-D help|tree|search|stat|rates|opt|exec] [path...] [expression]

       This happens because *.c has been expanded by the shell resulting in find actually receiv-
       ing a command line like this:

       find . -name bigram.c code.c frcode.c locate.c -print

       That command is of course not going to work.  Instead of doing things this way, you should
       enclose the pattern in quotes or escape the wildcard:
       $ find . -name '*.c' -print
       $ find . -name \*.c -print


BUGS
       There are security problems inherent in the behaviour that the  POSIX  standard	specifies
       for  find,  which  therefore cannot be fixed.  For example, the -exec action is inherently
       insecure, and -execdir should be used instead.  Please see Finding Files for more informa-
       tion.

       The environment variable LC_COLLATE has no effect on the -ok action.

       The   best   way   to   report	a   bug   is   to   use   the	form   at   http://savan-
       nah.gnu.org/bugs/?group=findutils.  The reason for this is that you will then be  able  to
       track  progress in fixing the problem.	Other comments about find(1) and about the findu-
       tils package in general can be sent to the bug-findutils mailing list.  To join the  list,
       send email to bug-findutils-request@gnu.org.

											  FIND(1)
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