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virt-ls(1)			      Virtualization Support			       virt-ls(1)

NAME
       virt-ls - List files in a virtual machine

SYNOPSIS
	virt-ls [--options] -d domname directory [directory ...]

	virt-ls [--options] -a disk.img [-a disk.img ...] directory [directory ...]

       Old style:

	virt-ls [--options] domname directory

	virt-ls [--options] disk.img [disk.img ...] directory

DESCRIPTION
       "virt-ls" lists filenames, file sizes, checksums, extended attributes and more from a
       virtual machine or disk image.

       Multiple directory names can be given, in which case the output from each is concatenated.

       To list directories from a libvirt guest use the -d option to specify the name of the
       guest.  For a disk image, use the -a option.

       "virt-ls" can do many simple file listings.  For more complicated cases you may need to
       use guestfish(1), or write a program directly to the guestfs(3) API.

EXAMPLES
       Get a list of all files and directories in a virtual machine:

	virt-ls -R -d guest /

       List all setuid or setgid programs in a Linux virtual machine:

	virt-ls -lR -d guest / | grep '^- [42]'

       List all public-writable directories in a Linux virtual machine:

	virt-ls -lR -d guest / | grep '^d ...7'

       List all Unix domain sockets in a Linux virtual machine:

	virt-ls -lR -d guest / | grep '^s'

       List all regular files with filenames ending in '.png':

	virt-ls -lR -d guest / | grep -i '^-.*\.png$'

       To display files larger than 10MB in home directories:

	virt-ls -lR -d guest /home | awk '$3 > 10*1024*1024'

       Find everything modified in the last 7 days:

	virt-ls -lR -d guest --time-days / | awk '$6 <= 7'

       Find regular files modified in the last 24 hours:

	virt-ls -lR -d guest --time-days / | grep '^-' | awk '$6 < 1'

   DIFFERENCES IN SNAPSHOTS AND BACKING FILES
       Find the differences between files in a guest and an earlier snapshot of the same guest.

	virt-ls -lR -a snapshot.img / --uids --time-t > old
	virt-ls -lR -a current.img / --uids --time-t > new
	diff -u old new | less

       The commands above won't find files where the content has changed but the metadata (eg.
       file size and modification date) is the same.  To do that, you need to add the --checksum
       parameter to both "virt-ls" commands.  --checksum can be quite slow since it has to read
       and compute a checksum of every regular file in the virtual machine.

OUTPUT MODES
       "virt-ls" has four output modes, controlled by different combinations of the -l and -R
       options.

   SIMPLE LISTING
       A simple listing is like the ordinary ls(1) command:

	$ virt-ls -d guest /
	bin
	boot
	[etc.]

   LONG LISTING
       With the -l (--long) option, the output is like the "ls -l" command (more specifically,
       like the "guestfs_ll" function).

	$ virt-ls -l -d guest /
	total 204
	dr-xr-xr-x.   2 root root   4096 2009-08-25 19:06 bin
	dr-xr-xr-x.   5 root root   3072 2009-08-25 19:06 boot
	[etc.]

       Note that while this is useful for displaying a directory, do not try parsing this output
       in another program.  Use "RECURSIVE LONG LISTING" instead.

   RECURSIVE LISTING
       With the -R (--recursive) option, "virt-ls" lists the names of files and directories
       recursively:

	$ virt-ls -R -d guest /tmp
	foo
	foo/bar
	[etc.]

       To generate this output, "virt-ls" runs the "guestfs_find0" function and converts "\0"
       characters to "\n".

   RECURSIVE LONG LISTING
       Using -lR options together changes the output to display directories recursively, with
       file stats, and optionally other features such as checksums and extended attributes.

       Most of the interesting features of "virt-ls" are only available when using -lR mode.

       The fields are normally space-separated.  Filenames are not quoted, so you cannot use the
       output in another program (because filenames can contain spaces and other unsafe
       characters).  If the guest was untrusted and someone knew you were using "virt-ls" to
       analyze the guest, they could play tricks on you by creating filenames with embedded
       newline characters.  To safely parse the output in another program, use the --csv (Comma-
       Separated Values) option.

       Note that this output format is completely unrelated to the "ls -lR" command.

