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RedHat 9 (Linux i386) - man page for lsof (redhat section 8)

LSOF(8) 			     System Manager's Manual				  LSOF(8)

NAME
       lsof - list open files

SYNOPSIS
       lsof  [ -?abChlnNOPRstUvVX ] [ -A A ] [ -c c ] [ +|-d d ] [ +|-D D ] [ +|-f [cfgGn] ] [ -F
       [f] ] [ -g [s] ] [ -i [i] ] [ -k k ] [ +|-L [l] ] [ -m m ] [ +|-M ] [ -o [o] ] [ -p s ]	[
       +|-r [t] ] [ -S [t] ] [ -T [t] ] [ -u s ] [ +|-w ] [ -- ] [names]

DESCRIPTION
       Lsof  revision  4.63  lists  information about files opened by processes for the following
       UNIX dialects:

	    AIX 4.3.[23], 5L, and 5.1
	    Apple Darwin 1.[23] and 1.4 for Power Macintosh systems
	    BSDI BSD/OS 4.1 for Intel-based systems
	    DEC OSF/1, Digital UNIX, Tru64 UNIX 4.0, and 5.[01]
	    FreeBSD 4.[2345] and 5.0 for Intel-based systems
	    HP-UX 11.00 and 11.11
	    Linux 2.1.72 and above for Intel-based systems
	    NetBSD 1.5 for Alpha, Intel, and SPARC-based systems
	    NEXTSTEP 3.[13] for NEXTSTEP architectures
	    OpenBSD 2.[89] and 3.0 for Intel-based systems
	    OPENSTEP 4.x
	    Caldera OpenUNIX 8
	    SCO OpenServer Release 5.0.[46] for Intel-based systems
	    SCO UnixWare 7.1.1 for Intel-based systems
	    Solaris 2.6, 7, 8, and 9 BETA-Refresh

       (See the DISTRIBUTION section of this manual page for information on  how  to  obtain  the
       latest lsof revision.)

       An open file may be a regular file, a directory, a block special file, a character special
       file, an executing text reference, a library, a stream or a network file (Internet socket,
       NFS file or UNIX domain socket.)  A specific file or all the files in a file system may be
       selected by path.

       Instead of a formatted display, lsof will produce output that can be parsed by other  pro-
       grams.  See the -F, option description, and the OUTPUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS section for more
       information.

       In addition to producing a single output list, lsof will run in repeat  mode.   In  repeat
       mode it will produce output, delay, then repeat the output operation until stopped with an
       interrupt or quit signal.  See the +|-r [t] option description for more information.

OPTIONS
       In the absence of any options, lsof lists all open files  belonging  to	all  active  pro-
       cesses.

       If  any	list  request  option  is  specified,  other  list  requests must be specifically
       requested - e.g., if -U is specified for the listing of UNIX socket files, NFS files won't
       be  listed unless -N is also specified; or if a user list is specified with the -u option,
       UNIX domain socket files, belonging to users not in the list, won't be listed  unless  the
       -U option is also specified.

       Normally  list  options	that  are  specifically stated are ORed - i.e., specifying the -i
       option without an address and the -ufoo option produces a listing of all network files  OR
       files  belonging  to  processes owned by user ``foo''.  One exception is the `^' (negated)
       login name or user ID (UID) specified with the -u option.  Since it is an exclusion, it is
       applied	without  ORing or ANDing and takes effect before any other selection criteria are
       applied.

       The -a option may be used to AND the selections.  For  example,	specifying  -a,  -U,  and
       -ufoo  produces a listing of only UNIX socket files that belong to processes owned by user
       ``foo''.

       Caution: the -a option causes all list selection options to be ANDed; it can't be used  to
       cause  ANDing  of  selected  pairs  of  selection options by placing it between them, even
       though its placement there is acceptable.  Wherever -a is placed, it causes the ANDing  of
       all selection options.

       Items  of  the  same  selection	set - command names, file descriptors, network addresses,
       process identifiers, user identifiers - are joined in a single ORed set and applied before
       the  result participates in ANDing.  Thus, for example, specifying -i@aaa.bbb, -i@ccc.ddd,
       -a, and -ufff,ggg will select the listing of files that belong to either login ``fff''  OR
       ``ggg'' AND have network connections to either host aaa.bbb OR ccc.ddd.

       Options	may be grouped together following a single prefix -- e.g., the option set ``-a -b
       -C'' may be stated as -abC.  However, since values are optional following  +|-f,  -F,  -g,
       -i,  +|-L, -o, +|-r, -S, and -T, when you have no values for them be careful that the fol-
       lowing character isn't ambiguous.  For example, -Fn might represent the -F and -n options,
       or  it  might  represent  the  n field identifier character following the -F option.  When
       ambiguity is possible, start a new option with a `-' character - e.g., ``-F -n''.  If  the
       next  option is a file name, follow the possibly ambiguous option with ``--'' - e.g., ``-F
       -- name''.

