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NetBSD 6.1.5 - man page for arp (netbsd section 4)

ARP(4)				   BSD Kernel Interfaces Manual 			   ARP(4)

     arp -- Address Resolution Protocol

     #include <netinet/if_ether.h>

     The Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is a protocol used to dynamically map between Internet
     host addresses and Ethernet addresses.  It is used by all the Ethernet interface drivers.
     It is not specific to Internet protocols or to Ethernet, but this implementation currently
     supports only that combination.

     ARP caches Internet-Ethernet address mappings.  When an interface requests a mapping for an
     address not in the cache, ARP queues the message which requires the mapping and broadcasts a
     message on the associated network requesting the address mapping.	If a response is pro-
     vided, the new mapping is cached and any pending message is transmitted.  ARP will queue at
     most one packet while waiting for a response to a mapping request; only the most recently
     ``transmitted'' packet is kept.  If the target host does not respond after several requests,
     the host is considered to be down for a short period (normally 20 seconds), allowing an
     error to be returned to transmission attempts during this interval.  The error is EHOSTDOWN
     for a non-responding destination host, and EHOSTUNREACH for a non-responding router.

     The ARP cache is stored in the system routing table as dynamically-created host routes.  The
     route to a directly-attached Ethernet network is installed as a ``cloning'' route (one with
     the RTF_CLONING flag set), causing routes to individual hosts on that network to be created
     on demand.  These routes time out periodically (normally 20 minutes after validated; entries
     are not validated when not in use).  An entry for a host which is not responding is a
     ``reject'' route (one with the RTF_REJECT flag set).

     ARP entries may be added, deleted or changed with the arp(8) utility.  Manually-added
     entries may be temporary or permanent, and may be ``published'', in which case the system
     will respond to ARP requests for that host as if it were the target of the request.

     In the past, ARP was used to negotiate the use of a trailer encapsulation.  This is no
     longer supported.

     ARP watches passively for hosts impersonating the local host (i.e. a host which responds to
     an ARP mapping request for the local host's address).

     duplicate IP address %x sent from ethernet address %x:%x:%x:%x:%x:%x.  ARP has discovered
     another host on the local network which responds to mapping requests for its own Internet
     address with a different Ethernet address, generally indicating that two hosts are attempt-
     ing to use the same Internet address.

     inet(4), route(4), arp(8), ifconfig(8), route(8)

     Plummer, D., "RFC 826", An Ethernet Address Resolution Protocol.

     Leffler, S.J.  and Karels, M.J., "RFC 893", Trailer Encapsulations.

BSD					  April 18, 1994				      BSD

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