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OpenSolaris 2009.06 - man page for ps (opensolaris section 1)

ps(1)					  User Commands 				    ps(1)

NAME
       ps - report process status

SYNOPSIS
       ps [-aAcdefjHlLPyZ] [-g grplist] [-h lgrplist]
	    [-n namelist] [-o format]... [-p proclist]
	    [-s sidlist] [-t term] [-u uidlist] [-U uidlist]
	    [-G gidlist] [-z zonelist]

DESCRIPTION
       The  ps	command  prints  information  about  active processes. Without options, ps prints
       information about processes that have the same effective user ID and the same  controlling
       terminal  as  the  invoker.  The output contains only the process ID, terminal identifier,
       cumulative execution time, and the command name. Otherwise, the information that  is  dis-
       played is controlled by the options.

       Some  options accept lists as arguments. Items in a list can be either separated by commas
       or else enclosed in quotes and separated by commas or  spaces.  Values  for  proclist  and
       grplist must be numeric.

OPTIONS
       The following options are supported:

       -a	      Lists  information about all processes most frequently requested: all those
		      except session leaders and processes not associated with a terminal.

       -A	      Lists information for all processes. Identical to -e, below.

       -c	      Prints information in  a	format	that  reflects	scheduler  properties  as
		      described in priocntl(1). The -c option affects the output of the -f and -l
		      options, as described below.

       -d	      Lists information about all processes except session leaders.

       -e	      Lists information about every process now running.

		      When the -eoption is specified, options -z, -t, -u, -U, -g, -G, -p, -g,  -s
		      and -a options have no effect.

       -f	      Generates  a full listing. (See below for significance of columns in a full
		      listing.)

       -g grplist     Lists only process data  whose  group  leader's  ID  number(s)  appears  in
		      grplist.	(A group leader is a process whose process ID number is identical
		      to its process group ID number.)

       -G gidlist     Lists information for processes whose real group ID numbers  are	given  in
		      gidlist.	The  gidlist must be a single argument in the form of a blank- or
		      comma-separated list.

		      -Lists only processes homed to the specified lgroups. Nothing is listed for
		      any invalid lgroups given.

       -H	      Prints  the  home  lgroup of the process under an additional column header,
		      LGRP.

       -j	      Prints session ID and process group ID.

       -l	      Generates a long listing. (See below.)

       -L	      Prints information about each light weight process (lwp) in  each  selected
		      process. (See below.)

       -n namelist    Specifies  the  name of an alternative system namelist file in place of the
		      default. This option is accepted for compatibility, but is ignored.

       -o format      Prints information according to the format specification given  in  format.
		      This  is	fully  described  in  DISPLAY FORMATS. Multiple -o options can be
		      specified; the format specification is interpreted as the  space-character-
		      separated concatenation of all the format option-arguments.

       -p proclist    Lists only process data whose process ID numbers are given in proclist.

       -P	      Prints the number of the processor to which the process or lwp is bound, if
		      any, under an additional column header, PSR.

       -s sidlist     Lists information on all session leaders whose IDs appear in sidlist.

       -t term	      Lists only process data associated  with	term.  Terminal  identifiers  are
		      specified as a device file name, and an identifier. For example, term/a, or
		      pts/0.

       -u uidlist     Lists only process data whose effective user ID number  or  login  name  is
		      given  in  uidlist. In the listing, the numerical user ID is printed unless
		      you give the -f option, which prints the login name.

       -U uidlist     Lists information for processes whose real user ID numbers or  login  names
		      are  given in uidlist. The uidlist must be a single argument in the form of
		      a blank- or comma-separated list.

       -y	      Under a long listing (-l), omits	the  obsolete  F  and  ADDR  columns  and
		      includes	an  RSS  column  to  report the resident set size of the process.
		      Under the -y option, both RSS and SZ (see below) is reported  in	units  of
		      kilobytes instead of pages.

       -z zonelist    Lists  only processes in the specified zones. Zones can be specified either
		      by name or ID. This option is only useful when executed in the global zone.

       -Z	      Prints the name of the zone with which the process is associated	under  an
		      additional column header, ZONE. The ZONE column width is limited to 8 char-
		      acters. Use ps -eZ for a quick way to see information about  every  process
		      now running along with the associated zone name. Use

			ps -eo zone,uid,pid,ppid,time,comm,...

		      to see zone names wider than 8 characters.

