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OpenSolaris 2009.06 - man page for foreach (opensolaris section 1)

shell_builtins(1)			  User Commands 			shell_builtins(1)

NAME
       shell_builtins,	case,  for, foreach, function, if, repeat, select, switch, until, while -
       shell command interpreter built-in commands

DESCRIPTION
       The shell command interpreters csh(1), ksh(1), ksh93(1), and sh(1) have	special  built-in
       commands.  The  commands  case, for, foreach, function, if, repeat, select, switch, until,
       and while are commands in the syntax recognized by the shells. They are described  in  the
       Commands  section  of  the  manual  pages of the respective shells. In ksh93(1), fc, hash,
       stop, suspend, times, and type are aliases by default. In ksh93, the  following	built-ins
       are  bound  to the /bin pathname by default and are invoked if the pathname search encoun-
       ters an executable command of that name in the /bin or  /usr/bin  directory:  cat,  chown,
       getconf, head, mkdir, rmdir, tee, uniq, and wc.

       The remaining commands listed in the following table are built into the shells for reasons
       such as efficiency or data sharing between command  invocations.  They  are  described  on
       their respective manual pages.

		 Command			Shell
       -----------------------------------------------------------
       ++**alias		     csh, ksh, ksh93
       bg			     csh, ksh, ksh93, sh
       +*break			     csh, ksh, ksh93, sh
       builtin			     ksh93
       case			     csh, ksh, ksh93, sh
       cat			     ksh93
       cd			     csh, ksh, ksh93, sh
       chdir			     csh, sh
       chown			     ksh93
       command			     ksh93
       +*continue		     csh, ksh, ksh93, sh
       dirs			     csh
       disown			     ksh93
       echo			     csh, ksh, ksh93, sh
       +*eval			     csh, ksh, ksh93, sh
       +*exec			     csh, ksh, ksh93, sh
       +*exit			     csh, ksh, ksh93, sh
       ++**export		     ksh, ksh93, sh
       false			     ksh, ksh93
       fc			     ksh, ksh93
       fg			     csh, ksh, ksh93, sh
       for			     ksh, ksh93, sh
       foreach			     csh
       function 		     ksh, ksh93
       getconf			     ksh93
       getopts			     ksh, ksh93, sh
       glob			     csh
       goto			     csh
       hash			     ksh, ksh93, sh
       hashstat 		     csh
       head			     ksh93
       hist			     ksh93
       history			     csh
       if			     csh, ksh, ksh93, sh
       jobs			     csh, ksh, ksh93, sh
       kill			     csh, ksh, ksh93, sh
       let			     ksh, ksh93,

       limit			     csh
       login			     csh, ksh, ksh93, sh
       logout			     csh
       mkdir			     ksh93
       nice			     csh
       +*newgrp 		     ksh, ksh93, sh
       nohup			     csh
       notify			     csh
       onintr			     csh
       popd			     csh
       print			     ksh, ksh93
       printf			     ksh93
       pushd			     csh
       pwd			     ksh, ksh93, sh
       read			     ksh, ksh93, sh
       ++**readonly		     ksh, ksh93, sh
       rehash			     csh
       repeat			     csh
       +*return 		     ksh, ksh93, sh
       select			     ksh, ksh93
       +set			     csh, ksh, ksh93, sh
       setenv			     csh
       shift			     csh, ksh, ksh93, sh
       sleep			     ksh93
       source			     csh
       stop			     csh, ksh, ksh93, sh
       suspend			     csh, ksh, sh
       switch			     csh
       tee			     ksh93
       test			     ksh, ksh93, sh
       time			     csh
       *times			     ksh, ksh93, sh
       *+trap			     ksh, ksh93, sh
       true			     ksh, ksh93
       type			     ksh, ksh93, sh
       ++**typeset		     ksh, ksh93
       ulimit			     ksh, ksh93, sh
       umask			     csh, ksh, ksh93, sh
       +unalias 		     csh, ksh, ksh93
       unhash			     csh
       uniq			     ksh93
       unlimit			     csh
       +unset			     csh, ksh, ksh93, sh
       unsetenv 		     csh
       until			     ksh, ksh93, sh
       *wait			     csh, ksh, ksh93, sh
       whence			     ksh, ksh93
       while			     csh, ksh, ksh93, sh

   Bourne Shell, sh, Special Commands
       Input/output  redirection  is  now  permitted for these commands. File descriptor 1 is the
       default output location. When Job Control is  enabled,  additional  Special  Commands  are
       added to the shell's environment.