       Either the `+' or the `-' prefix may be applied to a group of options.  Options that don't
       take on separate meanings for each prefix - e.g., -i - may be grouped under either prefix.
       Thus, for example, ``+M -i'' may be stated as ``+Mi'' and the group means the same as  the
       separate  options.   Be	careful  of prefix grouping when one or more options in the group
       does take on separate meanings under different prefixes - e.g., +|-M; ``-iM'' is  not  the
       same request as ``-i +M''.  When in doubt, use separate options with appropriate prefixes.

       -? -h	These  two equivalent options select a usage (help) output list.  Lsof displays a
		shortened form of this output when it detects an error in the options supplied to
		it, after it has displayed messages explaining each error.  (Escape the `?' char-
		acter as your shell requires.)

       -a	This option causes list selection options to be ANDed, as described above.

       -A A	This option is available on systems configured for AFS whose AFS kernel  code  is
		implemented  via  dynamic  modules.   It  allows the lsof user to specify A as an
		alternate name list file where the kernel addresses of the dynamic modules  might
		be  found.   See  the  lsof  FAQ  (The FAQ section gives its location.)  for more
		information about dynamic modules, their symbols, and how they affect lsof.

       -b	This option causes lsof to avoid kernel functions that might  block  -	lstat(2),
		readlink(2), and stat(2).

		See  the  BLOCKS AND TIMEOUTS and AVOIDING KERNEL BLOCKS sections for information
		on using this option.

       -c c	This option selects the listing of files for processes executing the command that
		begins	with the characters of c.  Multiple commands may be specified, using mul-
		tiple -c options.  They are joined in a single ORed set before	participating  in
		AND option selection.

		If  c  begins  and ends with a slash ('/'), the characters between the slashes is
		interpreted as a  regular  expression.	 Shell	meta-characters  in  the  regular
		expression  must  be  quoted  to  prevent their interpretation by the shell.  The
		closing slash may be followed by these modifiers:

		     b	  the regular expression is a basic one.
		     i	  ignore the case of letters.
		     x	  the regular expression is an extended one
			  (default).

		See the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)	for more  information  on
		basic and extended regular expressions.

		The  simple  command specification is tested first.  If that test fails, the com-
		mand regular expression is applied.  If the simple  command  test  succeeds,  the
		command  regular  expression  test  isn't  made.  This may result in ``no command
		found for regex:'' messages when lsof's -V option is specified.

       -C	This option disables the reporting of any path name components from the  kernel's
		name cache.  See the KERNEL NAME CACHE section for more information.

       +d s	This  option  causes lsof to search for all open instances of directory s and the
		files and directories it contains at its top level.  This option does NOT descend
		the  directory	tree,  rooted  at s, nor does it follow symbolic links within it.
		The +D D option may be used to request	a  full-descent  directory  tree  search,
		rooted at directory D.

		Note:  the  authority of the user of this option limits it to searching for files
		that the user has permission to examine with the system stat(2) function.

       -d s	This option selects the listing of  files  whose  file	descriptors  are  in  the
		comma-separated set s - e.g., ``1,3'' or ``6,cwd,2''.  (There should be no spaces
		in the set.)

		A file descriptor number range may be included in the set as long as neither mem-
		ber  is empty, both members are numbers, and the ending member is larger than the
		starting one - e.g., ``0-7'' or ``3-10''.

		Multiple file descriptor numbers are joined in a single ORed set before  partici-
		pating in AND option selection.

		See  the  description of File Descriptor (FD) output values in the OUTPUT section
		for more information on file descriptor names.

       +D D	This option causes lsof to search for all open instances of directory D  and  all
		the  files  and  directories  it  contains to its complete depth.  Symbolic links
		within directory D are ignored - i.e, not followed.

		Note: the authority of the user of this option limits it to searching  for  files
		that the user has permission to examine with the system stat(2) function.

		Further  note:	lsof may process this option slowly and require a large amount of
		dynamic memory to do it.  This is because it must descend  the	entire	directory
		tree,  rooted  at D, calling stat(2) for each file and directory, building a list
		of all the files it finds, and searching that list for a match	with  every  open
		file.	When  directory D is large, these steps can take a long time, so use this
		option prudently.

       -D D	This option directs lsof's use of the device cache file.  The use of this  option
		is sometimes restricted.  See the DEVICE CACHE FILE section and the sections that
		follow it for more information on this option.

		-D must be followed by a function letter; the function letter may  optionally  be
		followed by a path name.  Lsof recognizes these function letters:

		     ? - report device cache file paths
		     b - build the device cache file
		     i - ignore the device cache file
		     r - read the device cache file
		     u - read and update the device cache file

		The  b, r, and u functions, accompanied by a path name, are sometimes restricted.
		When these functions are restricted, they will not appear in the  description  of
		the  -D  option  that  accompanies -h or -?  option output.  See the DEVICE CACHE
		FILE section and the sections that follow it for more information on these  func-
		tions and when they're restricted.

