dup, dup2 - duplicate a descriptor
newd = dup(oldd)
int newd, oldd;
int oldd, newd;
Dup duplicates an existing object descriptor. The argument oldd is a small non-negative
integer index in the per-process descriptor table. The value must be less than the size
of the table, which is returned by getdtablesize(2). The new descriptor returned by the
call, newd, is the lowest numbered descriptor that is not currently in use by the process.
The object referenced by the descriptor does not distinguish between references using oldd
and newd in any way. Thus if newd and oldd are duplicate references to an open file,
read(2), write(2) and lseek(2) calls all move a single pointer into the file, and append
mode, non-blocking I/O and asynchronous I/O options are shared between the references. If
a separate pointer into the file is desired, a different object reference to the file must
be obtained by issuing an additional open(2) call. The close-on-exec flag on the new file
descriptor is unset.
In the second form of the call, the value of newd desired is specified. If this descrip-
tor is already in use, the descriptor is first deallocated as if a close(2) call had been
The value -1 is returned if an error occurs in either call. The external variable errno
indicates the cause of the error.
Dup and dup2 fail if:
[EBADF] Oldd or newd is not a valid active descriptor
[EMFILE] Too many descriptors are active.
accept(2), open(2), close(2), fcntl(2), pipe(2), socket(2), socketpair(2), getdtable-
4th Berkeley Distribution May 13, 1986 DUP(2)