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passwd(5) [bsd man page]

PASSWD(5)							File Formats Manual							 PASSWD(5)

NAME
passwd - password files DESCRIPTION
Passwd files are files consisting of newline separated records, one per user, containing ten colon (``:'') separated fields. These fields are as follows: name user's login name password user's encrypted password uid user's id gid user's login group id class user's general classification (unused) change password change time expire account expiration time gecos general information about the user home_dir user's home directory shell user's login shell The name field is the login used to access the computer account, and the uid field is the number associated with it. They should both be unique across the system (and often across a group of systems) since they control file access. While it is possible to have multiple entries with identical login names and/or identical user id's, it is usually a mistake to do so. Routines that manipulate these files will often return only one of the multiple entries, and that one by random selection. The login name must never begin with a hyphen (``-''); also, it is strongly suggested that neither upper-case characters or dots (``.'') be part of the name, as this tends to confuse mailers. No field may contain a colon (``:'') as this has been used historically to separate the fields in the user database. The password field is the encrypted form of the password. If the password field is empty, no password will be required to gain access to the machine. This is almost invariably a mistake. Because these files contain the encrypted user passwords, they should not be readable by anyone without appropriate privileges. The group field is the group that the user will be placed in upon login. Since this system supports multiple groups (see groups(1)) this field currently has little special meaning. The class field is currently unused. In the near future it will be a key to a termcap(5) style database of user attributes. The change field is the number in seconds, GMT, from the epoch, until the password for the account must be changed. This field may be left empty to turn off the password aging feature. The expire field is the number in seconds, GMT, from the epoch, until the account expires. This field may be left empty to turn off the account aging feature. The gecos field normally contains comma (``,'') separated subfields as follows: name user's full name office user's office number wphone user's work phone number hphone user's home phone number This information is used by the finger(1) program. The user's home directory is the full UNIX path name where the user will be placed on login. The shell field is the command interpreter the user prefers. If the shell field is empty, the Bourne shell (/bin/sh) is assumed. SEE ALSO
chpass(1), login(1), passwd(1), getpwent(3), mkpasswd(8), vipw(8) adduser(8) BUGS
User information should (and eventually will) be stored elsewhere. 7th Edition May 8, 1989 PASSWD(5)

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CHPASS(1)						      General Commands Manual							 CHPASS(1)

NAME
chpass - add or change user database information SYNOPSIS
chpass [ -a list ] [ user ] DESCRIPTION
Chpass allows editing of the user database information associated with user or, by default, the current user. The information is formatted and supplied to an editor for changes. The vi editor will be used unless the environmental variable EDITOR selects an alternate editor. When the editor terminates, the information is re-read and used to update the user database itself. Only the user, or the super-user, may edit the information associated with the user. Only the information that the user is allowed to change is displayed. Possible display items are as follows: Login: user's login name Password: user's encrypted password Uid: user's id Gid: user's login group id Change: password change time Expire: account expiration time Class: user's general classification Home Directory: user's home directory Shell: user's login shell Full Name: user's real name Location: user's normal location Home Phone: user's home phone Office Phone: user's office phone The login field is the user name used to access the computer account. The password field contains the encrypted form of the user's password. The uid field is the number associated with the login field. Both of these fields should be unique across the system (and often across a group of systems) as they control file access. While it is possible to have multiple entries with identical login names and/or identical user id's, it is usually a mistake to do so. Routines that manipulate these files will often return only one of the multiple entries, and that one by random selection. The group field is the group that the user will be placed in upon login. Since this system supports multiple groups (see groups(1)) this field currently has little special meaning. This field may be filled in with either a number or a group name (see group(5)). The change field is the date by which the password must be changed. The expire field is the date on which the account expires. Both the change and expire fields should be entered in the form ``month day year'' where month is the month name (the first three charac- ters are sufficient), day is the day of the month, and year is the year. The class field is currently unused. In the near future it will be a key to a termcap(5) style database of user attributes. The user's home directory is the full UNIX path name where the user will be placed on login. The shell field is the command interpreter the user prefers. If the shell field is empty, the Bourne shell (/bin/sh) is assumed. When altering a login shell, and not the super-user, the user must select an approved shell from the list in /etc/shells. The last four fields are for storing the user's full name, office location, and home and work telephone numbers. The super-user is also allowed to directly supply a user database entry, in the format specified by passwd(5), as an argument to the -a option. This argument must be a colon (``:'') separated list of all the user database fields, although they may be empty. Once the information has been verified, chpass uses mkpasswd(8) to update the user database. This is run in the background, and, at very large sites could take several minutes. Until this update is completed, the password file is unavailable for other updates and the new information will not be available to programs. FILES
/etc/master.passwd The user database /etc/shells The list of approved shells SEE ALSO
login(1), finger(1), getusershell(3), passwd(5), mkpasswd(8), vipw(8) Robert Morris and Ken Thompson, UNIX password security BUGS
User information should (and eventually will) be stored elsewhere. 4th Berkeley Distribution March 12, 1989 CHPASS(1)
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