		The  ?	 function reports the read-only and write paths that lsof can use for the
		device cache file, the names of any environment variables whose values lsof  will
		examine  when forming the device cache file path, and the format for the personal
		device cache file path.  (Escape the `?' character as your shell requires.)

		When available, the b, r, and u functions may be followed  by  the  device  cache
		file's path.  The standard default is .lsof_hostname in the home directory of the
		real user ID that executes lsof, but this could have been changed when	lsof  was
		configured  and compiled.  (The output of the -h and -?  options show the current
		default prefix - e.g., ``.lsof''.)  The suffix, hostname, is the first	component
		of the host's name returned by gethostname(2).

		When  available,  the b function directs lsof to build a new device cache file at
		the default or specified path.

		The i function directs lsof to ignore the default device cache	file  and  obtain
		its information about devices via direct calls to the kernel.

		The  r function directs lsof to read the device cache at the default or specified
		path, but prevents it from creating a new device cache file when none  exists  or
		the  existing one is improperly structured.  The r function, when specified with-
		out a path name, prevents lsof from updating  an  incorrect  or  outdated  device
		cache  file, or creating a new one in its place.  The r function is always avail-
		able when it is specified without a path name argument; it may be  restricted  by
		the permissions of the lsof process.

		When  available, the u function directs lsof to read the device cache file at the
		default or specified path, if possible, and to rebuild it, if necessary.  This is
		the default device cache file function when no -D option has been specified.

       +|-f [cfgGn]
		f  by  itself clarifies how path name arguments are to be interpreted.	When fol-
		lowed by c, f, g, G, or n in any combination it specifies  that  the  listing  of
		kernel file structure information is to be enabled (`+') or inhibited (`-').

		Normally  a  path name argument is taken to be a file system name if it matches a
		mounted-on directory name reported by mount(8),  or  if  it  represents  a  block
		device,  named	in the mount output and associated with a mounted directory name.
		When +f is specified, all path name arguments will be taken  to  be  file  system
		names,	and  lsof will complain if any are not.  This can be useful, for example,
		when the file system name (mounted-on device) isn't a block device.  This happens
		for some CD-ROM file systems.

		When  -f  is specified, all path name arguments will be taken to be simple files.
		Thus, for example, the ``-f /'' arguments direct lsof to search  for  open  files
		with a `/' path name, not all open files in the `/' (root) file system.

		Be careful to make sure +f is properly terminated and isn't followed by a charac-
		ter (e.g., of the file or file system name) that might be taken as  a  parameter.
		For example, use ``--'' after +f as in this example.

		     $ lsof +f -- /file/system/name

		The  listing  of  information  from kernel file structures, requested with the +f
		[cfgGn] option form, is  normally  inhibited,  and  is	not  available	for  some
		dialects  -  e.g., /proc-based Linux.  When the prefix to f is a plus sign (`+'),
		these characters request file structure information:

		     c	  file structure use count
		     f	  file structure address
		     g	  file flag abbreviations
		     G	  file flags in hexadecimal
		     n	  file structure node address

		When the prefix is minus (`-') the same characters disable  the  listing  of  the
		indicated values.

		File  structure  addresses,  use counts, flags, and node addresses may be used to
		detect more readily identical files inherited by child	processes  and	identical
		files  in use by different processes.  Lsof column output can be sorted by output
		columns holding the values and listed to identify identical  file  use,  or  lsof
		field  output  can be parsed by an AWK or Perl post-filter script, or by a C pro-
		gram.

       -F f	This option specifies a character list, f, that selects the fields to  be  output
		for  processing by another program, and the character that terminates each output
		field.	Each field to be output is specified with a single character in  f.   The
		field terminator defaults to NL, but may be changed to NUL(000).  See the OUTPUT
		FOR OTHER PROGRAMS section for a description of the field identification  charac-
		ters and the field output process.

		When the field selection character list is empty, all fields are selected (except
		the raw device field for compatibility reasons) and the NL  field  terminator  is
		used.

		When  the  field  selection character list contains only a zero (`0'), all fields
		are selected (except the raw device field for compatibility reasons) and the  NUL
		terminator character is used.

		Other combinations of fields and their associated field terminator character must
		be set with explicit entries in f, as described in the OUTPUT FOR OTHER  PROGRAMS
		section.

		When a field selection character identifies an item lsof does not normally list -
		e.g., PPID, selected with -R - specification  of  the  field  character  -  e.g.,
		``-FR'' - also selects the listing of the item.