       Many  of the options shown are used to select processes to list. If any are specified, the
       default list is ignored and ps selects the processes represented by the	inclusive  OR  of
       all the selection-criteria options.

DISPLAY FORMATS
       Under  the  -f option, ps tries to determine the command name and arguments given when the
       process was created by examining the  user  block.  Failing  this,  the	command  name  is
       printed, as it would have appeared without the -f option, in square brackets.

       The  column  headings  and the meaning of the columns in a ps listing are given below; the
       letters f and l indicate the option (full or long, respectively) that  causes  the  corre-
       sponding  heading  to  appear;  all means that the heading always appears. Note: These two
       options determine only what information is provided for a process; they do  not	determine
       which processes are listed.

       F(l)	     Flags  (hexadecimal  and  additive) associated with the process. These flags
		     are available for	historical  purposes;  no  meaning  should  be	currently
		     ascribed to them.

       S (l)	     The state of the process:

		     O	  Process is running on a processor.

		     S	  Sleeping: process is waiting for an event to complete.

		     R	  Runnable: process is on run queue.

		     T	  Process  is  stopped,  either  by a job control signal or because it is
			  being traced.

		     W	  Waiting: process is waiting for CPU  usage  to  drop	to  the  CPU-caps
			  enforced limits.

		     Z	  Zombie state: process terminated and parent not waiting.

       UID (f,l)     The effective user ID number of the process (the login name is printed under
		     the -f option).

       PID(all)      The process ID of the process (this datum is necessary in order  to  kill	a
		     process).

       PPID(f,l)     The process ID of the parent process.

       C(f,l)	     Processor	utilization  for  scheduling  (obsolete). Not printed when the -c
		     option is used.

       CLS(f,l)      Scheduling class. Printed only when the -c option is used.

       PRI(l)	     The priority of the process. Without the  -c  option,  higher  numbers  mean
		     lower priority. With the -c option, higher numbers mean higher priority.

       NI(l)	     Nice  value, used in priority computation. Not printed when the -c option is
		     used. Only processes in the certain scheduling classes have a nice value.

       ADDR(l)	     The memory address of the process.

       SZ(l)	     The total size of the process in virtual memory, including all mapped  files
		     and devices, in pages. See pagesize(1).

       WCHAN(l)      The  address  of  an  event for which the process is sleeping (if blank, the
		     process is running).

       STIME(f)      The starting time of the process, given in hours, minutes, and  seconds.  (A
		     process  begun more than twenty-four hours before the ps inquiry is executed
		     is given in months and days.)

       TTY(all)      The controlling terminal for the process (the message, ?,	is  printed  when
		     there is no controlling terminal).

       TIME(all)     The cumulative execution time for the process.

       LTIME(all)    The execution time for the lwp being reported.

       CMD(all)      The  command name (the full command name and its arguments, up to a limit of
		     80 characters, are printed under the -f option).

       The following two additional columns are printed when the -j option is specified:

       PGID    The process ID of the process group leader.

       SID     The process ID of the session leader.

       The following two additional columns are printed when the -L option is specified:

       LWP     The lwp ID of the lwp being reported.

       NLWP    The number of lwps in the process (if -f is also specified).

       Under the -L option, one line is printed for each lwp in the process and the  time-report-
       ing  fields  STIME  and	LTIME show the values for the lwp, not the process. A traditional
       single-threaded process contains only one lwp.

       A process that has exited and has a parent, but has not yet been waited for by the parent,
       is marked <defunct>.

   -o format
       The -o option allows the output format to be specified under user control.

       The format specification must be a list of names presented as a single argument, blank- or
       comma-separated. Each variable has a default header. The default header can be  overridden
       by  appending an equals sign and the new text of the header. The rest of the characters in
       the argument is used as the header text. The fields specified are  written  in  the  order
       specified  on the command line, and should be arranged in columns in the output. The field
       widths are selected by the system to be at least as wide as the header  text  (default  or
       overridden  value).  If	the  header text is null, such as -o user=, the field width is at
       least as wide as the default header text. If all header text fields are	null,  no  header
       line is written.

