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sane(7) 										  sane(7)

       sane - Scanner Access Now Easy: API for accessing scanners

       SANE  is  an  application programming interface (API) that provides standardized access to
       any raster image scanner hardware. The standardized interface makes it possible	to  write
       just  one driver for each scanner device instead of one driver for each scanner and appli-

       While SANE is primarily targeted at a UNIX environment, the standard  has  been	carefully
       designed  to  make it possible to implement the API on virtually any hardware or operating

       This manual page provides a summary of the information available about SANE.

       An application that uses the SANE interface is called a	SANE  frontend.   A  driver  that
       implements  the	SANE  interface  is  called a SANE backend.  A meta backend provides some
       means to manage one or more other backends.

       The SANE standard defines the application programming interface (API) that is used to com-
       municate  between  frontends  and  backends.  It can be found at /usr/share/doc/sane-back-
       ends-1.0.9/sane.ps (if latex is installed  on  your  system)  and  on  the  SANE  website:
       http://www.mostang.com/sane/html/  (HTML),  or  http://www.mostang.com/sane/sane.ps (Post-

       There is some more information for programmers in /usr/share/doc/sane-backends-1.0.9/back-
       end-writing.txt.  Some of the internal SANE routines (sanei) are documented using doxygen:
       http://sanei.meier-geinitz.de/ . Before a new backend or frontend project is started, have
       a look at /usr/share/doc/sane-backends-1.0.9/PROJECTS for projects that are planned or not
       yet included into the SANE distribution.

       Your help is  always  appreciated.  Look  at  /usr/share/doc/sane-backends-1.0.9/TODO  for
       things  that  should be done. Not only programmers are needed, but also reading and fixing
       the documentation and reporting bugs would be nice.  Further  more,  translations  of  the
       backend options are needed. Contact the SANE mailing list for details.

       The  package `sane-backends' contains a lot of backends, documentation (including the SANE
       standard), networking support, and the command line frontend `scanimage'.   The	frontends
       `xscanimage',  `xcam',  and  `scanadf' are included in the package `sane-frontends'.  Both
       packages can be downloaded from the SANE homepage (http://www.mostang.com/sane/). Informa-
       tion   about   other   frontends   and	backends  can  be  found  on  the  frontend  page

       The following sections provide short descriptions and links to more information about sev-
       eral  aspects of SANE.  A name with a number in parenthesis (e.g. `sane-dll(5)') points to
       a manual page, in this case `man  5  sane-dll'.	Entries  like  `/usr/share/doc/sane-back-
       ends-1.0.9/sane.tex'  are references to text files that were copied to the SANE documenta-
       tion directory (/usr/share/doc/sane-backends-1.0.9) during installation.  Everything  else
       is an URL to a resource on the web.

       SANE homepage
	 Information  on  all aspects of SANE including a tutorial and a link to the SANE FAQ can
	 be found on the SANE homepage: http://www.mostang.com/sane/.

       SANE mailing list
	 There is a mailing list for the purpose of discussing the SANE standard and  its  imple-
	 mentations:  sane-devel.  Since this is currently the only mailing list devoted to SANE,
	 it's perfectly OK to ask questions that are not strictly related  to  SANE  development.
	 How to subscribe and unsubscribe: http://www.mostang.com/sane/mail.html

       Compiling and installing SANE
	 Look  at /usr/share/doc/sane-backends-1.0.9/README and the os-dependent README files for
	 information about compiling and installing SANE.

       SCSI configuration
	 For information about various systems and SCSI controllers see sane-scsi(5).	USB  con-
	 figuration For information about USB configuration see sane-usb(5).

	 Command-line frontend. See scanimage(1).

	 SANE  network	daemon	that  allows  remote  clients to access image acquisition devices
	 available on the local host. See saned(1).

	 sane-find-scanner is a command-line tool to find SCSI and some USB scanners  and  deter-
	 mine their Unix device files. See sane-find-scanner(1).

       Also,  have a look at the sane-frontends package (including xscanimage, xcam, and scanadf)
       and the frontend information page at http://www.mostang.com/sane/sane-frontends.html.