       In addition to these built-in reserved command words, sh also uses:

       :	      No effect; the command does nothing. A zero exit code is returned.

       .filename      Read  and execute commands from filename and return. The search path speci-
		      fied by PATH is used to find the directory containing filename.

   C shell, csh
       Built-in commands are executed within the C shell. If a built-in  command  occurs  as  any
       component  of  a  pipeline  except  the last, it is executed in a subshell. In addition to
       these built-in reserved command words, csh also uses:

       :    Null command. This command is interpreted, but performs no action.

   Korn Shell, ksh, Special Commands
       Input/Output redirection is permitted. Unless otherwise indicated, the output  is  written
       on file descriptor 1 and the exit status, when there is no syntax error, is zero.

       Commands  that  are preceded by one or two * (asterisks) are treated specially in the fol-
       lowing ways:

	   1.	  Variable assignment lists preceding the command remain in effect when the  com-
		  mand completes.

	   2.	  I/O redirections are processed after variable assignments.

	   3.	  Errors cause a script that contains them to abort.

	   4.	  Words,  following a command preceded by ** that are in the format of a variable
		  assignment, are expanded with the same rules as  a  variable	assignment.  This
		  means  that tilde substitution is performed after the = sign and word splitting
		  and file name generation are not performed.

       In addition to these built-in reserved command words, ksh also uses:

       * : [ arg ... ]		    The command only expands parameters.

       * .file [ arg ... ]	    Read the complete file then execute the  commands.	The  com-
				    mands  are	executed  in  the  current shell environment. The
				    search path specified by PATH is used to find  the	directory
				    containing	file.  If  any	arguments arg are specified, they
				    become the positional parameters. Otherwise,  the  positional
				    parameters	are unchanged. The exit status is the exit status
				    of the last command executed. the loop termination test.

   Korn Shell, ksh93, Special Commands
       Input/Output redirection is permitted. Unless otherwise indicated, the output  is  written
       on file descriptor 1 and the exit status, when there is no syntax error, is zero.

       Except  for  :,	true,  false, echo, newgrp, and login, all built-in commands accept -- to
       indicate end of options. They also interpret the option --man as a request to display  the
       manual  page  onto standard error and -? as a help request which prints a usage message on
       standard error.

       Commands that are preceded by one or two + are treated specially in the following ways:

	   1.	  Variable assignment lists preceding the command remain in effect when the  com-
		  mand completes.

	   2.	  I/O redirections are processed after variable assignments.

	   3.	  Errors cause a script that contains them to abort.

	   4.	  They are not valid function names.

	   5.	  Words,  following a command preceded by ++ that are in the format of a variable
		  assignment, are expanded with the same rules as  a  variable	assignment.  This
		  means that tilde substitution is performed after the = sign and field splitting
		  and file name generation are not performed.

       In addition to these built-in reserved command words, ksh93 also uses:

       : [ arg ... ]		  The command only expands parameters.

       .name [ arg ... ]	  If name is a function defined with the function  name  reserved
				  word	syntax,  the function is executed in the current environ-
				  ment (as if it had been defined with the name() syntax.) Other-
				  wise if name refers to a file, the file is read in its entirety
				  and the commands are executed in the current shell environment.
				  The search path specified by PATH is used to find the directory
				  containing the file. If any arguments arg are  specified,  they
				  become the positional parameters while processing the . command
				  and the original positional parameters are restored  upon  com-
				  pletion. Otherwise the positional parameters are unchanged. The
				  exit status is the exit status of the last command executed.

SEE ALSO
       Intro(1), alias(1), break(1), builtin(1), cd(1),  chmod(1),  csh(1),  disown(1),  echo(1),
       exec(1),   exit(1),  find(1),  getoptcvt(1),  getopts(1),  glob(1),  hash(1),  history(1),
       jobs(1), kill(1), ksh(1), ksh93(1),  let(1),  limit(1),	login(1),  logout(1),  newgrp(1),
       nice(1),  nohup(1),  print(1),  printf(1),  pwd(1),  read(1),  readonly(1), set(1), sh(1),
       shift(1), sleep(1), suspend(1),	test(1)test(1),  test(1B),  time(1),  times(1),  trap(1),
       typeset(1),  umask(1),  wait(1),  chdir(2), chmod(2), creat(2), umask(2), getopt(3C), pro-
       file(4), environ(5)

SunOS 5.11				   20 Nov 2007				shell_builtins(1)


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