       The following names are recognized in the POSIX locale:

       user	 The  effective user ID of the process. This is the textual user ID, if it can be
		 obtained and the field width permits, or a decimal representation otherwise.

       ruser	 The real user ID of the process. This is the textual  user  ID,  if  it  can  be
		 obtained and the field width permits, or a decimal representation otherwise.

       group	 The  effective  group ID of the process. This is the textual group ID, if it can
		 be obtained and the field width permits, or a decimal representation otherwise.

       rgroup	 The real group ID of the process. This is the textual group ID,  if  it  can  be
		 obtained and the field width permits, or a decimal representation otherwise.

       pid	 The decimal value of the process ID.

       ppid	 The decimal value of the parent process ID.

       pgid	 The decimal value of the process group ID.

       pcpu	 The  ratio  of  CPU time used recently to CPU time available in the same period,
		 expressed as a percentage. The  meaning  of  ``recently''  in	this  context  is
		 unspecified. The CPU time available is determined in an unspecified manner.

       vsz	 The total size of the process in virtual memory, in kilobytes.

       nice	 The decimal value of the system scheduling priority of the process. See nice(1).

       etime	 In  the  POSIX  locale,  the  elapsed time since the process was started, in the
		 form:

		 [[dd-]hh:]mm:ss

		 where

		 dd    is the number of days

		 hh    is the number of hours

		 mm    is the number of minutes

		 ss    is the number of seconds

		 The dd field is a decimal integer. The hh, mm and ss fields is two-digit decimal
		 integers padded on the left with zeros.

       time	 In the POSIX locale, the cumulative CPU time of the process in the form:

		 [dd-]hh:mm:ss

		 The dd, hh, mm, and ss fields is as described in the etime specifier.

       tty	 The  name of the controlling terminal of the process (if any) in the same format
		 used by the who(1) command.

       comm	 The name of the command being executed (argv[0] value) as a string.

       args	 The command with all its arguments as a string. The implementation  might  trun-
		 cate  this  value to the field width; it is implementation-dependent whether any
		 further truncation occurs. It is unspecified whether the string represented is a
		 version of the argument list as it was passed to the command when it started, or
		 is a version of the arguments as they might have been modified by  the  applica-
		 tion. Applications cannot depend on being able to modify their argument list and
		 having that modification be reflected in the output of ps. The Solaris implemen-
		 tation  limits the string to 80 bytes; the string is the version of the argument
		 list as it was passed to the command when it started.

       The following names are recognized in the Solaris implementation:

       f	  Flags (hexadecimal and additive) associated with the process.

       s	  The state of the process.

       c	  Processor utilization for scheduling (obsolete).

       uid	  The effective user ID number of the process as a decimal integer.

       ruid	  The real user ID number of the process as a decimal integer.

       gid	  The effective group ID number of the process as a decimal integer.

       rgid	  The real group ID number of the process as a decimal integer.

       projid	  The project ID number of the process as a decimal integer.

       project	  The project ID of the process as a textual value if that value can be obtained;
		  otherwise, as a decimal integer.

       zoneid	  The zone ID number of the process as a decimal integer.

       zone	  The  zone  ID  of the process as a textual value if that value can be obtained;
		  otherwise, as a decimal integer.

       sid	  The process ID of the session leader.

       taskid	  The task ID of the process.

       class	  The scheduling class of the process.

       pri	  The priority of the process. Higher numbers mean higher priority.

       opri	  The obsolete priority of the process. Lower numbers mean higher priority.

       lwp	  The decimal value of the lwp ID. Requesting this formatting option  causes  one
		  line to be printed for each lwp in the process.

       nlwp	  The number of lwps in the process.

       psr	  The number of the processor to which the process or lwp is bound.

       pset	  The ID of the processor set to which the process or lwp is bound.

       addr	  The memory address of the process.

       osz	  The total size of the process in virtual memory, in pages.

       wchan	  The address of an event for which the process is sleeping (if -, the process is
		  running).

       stime	  The starting time or date of the process, printed with no blanks.

       rss	  The resident set size of the process, in kilobytes. The rss value  reported  by
		  ps is an estimate provided by proc(4) that might underestimate the actual resi-
		  dent set size. Users who wish to get more accurate usage information for capac-
		  ity planning should use pmap(1) -x instead.

       pmem	  The  ratio  of  the  process's  resident set size to the physical memory on the
		  machine, expressed as a percentage.

       fname	  The first 8 bytes of the base name of the process's executable file.

       ctid	  The contract ID of the process contract the process is a member of as a decimal
		  integer.

       lgrp	  The home lgroup of the process.