	 The SANE backend for Abaton flatbed scanners supports the Scan 300/GS (8bit, 256  levels
	 of gray) and the Scan 300/S (black and white, untested). See sane-abaton(5) for details.

	 This  backend	supports AGFA Focus scanners and the Siemens S9036 (untested).	See sane-
	 agfafocus(5) for details.

	 The SANE backend for Apple flatbed scanners supports the following scanners:  AppleScan-
	 ner, OneScanner and ColorOneScanner. See sane-apple(5) for details.

	 The  SANE  Artec  backend supports several Artex/Ultima SCSI flatbed scanners as well as
	 the BlackWidow BW4800SP and the Plustek 19200S. See sane-artec(5) for details.

	 This is a SANE backend for using the Artec AS6E parallel  port  interface  scanner.  See
	 sane-as6e(5) for details.

	 This  backend	supports  Avision  AV  630  CS	flatbed scanners. See sane-avision(5) for

	 The bh backend provides access to Bell+Howell Copiscan II series document scanners.  See
	 sane-bh(5) for details.

	 The  canon  backend  supports	the  CanoScan  300, CanoScan 600, and CanoScan 2700F SCSI
	 flatbed scanners. See sane-canon(5) for details.

	 The canon630u backend supports the CanoScan 630u  and	636u  USB  scanners.   See  sane-
	 canon630u(5) for details.

	 The canon_pp backend supports the CanoScan FB330P, FB630P, N340P and N640P parallel port
	 scanners.  See sane-canon_pp(5) for details.

	 This is a SANE backend  for  Nikon  Coolscan  film-scanners.  See  sane-coolscan(5)  for

	 This  is  a  SANE  backend  for  Nikon Coolscan film-scanners.  See sane-coolscan2(5) or
	 http://coolscan2.sourceforge.net for details.

	 The SANE epson backend provides support for Epson SCSI, parallel port	and  USB  flatbed
	 scanners. See sane-epson(5) for details.

	 The fujitsu backend provides support for Fujitsu 3091, 3093, 3096 and fi-4340 SCSI scan-
	 ners. See sane-fujitsu(5) for details.

	 The SANE hp backend provides access to HP ScanJet scanners and OfficeJet  multi-function
	 peripherals  (MFPs)  which  support SCL (Scanner Control Language by HP). See sane-hp(5)
	 for details.

	 The SANE backend for the HP ScanJet 5S scanner. See sane-hpsj5s(5) for details.

	 This backend support the Across FS-1130, which is a re-badged LEO FS-1130  scanner.  See
	 sane-leo(5) for details.

	 This  backend	supports  some Panasonic KVSS high speed scanners. See sane-matsushita(5)
	 for details.

	 The microtek backend provides access to the "second generation" Microtek  scanners  with
	 SCSI-1 command set. See sane-microtek(5) for details.

	 The  microtek2  backend  provides access to some Microtek scanners with a SCSI-2 command
	 set. See sane-microtek2(5) for details.

	 The SANE mustek backend supports most Mustek SCSI flatbed scanners including the Paragon
	 and  ScanExpress  series  and the 600 II N (non-SCSI). Some Trust scanners are also sup-
	 ported. See sane-mustek(5) for details.

	 The mustek_pp backend provides access to Mustek  parallel  port  flatbed  scanners.  See
	 sane-mustek_pp(5) for details.

	 The  mustek_usb backend provides access to some Mustek USB flatbed scanners. Some Mustek
	 BearPaw scanners are supported by the plustek backend, however.  See  sane-mustek_usb(5)
	 for details.

	 The  SANE  nec  backend  supports  the NEC PC-IN500/4C SCSI scanner. See sane-nec(5) for

	 The pie backend provides access to PIE and Devcom SCSI flatbed scanners. See sane-pie(5)
	 for details.

	 The  SANE  plustek  backend  supports	Plustek  parallel port and LM983[1/2/3] based USB
	 flatbed scanners. See sane-plustek(5) for details.

	 The ricoh backend provides access to the following  Ricoh  flatbed  scanners:	IS50  and
	 IS60. See sane-ricoh(5) for details.