		When  the  field selection character list contains the single character `?', lsof
		will display a help list of the field identification characters.  (Escape the `?'
		character as your shell requires.)

       -g [s]	This option selects the listing of files for the processes whose optional process
		group IDentification (PGID) numbers are in the	comma-separated  set  s  -  e.g.,
		``123'' or ``123,456''.  (There should be no spaces in the set.)

		Multiple PGID numbers are joined in a single ORed set before participating in AND
		option selection.

		The -g option also enables the output display of PGID  numbers.   When	specified
		without a PGID set that's all it does.

       -i [i]	This  option  selects  the listing of files any of whose Internet address matches
		the address specified in i.  If no address is specified, this option selects  the
		listing of all Internet and x.25 (HP-UX) network files.

		If -i4 or -i6 is specified with no following address, only files of the indicated
		IP version, IPv4 or IPv6, are displayed.  (An IPv6 specification may be used only
		if the dialects supports IPv6, as indicated by ``[46]'' and ``IPv[46]'' in lsof's
		-h or -?  output.)  Sequentially specifying -i4, followed by -i6 is the  same  as
		specifying  -i,  and  vice-versa.  Specifying -i4, or -i6 after -i is the same as
		specifying -i4 or -i6 by itself.

		Multiple addresses (up to a limit of 100)  may	be  specified  with  multiple  -i
		options.   (A port number or service name range is counted as one address.)  They
		are joined in a single ORed set before participating in AND option selection.

		An Internet address is specified in  the  form	(Items	in  square  brackets  are
		optional.):

		[46][protocol][@hostname|hostaddr][:service|port]

		where:
		     46 specifies the IP version, IPv4 or IPv6
			  that applies to the following address.
			  '6' may be be specified only if the UNIX
			  dialect supports IPv6.  If neither '4' nor
			  '6' is specified, the following address
			  applies to all IP versions.
		     protocol is a protocol name - TCP or UDP.
		     hostname is an Internet host name.  Unless a
			  specific IP version is specified, open
			  network files associated with host names
			  of all versions will be selected.
		     hostaddr is a numeric Internet IPv4 address in
			  dot form; or an IPv6 numeric address in
			  colon form, enclosed in brackets, if the
			  UNIX dialect supports IPv6.  When an IP
			  version is selected, only its numeric
			  addresses may be specified.
		     service is an /etc/services name - e.g., smtp -
			  or a list of them.
		     port is a port number, or a list of them.

		IPv6  options  may be used only if the UNIX dialect supports IPv6.  To see if the
		dialect supports IPv6, run lsof and specify the -h or -?  (help) option.  If  the
		displayed description of the -i option contains ``[46]'' and ``IPv[46]'', IPv6 is
		supported.

		IPv4 host names and addresses may not be specified if network file  selection  is
		limited to IPv6 with -i 6.  IPv6 host names and addresses may not be specified if
		network file selection is limited to IPv4 with -i 4.  When an open  IPv4  network
		file's	address  is mapped in an IPv6 address, the open file's type will be IPv6,
		not IPv4, and its display will be selected by '6', not '4'.

		At least one address component - 4, 6, protocol, ,IR hostname , hostaddr, or ser-
		vice  -  must be supplied.  The `@' character, leading the host specification, is
		always required; as is the `:', leading the port specification.   Specify  either
		hostname  or hostaddr.	Specify either service name list or port number list.  If
		a service name list is specified, the protocol may also need to be  specified  if
		the  TCP and UDP port numbers for the service name are different.  Use any case -
		lower or upper - for protocol.

		Service names and port numbers may be combined in a list whose entries are  sepa-
		rated  by  commas  and	whose numeric range entries are separated by minus signs.
		There may be no embedded spaces, and all service names must belong to the  speci-
		fied protocol.	Since service names may contain embedded minus signs, the staring
		entry of a range can't be a service name; it can be a port number, however.

		Here are some sample addresses:

		     -i6 - IPv6 only
		     TCP:25 - TCP and port 25
		     @1.2.3.4 - Internet IPv4 host address 1.2.3.4
		     @[3ffe:1ebc::1]:1234 - Internet IPv6 host address
			  3ffe:1ebc::1, port 1234
		     UDP:who - UDP who service port
		     TCP@vic.cc:513 - TCP, port 513 and host name vic.cc
		     tcp@foo:1-10,smtp,99 - TCP, ports 1 through 10,
			  service name smtp, port 99, host name foo
		     tcp@bar:smtp-nameserver - TCP, ports smtp through
			  nameserver, host bar
		     :time - either TCP or UDP time service port

       -k k	This option specifies a kernel name list file, k, in  place  of  /vmunix,  /mach,
		etc.  This option is not available under AIX on the IBM RISC/System 6000.

       -l	This  option  inhibits	the  conversion of user ID numbers to login names.  It is
		also useful when login name lookup is working improperly or slowly.

