CLOSE(2) BSD System Calls Manual CLOSE(2)
close -- delete a descriptor
The close() call deletes a descriptor from the per-process object reference table. If this is the last reference to the underlying object,
the object will be deactivated. For example, on the last close of a file the current seek pointer associated with the file is lost; on the
last close of a socket(2) associated naming information and queued data are discarded; on the last close of a file holding an advisory lock
the lock is released (see further flock(2)).
When a process exits, all associated file descriptors are freed, but since there is a limit on active descriptors per processes, the close()
function call is useful when a large quantity of file descriptors are being handled.
When a process forks (see fork(2)), all descriptors for the new child process reference the same objects as they did in the parent before the
fork. If a new process is then to be run using execve(2), the process would normally inherit these descriptors. Most of the descriptors can
be rearranged with dup2(2) or deleted with close() before the execve is attempted, but if some of these descriptors will still be needed if
the execve fails, it is necessary to arrange for them to be closed if the execve succeeds. For this reason, the call ``fcntl(d, F_SETFD,
1)'' is provided, which arranges that a descriptor will be closed after a successful execve; the call ``fcntl(d, F_SETFD, 0)'' restores the
default, which is to not close the descriptor.
Upon successful completion, a value of 0 is returned. Otherwise, a value of -1 is returned and the global integer variable errno is set to
indicate the error.
Close() will fail if:
[EBADF] D is not an active descriptor.
[EINTR] An interrupt was received.
accept(2), flock(2), open(2), pipe(2), socket(2), socketpair(2), execve(2), fcntl(2)
Close() conforms to IEEE Std 1003.1-1988 (``POSIX.1'').
4th Berkeley Distribution April 19, 1994 4th Berkeley Distribution