	$ virt-ls -lR -d guest /bin
	d 0555	     4096 /bin
	- 0755	      123 /bin/alsaunmute
	- 0755	    28328 /bin/arch
	l 0777		4 /bin/awk -> gawk
	- 0755	    27216 /bin/basename
	- 0755	   943360 /bin/bash
	[etc.]

       These basic fields are always shown:

       type
	   The file type, one of: "-" (regular file), "d" (directory), "c" (character device),
	   "b" (block device), "p" (named pipe), "l" (symbolic link), "s" (socket) or "u"
	   (unknown).

       permissions
	   The Unix permissions, displayed as a 4 digit octal number.

       size
	   The size of the file.  This is shown in bytes unless -h or --human-readable option is
	   given, in which case this is shown as a human-readable number.

       path
	   The full path of the file or directory.

       link
	   For symbolic links only, the link target.

       In -lR mode, additional command line options enable the display of more fields.

       With the --uids flag, these additional fields are displayed before the path:

       uid
       gid The UID and GID of the owner of the file (displayed numerically).  Note these only
	   make sense in the context of a Unix-like guest.

       With the --times flag, these additional fields are displayed:

       atime
	   The time of last access.

       mtime
	   The time of last modification.

       ctime
	   The time of last status change.

       The time fields are displayed as string dates and times, unless one of the --time-t,
       --time-relative or --time-days flags is given.

       With the --extra-stats flag, these additional fields are displayed:

       device
	   The device containing the file (displayed as major:minor).  This may not match devices
	   as known to the guest.

       inode
	   The inode number.

       nlink
	   The number of hard links.

       rdev
	   For block and char special files, the device (displayed as major:minor).

       blocks
	   The number of 512 byte blocks allocated to the file.

       With the --checksum flag, the checksum of the file contents is shown (only for regular
       files).	Computing file checksums can take a considerable amount of time.

OPTIONS
       --help
	   Display brief help.

       -a file
       --add file
	   Add file which should be a disk image from a virtual machine.  If the virtual machine
	   has multiple block devices, you must supply all of them with separate -a options.

	   The format of the disk image is auto-detected.  To override this and force a
	   particular format use the --format=.. option.

       -a URI
       --add URI
	   Add a remote disk.  See "ADDING REMOTE STORAGE" in guestfish(1).

       --checksum
       --checksum=crc|md5|sha1|sha224|sha256|sha384|sha512
	   Display checksum over file contents for regular files.  With no argument, this
	   defaults to using md5.  Using an argument, you can select the checksum type to use.

	   This option only has effect in -lR output mode.  See "RECURSIVE LONG LISTING" above.

       -c URI
       --connect URI
	   If using libvirt, connect to the given URI.	If omitted, then we connect to the
	   default libvirt hypervisor.

	   If you specify guest block devices directly (-a), then libvirt is not used at all.

       --csv
	   Write out the results in CSV format (comma-separated values).  This format can be
	   imported easily into databases and spreadsheets, but read "NOTE ABOUT CSV FORMAT"
	   below.

       -d guest
       --domain guest
	   Add all the disks from the named libvirt guest.  Domain UUIDs can be used instead of
	   names.

       --echo-keys
	   When prompting for keys and passphrases, virt-ls normally turns echoing off so you
	   cannot see what you are typing.  If you are not worried about Tempest attacks and
	   there is no one else in the room you can specify this flag to see what you are typing.

       --extra-stats
	   Display extra stats.

	   This option only has effect in -lR output mode.  See "RECURSIVE LONG LISTING" above.

       --format=raw|qcow2|..
       --format
	   The default for the -a option is to auto-detect the format of the disk image.  Using
	   this forces the disk format for -a options which follow on the command line.  Using
	   --format with no argument switches back to auto-detection for subsequent -a options.

	   For example:

	    virt-ls --format=raw -a disk.img /dir

	   forces raw format (no auto-detection) for "disk.img".

	    virt-ls --format=raw -a disk.img --format -a another.img /dir

	   forces raw format (no auto-detection) for "disk.img" and reverts to auto-detection for
	   "another.img".

	   If you have untrusted raw-format guest disk images, you should use this option to
	   specify the disk format.  This avoids a possible security problem with malicious
	   guests (CVE-2010-3851).

       -h
       --human-readable
	   Display file sizes in human-readable format.

	   This option only has effect in -lR output mode.  See "RECURSIVE LONG LISTING" above.