       +|-L [l] This option enables (`+') or disables (`-') the  listing  of  file  link  counts,
		where they are available - e.g., they aren't available for sockets, or most FIFOs
		and pipes.

		When +L is specified without a following number, all link counts will be  listed.
		When -L is specified (the default), no link counts will be listed.

		When  +L  is  followed by a number, only files having a link count less than that
		number will be listed.	(No number may follow -L.)  A specification of	the  form
		``+L1''  will  select open files that have been unlinked.  A specification of the
		form ``+aL1 <file_system>'' will select unlinked open files on the specified file
		system.

		For  other  link  count  comparisons, use field output (-F) and a post-processing
		script or program.

       -m m	This option specifies a kernel memory file, c, in place of /dev/kmem or  /dev/mem
		- e.g., a crash dump file.

       +|-M	Enables  (+)  or disables (-) the reporting of portmapper registrations for local
		TCP and UDP ports.  The default reporting mode is set by the  lsof  builder  with
		the  HASPMAPENABLED  #define in the dialect's machine.h header file; lsof is dis-
		tributed with the HASPMAPENABLED #define deactivated, so portmapper reporting  is
		disabled  by  default  and must be requested with +M.  Specifying lsof's -h or -?
		option will report the default mode.  Disabling portmapper registration  when  it
		is  already  disabled  or  enabling  it when already enabled is acceptable.  in a
		warning.

		When portmapper registration reporting is enabled, lsof displays  the  portmapper
		registration  (if  any) for local TCP or UDP ports in square brackets immediately
		following  the	port  numbers  or  service  names  -  e.g.,  ``:1234[name]''   or
		``:name[100083]''.  The registration information may be a name or number, depend-
		ing on what the registering program supplied to the portmapper when it registered
		the port.

		When  portmapper  registration	reporting  is enabled, lsof may run a little more
		slowly or even become blocked when access to the portmapper becomes congested  or
		stopped.   Reverse  the  reporting  mode  to determine if portmapper registration
		reporting is slowing or blocking lsof.

		For purposes of portmapper registration reporting lsof considers  a  TCP  or  UDP
		port  local if: it is found in the local part of its containing kernel structure;
		or if it is located in the foreign part of its containing  kernel  structure  and
		the local and foreign Internet addresses are the same; or if it is located in the
		foreign part of its containing kernel structure and the foreign Internet  address
		is  INADDR_LOOPBACK  (127.0.0.1).   This  rule	may make lsof ignore some foreign
		ports on machines with multiple interfaces when the foreign Internet  address  is
		on a different interface from the local one.

		See the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)	for further discussion of
		portmapper registration reporting issues.

       -n	This option inhibits the conversion of network numbers to host names for  network
		files.	 Inhibiting  conversion may make lsof run faster.  It is also useful when
		host name lookup is not working properly.

       -N	This option selects the listing of NFS files.

       -o	This option directs lsof to display file offset at  all  times.   It  causes  the
		SIZE/OFF  output  column  title  to  be  changed  to  OFFSET.  Note: on some UNIX
		dialects lsof can't obtain accurate or consistent file	offset	information  from
		its  kernel  data  sources,  sometimes	just for particular kinds of files (e.g.,
		socket files.)	Consult the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its  location.)   for
		more information.

		The -o and -s options are mutually exclusive; they can't both be specified.  When
		neither is specified, lsof displays whatever value - size or offset -  is  appro-
		priate and available for the type of the file.

       -o o	This  option  defines  the  number  of decimal digits (o) to be printed after the
		``0t'' for a file offset before the form is switched to ``0x...''.  An o value of
		zero (unlimited) directs lsof to use the ``0t'' form for all offset output.

		This  option  does  NOT  direct  lsof  to display offset at all times; specify -o
		(without a trailing number) to do that.  This option only specifies the number of
		digits after ``0t'' in either mixed size and offset or offset-only output.  Thus,
		for example, to direct lsof to display offset at all times with a  decimal  digit
		count of 10, use:

		     -o -o 10
		or
		     -oo10

		The  default  number  of  digits allowed after ``0t'' is normally 8, but may have
		been changed by the lsof builder.  Consult the description of the -o o option  in
		the output of the -h or -?  option to determine the default that is in effect.

       -O	This option directs lsof to bypass the strategy it uses to avoid being blocked by
		some kernel operations - i.e., doing them in forked  child  processes.	 See  the
		BLOCKS	AND  TIMEOUTS and AVOIDING KERNEL BLOCKS sections for more information on
		kernel operations that may block lsof.

		While use of this option will reduce lsof startup overhead,  it  may  also  cause
		lsof to hang when the kernel doesn't respond to a function.  Use this option cau-
		tiously.

       -p s	This option selects the listing of files for the processes whose ID  numbers  are
		in the comma-separated set s - e.g., ``123'' or ``123,456''.  (There should be no
		spaces in the set.)