	 The  s9036  backend  provides access to Siemens 9036 flatbed scanners. See sane-s9036(5)
	 for details.

	 The sceptre backend provides access to the Sceptre S1200 flatbed scanner. See sane-scep-
	 tre(5) for details.

	 The SANE sharp backend supports Sharp SCSI scanners. See sane-sharp(5) for details.

	 The  SANE  sm3600  backend  supports  the Microtek ScanMaker 3600 USB scanner. See sane-
	 sm3600(5) for details.

	 The snapscan backend supports AGFA SnapScan flatbed scanners. See  sane-snapscan(5)  for

	 This  backend	supports  the  Fujitsu	FCPA  ScanPartner  15C flatbed scanner. See sane-
	 sp15c(5) for details.

	 The sane-st400 backend provides access to Siemens ST400 and ST800. See sane-st400(5) for

	 The  SANE  tamarack  backend supports Tamarack Artiscan flatbed scanners. See sane-tama-
	 rack(5) for details.

       teco1 teco2 teco3
	 The SANE teco1, teco2 and teco3 backends support some TECO scanners, usually sold  under
	 the  Relisys, Trust, Primax, Piotech, Dextra names. See sane-teco1(5), sane-teco2(5) and
	 sane-teco3(5) for details.

	 The sane-umax backend provides access to several UMAX-SCSI-scanners  and  some  Linotype
	 Hell SCSI-scanners. See sane-umax(5) for details.

	 The  sane-umax_pp backend provides access to Umax parallel port flatbed scanners and the
	 HP 3200C. See sane-umax_pp(5) for details.

	 The sane-umax1220u backend supports the UMAX Astra 1220U (USB) flatbed scanner (and also
	 the UMAX Astra 2000U, sort of). See sane-umax1220u(5) for details.

       Also,  have  a  look  at the backend information page at http://www.mostang.com/sane/sane-
       backends.html and the list of projects in /usr/share/doc/sane-backends-1.0.9/PROJECTS.

	 Backend for Kodak DC210 Digital Camera. See sane-dc210(5).

	 Backend for Kodak DC240 Digital Camera. See sane-dc240(5).

	 Backend for Kodak DC20/DC25 Digital Cameras. See sane-dc25(5).

	 Backend for the Polaroid Digital Microscope Camera. See sane-dmc(5).

	 Backend  for  digital	cameras  supported  by	the  gphoto2   library	 package.    (See
	 http://www.gphoto.org	for  more information and a list of supported cameras.)   Gphoto2
	 supports over 140 different camera models.  However, please note that	more  development
	 and  testing  is  needed  before all of these cameras will be supported by SANE backend.
	 See sane-gphoto2(5).

	 Backend for Connectix QuickCam cameras. See sane-qcam(5).

       Also, have a look at the backend  information  page  at	http://www.mostang.com/sane/sane-
       backends.html and the list of projects in /usr/share/doc/sane-backends-1.0.9/PROJECTS.

	 The sane-dll library implements a SANE backend that provides access to an arbitrary num-
	 ber of other SANE backends by dynamic loading. See sane-dll(5).

	 The SANE network daemon saned provides access to scanners located on different computers
	 in connection with the net backend. See sane-net(5) and saned(1).

	 PNM  image  reader  pseudo-backend.  The  purpose of this backend is primarily to aid in
	 debugging of SANE frontends. See sane-pnm(5).

	 Backend for scanners that use the PINT (Pint Is Not  Twain)  device  driver.	The  PINT
	 driver is being actively developed on the OpenBSD platform, and has been ported to a few
	 other *nix-like operating systems. See sane-pint(5).

	 The SANE test backend is for testing frontends and the SANE installation.   It  provides
	 test pictures and various test options. See sane-test(5).

	 The  sane-v4l	library  implements  a SANE backend that provides generic access to video
	 cameras and similar equipment using the V4L (Video for Linux) API. See sane-v4l(5).

       Also, have a look at the backend  information  page  at	http://www.mostang.com/sane/sane-
       backends.html and the list of projects in /usr/share/doc/sane-backends-1.0.9/PROJECTS.