       --keys-from-stdin
	   Read key or passphrase parameters from stdin.  The default is to try to read
	   passphrases from the user by opening "/dev/tty".

       -l
       --long
       -R
       --recursive
	   Select the mode.  With neither of these options, "virt-ls" produces a simple, flat
	   list of the files in the named directory.  See "SIMPLE LISTING".

	   "virt-ls -l" produces a "long listing", which shows more detail.  See "LONG LISTING".

	   "virt-ls -R" produces a recursive list of files starting at the named directory.  See
	   "RECURSIVE LISTING".

	   "virt-ls -lR" produces a recursive long listing which can be more easily parsed.  See
	   "RECURSIVE LONG LISTING".

       --times
	   Display time fields.

	   This option only has effect in -lR output mode.  See "RECURSIVE LONG LISTING" above.

       --time-days
	   Display time fields as days before now (negative if in the future).

	   Note that 0 in output means "up to 1 day before now", or that the age of the file is
	   between 0 and 86399 seconds.

	   This option only has effect in -lR output mode.  See "RECURSIVE LONG LISTING" above.

       --time-relative
	   Display time fields as seconds before now (negative if in the future).

	   This option only has effect in -lR output mode.  See "RECURSIVE LONG LISTING" above.

       --time-t
	   Display time fields as seconds since the Unix epoch.

	   This option only has effect in -lR output mode.  See "RECURSIVE LONG LISTING" above.

       --uids
	   Display UID and GID fields.

	   This option only has effect in -lR output mode.  See "RECURSIVE LONG LISTING" above.

       -v
       --verbose
	   Enable verbose messages for debugging.

       -V
       --version
	   Display version number and exit.

       -x  Enable tracing of libguestfs API calls.

OLD-STYLE COMMAND LINE ARGUMENTS
       Previous versions of virt-ls allowed you to write either:

	virt-ls disk.img [disk.img ...] /dir

       or

	virt-ls guestname /dir

       whereas in this version you should use -a or -d respectively to avoid the confusing case
       where a disk image might have the same name as a guest.

       For compatibility the old style is still supported.

NOTE ABOUT CSV FORMAT
       Comma-separated values (CSV) is a deceptive format.  It seems like it should be easy to
       parse, but it is definitely not easy to parse.

       Myth: Just split fields at commas.  Reality: This does not work reliably.  This example
       has two columns:

	"foo,bar",baz

       Myth: Read the file one line at a time.	Reality: This does not work reliably.  This
       example has one row:

	"foo
	bar",baz

       For shell scripts, use "csvtool" (http://merjis.com/developers/csv also packaged in major
       Linux distributions).

       For other languages, use a CSV processing library (eg. "Text::CSV" for Perl or Python's
       built-in csv library).

       Most spreadsheets and databases can import CSV directly.

SHELL QUOTING
       Libvirt guest names can contain arbitrary characters, some of which have meaning to the
       shell such as "#" and space.  You may need to quote or escape these characters on the
       command line.  See the shell manual page sh(1) for details.

EXIT STATUS
       This program returns 0 if successful, or non-zero if there was an error.

SEE ALSO
       guestfs(3), guestfish(1), virt-cat(1), virt-copy-out(1), virt-tar-out(1),
       http://libguestfs.org/.

AUTHOR
       Richard W.M. Jones http://people.redhat.com/~rjones/

COPYRIGHT
       Copyright (C) 2009-2013 Red Hat Inc.

LICENSE
       This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of
       the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either
       version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.

       This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY;
       without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
       See the GNU General Public License for more details.

       You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program;
       if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor,
       Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.

BUGS
       To get a list of bugs against libguestfs, use this link:
       https://bugzilla.redhat.com/buglist.cgi?component=libguestfs&product=Virtualization+Tools

       To report a new bug against libguestfs, use this link:
       https://bugzilla.redhat.com/enter_bug.cgi?component=libguestfs&product=Virtualization+Tools

       When reporting a bug, please supply:

       o   The version of libguestfs.

       o   Where you got libguestfs (eg. which Linux distro, compiled from source, etc)

       o   Describe the bug accurately and give a way to reproduce it.

       o   Run libguestfs-test-tool(1) and paste the complete, unedited output into the bug
	   report.

libguestfs-1.22.6			    2013-08-24				       virt-ls(1)
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