		Multiple process ID numbers are joined in a single ORed set before  participating
		in AND option selection.

       -P	This  option  inhibits	the  conversion of port numbers to port names for network
		files.	Inhibiting the conversion may make lsof run a little faster.  It is  also
		useful when host name lookup is not working properly.

       +|-r [t] This option puts lsof in repeat mode.  There lsof lists open files as selected by
		other options, delays t seconds (default  fifteen),  then  repeats  the  listing,
		delaying  and  listing	repetitively  until stopped by a condition defined by the
		prefix to the option.

		If the prefix is a `-', repeat mode is endless.  Lsof must be terminated with  an
		interrupt or quit signal.

		If  the  prefix  is  `+',  repeat mode will end the first cycle no open files are
		listed - and of course when lsof is stopped with an  interrupt	or  quit  signal.
		When  repeat mode ends because no files are listed, the process exit code will be
		zero if any open files were ever listed; one, if none were ever listed.

		Lsof marks the end of each listing: if field  output  is  in  progress	(the  -F,
		option	has  been  specified),	the  marker  is  `m';  otherwise  the  marker  is
		``========''.  The marker is followed by a NL character.

		Repeat mode reduces lsof startup overhead, so it is more efficient  to	use  this
		mode than to call lsof repetitively from a shell script, for example.

		To  use  repeat mode most efficiently, accompany +|-r with specification of other
		lsof selection options, so the amount of kernel memory access lsof does  will  be
		kept  to a minimum.  Options that filter at the process level - e.g., -c, -g, -p,
		-u - are the most efficient selectors.

		Repeat mode is useful when coupled with field output (see the -F, option descrip-
		tion) and a supervising awk or Perl script, or a C program.

       -R	This  option directs lsof to list the Parent Process IDentification number in the
		PPID column.

       -s	This option directs lsof to display file  size	at  all  times.   It  causes  the
		SIZE/OFF  output column title to be changed to SIZE.  If the file does not have a
		size, nothing is displayed.

		The -o (without a following decimal digit count)  and  -s  options  are  mutually
		exclusive;  they  can't  both be specified.  When neither is specified, lsof dis-
		plays whatever value - size or offset - is appropriate and available for the type
		of file.

		Since  some  types of files don't have true sizes - sockets, FIFOs, pipes, etc. -
		lsof displays for their sizes the content amounts in their associated kernel buf-
		fers, if possible.

       -S [t]	This  option  specifies an optional time-out seconds value for kernel functions -
		lstat(2), readlink(2), and stat(2) - that might otherwise deadlock.  The  minimum
		for  t	is  two; the default, fifteen; when no value is specified, the default is
		used.

		See the BLOCKS AND TIMEOUTS section for more information.

       -T [t]	This option controls the reporting of some TCP/TPI information, also reported  by
		netstat(1),  following	the  network addresses.  In normal output the information
		appears in parentheses, each item except state identified by a keyword,  followed
		by `=', separated from others by a single space:

		     <TCP or TPI state name>
		     QR=<read queue length>
		     QS=<send queue length>
		     WR=<window read length>  (not all dialects)
		     WW=<window write length> (not all dialects)

		When  the  field  output mode is in effect (See OUTPUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS.)  each
		item appears as a field with a `T' leading character, and the TCP  or  TPI  state
		name has the prefix ``ST=''.

		-T with no following key characters disables TCP/TPI information reporting.

		-T  with  following characters selects the reporting of specific TCP/TPI informa-
		tion:

		     q	  selects queue length reporting.
		     s	  selects state reporting.
		     w	  selects window size reporting (not
			  all dialects).

		State is reported by default.  The -h or -?  help output for the -T  option  will
		show whether window size reporting can be requested.

		When  -T  is  used  to	select	information - i.e., it is followed by one or more
		selection characters - the displaying of state is disabled  by	default,  and  it
		must  be  explicitly  selected again in the characters following -T.  (In effect,
		then, the default is equivalent to -Ts.)  For example, if queue lengths and state
		are desired, use -Tqs.

       -t	This  option specifies that lsof should produce terse output with process identi-
		fiers only and no header - e.g., so that the output  may  be  piped  to  kill(1).
		This option selects the -w option.

       -u s	This  option  selects the listing of files for the user whose login names or user
		ID numbers are in the comma-separated set s -  e.g.,  ``abe'',	or  ``548,root''.
		(There should be no spaces in the set.)

		Multiple  login  names	or user ID numbers are joined in a single ORed set before
		participating in AND option selection.

		If a login name or user ID is preceded by a `^', it becomes a  negation  -  i.e.,
		files  of  processes  owned by the login name or user ID will never be listed.	A
		negated login name or user ID selection is neither  ANDed  nor	ORed  with  other
		selections; it is applied before all other selections and absolutely excludes the
		listing of the files of the process.  For example, to direct lsof to exclude  the
		listing of files belonging to root processes, specify ``-u^root'' or ``-u^0''.