       Please  note that the default configuration uses sane-dll as the top-level backend.  Hence
       it is probably a good idea to start with reading sane-dll(5).  The  top-level  backend  is
       determined by the libsane.* symlinks in /usr/lib/sane.

       For  SCSI  scanners  reading of sane-scsi(5) is recommended. For USB scanners, sane-usb(5)
       may help.

       If you encounter any problems with getting your device(s) recognized, try setting the var-
       ious  environment  variables that are available to assist in debugging such problems.  The
       environment variables are documented in the relevant manual pages.  For	example,  to  get
       the  maximum  amount of debug information when testing a Mustek SCSI scanner, set environ-
       ment variables SANE_DEBUG_DLL, SANE_DEBUG_MUSTEK, and  SANE_DEBUG_SANEI_SCSI  to  128  and
       then invoke scanimage or whatever program you're trying to debug.  For a Mustek scanner at
       /dev/scanner, you might want to invoke scanimage as follows:

	      scanimage -d mustek:/dev/scanner -h

       If this works, you could try to acquire an image with:

	      scanimage -d mustek:/dev/scanner >t.pnm

       To check that the SANE libraries are installed correctly you can  use  the  test  backend,
       even if you don't have a scanner or other SANE device:

	      scanimage -d test -T

       You should get a list of PASSed tests.

       If  you are not sure what generic SCSI or USB device your scanner is connected to, try the
       command sane-find-scanner.  Usually, It's sufficient to invoke  the  program  without  any
       arguments.  Invoking this command should produce output similar to this:

	      $ sane-find-scanner

	      sane-find-scanner: found "MUSTEK MFC-06000CZ 1.01" at device /dev/scanner
	      sane-find-scanner: found "MUSTEK MFC-06000CZ 1.01" at device /dev/sge

       Note that sane-find-scanner will find any scanner that is connected to a SCSI bus and also
       some USB scanners.  It will even find scanners that are not supported at all by SANE.

       There may be several causes for the following messages from the frontends: "scanimage:  no
       SANE devices found" or "xscanimage: no devices available.".

       * Your  scanner	is  not  recognized  by any backend. It is not supported. You may ask the
	 maintainer of your backend (see /usr/share/doc/sane-backends-1.0.9/AUTHORS) or the  SANE
	 mailing list (see above) if support is planned.

       * SANE can't access the device files (e.g /dev/sg0). Check the permissions.

       * Your backend is not listed in /etc/sane.d/dll.conf (or commented out).

       * There	are  older  installations  of  SANE  on  your  system.	If you installed the SANE
	 libraries in /usr/local/lib (default) you should check if there are older SANE libraries
	 at /usr/lib. Remove them (rm -r /usr/lib/libsane* /usr/lib/sane).

       * If  you can use SANE with scanimage but not with other (graphical) frontends, check that
	 /etc/ld.so.conf contains /usr/local/lib and does not  contain	/usr/local/lib/sane.  See
	 also the documentation of the frontends.

	      The backend configuration files.

	      The static libraries implementing the backends.

	      The  shared  libraries  implementing  the backends (present on systems that support
	      dynamic loading).

	      SANE documentation: The standard, READMEs, text files for backends etc.

       If you think you found a bug in a backend, contact the author of your backend. Usually the
       email  address  can be found in the /usr/share/doc/sane-backends-1.0.9/AUTHORS file. If he
       isn't marked as `active maintainer' or doesn't answer you can also contact the SANE  mail-
       ing  list  sane-devel (see http://www.mostang.com/sane/mail.html for details). You must be
       subscribed to the list, otherwise your mail won't be sent to the subscribers.

       If you want to report bugs concerning security, compilation,  installation,  porting,  and
       documentation  of  SANE,  you  can  also  contact  the  author  of this manual page: <hen-

       David Mosberger-Tang and many many  more  (see  /usr/share/doc/sane-backends-1.0.9/AUTHORS
       for details).  This man page was written by Henning Meier-Geinitz. Quite a lot of text was
       taken from the SANE standard, several man pages, and README files.

					 July 25th, 2002				  sane(7)
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