       Only  comm  and	args  are  allowed to contain blank characters; all others, including the
       Solaris implementation variables, are not.

       The following table specifies the default header to be used in  the  POSIX  locale  corre-
       sponding to each format specifier.

       +-----------------------------------------------------------------+
       |    Format	    Default	     Format	     Default	 |
       |  Specifier	     Header	    Specifier	      Header	 |
       +-----------------------------------------------------------------+
       |     args	    COMMAND	      ppid	       PPID	 |
       |     comm	    COMMAND	     rgroup	      RGROUP	 |
       |    etime	    ELAPSED	      ruser	      RUSER	 |
       |    group	     GROUP	      time	       TIME	 |
       |     nice	       NI	       tty		TT	 |
       |     pcpu	      %CPU	      user	       USER	 |
       |     pgid	      PGID	       vsz	       VSZ	 |
       |     pid	      PID					 |
       +-----------------------------------------------------------------+

       The  following  table  lists  the Solaris implementation format specifiers and the default
       header used with each.

       +-----------------------------------------------------------------+
       |    Format	    Default	     Format	     Default	 |
       |  Specifier	     Header	    Specifier	      Header	 |
       +-----------------------------------------------------------------+
       |     addr	      ADDR	     projid	      PROJID	 |
       |      c 	       C	     project	     PROJECT	 |
       |    class	      CLS	       psr	       PSR	 |
       |      f 	       F	      rgid	       RGID	 |
       |    fname	    COMMAND	       rss	       RSS	 |
       |     gid	      GID	      ruid	       RUID	 |
       |     lgrp	      LGRP		s		S	 |
       |     lwp	      LWP	       sid	       SID	 |
       |     nlwp	      NLWP	      stime	      STIME	 |
       |     opri	      PRI	     taskid	      TASKID	 |
       |     osz	       SZ	       uid	       UID	 |
       |     pmem	      %MEM	      wchan	      WCHAN	 |
       |     pri	      PRI	      zone	       ZONE	 |
       |     ctid	      CTID	     zoneid	      ZONEID	 |
       +-----------------------------------------------------------------+

EXAMPLES
       Example 1 Using ps Command

       The command:

	 example% ps -o user,pid,ppid=MOM -o args

       writes the following in the POSIX locale:

	  USER	PID   MOM   COMMAND
	 helene  34    12   ps -o uid,pid,ppid=MOM -o args

       The contents of the COMMAND field need not be the same due to possible truncation.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       See environ(5) for descriptions of the following environment  variables	that  affect  the
       execution of ps: LANG, LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE, LC_MESSAGES, LC_TIME, and NLSPATH.

       COLUMNS	  Override the system-selected horizontal screen size, used to determine the num-
		  ber of text columns to display.

EXIT STATUS
       The following exit values are returned:

       0     Successful completion.

       >0    An error occurred.

FILES
       /dev/pts/*

       /dev/term/*    terminal (``tty'') names searcher files

       /etc/passwd    UID information supplier

       /proc/*	      process control files

ATTRIBUTES
       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:

       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |      ATTRIBUTE TYPE	     |	    ATTRIBUTE VALUE	   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |Availability		     |SUNWcsu			   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |CSI			     |Enabled (see USAGE)	   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |Interface Stability	     |Committed 		   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |Standard		     |See standards(5). 	   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+

SEE ALSO
       kill(1), lgrpinfo(1),  nice(1),	pagesize(1),  pmap(1),	priocntl(1),  who(1),  getty(1M),
       proc(4),   ttysrch(4),	attributes(5),	environ(5),  resource_controls(5),  standards(5),
       zones(5)

NOTES
       Things can change while ps is running. The snapshot it gives is true only for a split-sec-
       ond,  and  it  might not be accurate by the time you see it. Some data printed for defunct
       processes is irrelevant.

       If no options to select processes are specified, ps reports all processes associated  with
       the  controlling  terminal.  If there is no controlling terminal, there is no report other
       than the header.

       ps -ef or ps -o stime might not report the actual start of a tty login session, but rather
       an earlier time, when a getty was last respawned on the tty line.

       ps is CSI-enabled except for login names (usernames).

SunOS 5.11				    9 Jan 2008					    ps(1)


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