       -U	This option selects the listing of UNIX domain socket files.

       -v	This  option selects the listing of lsof version information, including: revision
		number; when the lsof binary was constructed;  who  constructed  the  binary  and
		where;	the  name  of the compiler used to construct the lsof binary; the version
		number of the compiler when readily available; the compiler and loader flags used
		to  construct  the  lsof  binary; and system information, typically the output of
		uname's -a option.

       -V	This option directs lsof to indicate the items it was asked to list and failed to
		find  -  command names, file names, Internet addresses or files, login names, NFS
		files, PIDs, PGIDs, and UIDs.

		When other options are ANDed to search options,  lsof  may  not  report  that  it
		failed	to  find  a  search item when an ANDed option prevents the listing of the
		open file containing the located search item.  For example, ``lsof -V  -iTCP@foo-
		bar  -a  -d 999'' may not report a failure to locate open files at ``TCP@foobar''
		and may not list any, if none have a file descriptor number of 999.

       +|-w	Enables (+) or disables (-) the suppression of warning messages.

		The lsof builder may choose to have  warning  messages	disabled  or  enabled  by
		default.   The default warning message state is indicated in the output of the -h
		or -?  option.	Disabling warning messages when  they  are  already  disabled  or
		enabling them when already enabled is acceptable.

		The -t option selects the -w option.

       -X	This is a dialect-specific option.

	   AIX:
		WARNING:  use  of  this  option  on  a busy AIX system might cause an application
		process to hang so completely that it can neither be killed nor stopped.  I  have
		never seen this happen or had a report of it, but I think the possibility exists.

		This  IBM  AIX	RISC/System 6000 -X option directs lsof to use the kernel readx()
		function.  (By default use of readx() is disabled.)  On AIX 5L and above lsof may
		need setuid-root permission to perform the actions this option requests.

		The  lsof builder may specify that the -X option be restricted to processes whose
		real UID is root.  If that has been done, the -X option will not appear in the -h
		or  -?	help output unless the real UID of the lsof process is root.  The default
		lsof distribution allows any UID to specify -X, so by default it will  appear  in
		the help output.

		When  AIX readx() use is disabled, lsof may not be able to report information for
		all text and loader file references, but it may also avoid  exacerbating  an  AIX
		kernel directory search kernel error, known as the Stale Segment ID bug.

		When readx() is enabled, lsof will attempt to report information on the text file
		being executed by each process and the shared libraries it uses.

		The readx() function, used by lsof or any other program, to access some  sections
		of kernel virtual memory, can trigger the Stale Segment ID bug.  It can cause the
		kernel's dir_search() function erroneously to believe that part of  an	in-memory
		copy  of  a  file system directory has been zeroed.  Another application process,
		distinct from lsof, asking the kernel to search the directory -  e.g.,	by  using
		open(2)  -  can  cause dir_search() to loop forever, thus hanging the application
		process.

		Consult the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)  and the 00README file
		of  the lsof distribution for a more complete description of the Stale Segment ID
		bug, its APAR, and methods for defining readx() use when compiling lsof.

       --	The double minus sign option is a marker  that	signals  the  end  of  the  keyed
		options.   It  may  be	used, for example, when the first file name begins with a
		minus sign.  It may also be used when the absence of a value for the  last  keyed
		option	must be signified by the presence of a minus sign in the following option
		and before the start of the file names.

       names	These are path names of specific files to  list.   Symbolic  links  are  resolved
		before	use.  The first name may be separated from the preceding options with the
		``--'' option.

		If a name is the mounted-on directory of a file system or the device of the  file
		system, lsof will list all the files open on the file system.  To be considered a
		file system, the name must match a mounted-on directory name in mount(8)  output,
		or  match the name of a block device associated with a mounted-on directory name.
		The +|-f option may be used to force lsof to consider a name a file system  iden-
		tifier (+f) or a simple file (-f).

		If  name  is a path to a directory that is not the mounted-on directory name of a
		file system, it is treated just as a regular file is treated - i.e., its  listing
		is  restricted	to processes that have it open as a file or as a process-specific
		directory, such as the root or current working directory.  To request  that  lsof
		look for open files inside a directory name, use the +d s and +D D options.

		If  a  name  is  the  base  name  of  a family of multiplexed files - e. g, AIX's
		/dev/pt[cs] - lsof will list all the associated multipled  files  on  the  device
		that are open - e.g., /dev/pt[cs]/1, /dev/pt[cs]/2, etc.

		If a name is a UNIX domain socket name, lsof will search for it by the characters
		of the name alone - exactly as it is specified and  is	recorded  in  the  kernel
		socket	structure.   Specifying  a relative path - e.g., ./file - in place of the
		file's absolute path - e.g., /tmp/file - won't work because lsof must  match  the
		characters you specify with what it finds in the kernel UNIX domain socket struc-
		tures.

		If a name is none of the above, lsof will list any open files  whose  device  and
		inode match that of the specified path name.

		If  you  have also specified the -b option, the only names you may safely specify
		are file systems for which your mount table supplies  alternate  device  numbers.
		See  the  AVOIDING  KERNEL  BLOCKS and ALTERNATE DEVICE NUMBERS sections for more
		information.

		Multiple file names are joined in a single ORed set before participating  in  AND
		option selection.

AFS
       Lsof supports the recognition of AFS files for these dialects (and AFS versions):

	    AIX 4.1.4 (AFS 3.4a)
	    HP-UX 9.0.5 (AFS 3.4a)
	    Linux 1.2.13 (AFS 3.3)
	    Solaris 2.[56] (AFS 3.4a)

       It  may	recognize  AFS files on other versions of these dialects, but has not been tested
       there.  Depending on how AFS is	implemented,  lsof  may  recognize  AFS  files	in  other
       dialects, or may have difficulties recognizing AFS files in the supported dialects.

       Lsof  may have trouble identifying all aspects of AFS files in supported dialects when AFS
       kernel support is implemented via dynamic modules whose addresses do  not  appear  in  the
       kernel's  variable name list.  In that case, lsof may have to guess at the identity of AFS
       files, and might not be able to obtain volume information from the kernel that  is  needed
       for  calculating AFS volume node numbers.  When lsof can't compute volume node numbers, it
       reports blank in the NODE column.

       The -A A option is available in some dialect implementations of lsof  for  specifying  the
       name  list  file  where dynamic module kernel addresses may be found.  When this option is
       available, it will be listed in the lsof help output, presented in response to the  -h  or
       -?

       See the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)  for more information about dynamic
       modules, their symbols, and how they affect lsof options.

       Because AFS path lookups don't seem to participate in the kernel's name cache  operations,
       lsof can't identify path name components for AFS files.

SECURITY
       Lsof  has three features that may cause security concerns.  First, its default compilation
       mode allows anyone to list all open files with  it.   Second,  by  default  it  creates	a
       user-readable  and  user-writable device cache file in the home directory of the real user
       ID that executes lsof.  (The list-all-open-files and device cache features may be disabled
       when  lsof  is compiled.)  Third, its -k and -m options name alternate kernel name list or
       memory files.

       Restricting the listing of all open files is controlled by  the	compile-time  HASSECURITY
       option.	 When HASSECURITY is defined, lsof will allow only the root user to list all open
       files.  The non-root user may list only open files of processes with the same user IDenti-
       fication  number  as  the  real	user ID number of the lsof process (the one that its user
       logged on with).  When HASSECURITY is not defined, anyone may list all open files.

       Help output, presented in response to the -h or -?  option, gives the HASSECURITY  defini-
       tion status.

       See  the  Security section of the 0README file of the lsof distribution for information on
       building lsof with the HASSECURITY option enabled.

       Creation and use of a user-readable and user-writable device cache file is  controlled  by
       the  compile-time  HASDCACHE  option.   See the DEVICE CACHE FILE section and the sections
       that follow it for details on how its path is formed.  For security considerations  it  is
       important  to  note that in the default lsof distribution, if the real user ID under which
       lsof is executed is root, the device cache file will be written in root's home directory -
       e.g., / or /root.  When HASDCACHE is not defined, lsof does not write or attempt to read a
       device cache file.

       When HASDCACHE is defined, the lsof help output, presented in response to the -h, -D?,  or
       -?   options,  will provide device cache file handling information.  When HASDCACHE is not
       defined, the -h or -?  output will have no -D option description.

       Before you decide to disable the device cache file feature - enabling it improves the per-
       formance  of  lsof by reducing the startup overhead of examining all the nodes in /dev (or
       /devices) - read the discussion of it in the 00DCACHE file of the  lsof	distribution  and
       the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)

       WHEN  IN  DOUBT, YOU CAN TEMPORARILY DISABLE THE USE OF THE DEVICE CACHE FILE WITH THE -Di
       OPTION.

       When lsof user declares alternate kernel name list or memory files  with  the  -k  and  -m
       options,  lsof  checks the user's authority to read them with access(2).  This is intended
       to prevent whatever special power lsof's modes might confer on it  from	letting  it  read
       files not normally accessible via the authority of the real user ID.

OUTPUT
       This  section describes the information lsof lists for each open file.  See the OUTPUT FOR
       OTHER PROGRAMS section for additional information on  output  that  can	be  processed  by
       another program.

       Lsof  only  outputs printable (declared so by isprint(3)) ASCII characters.  Non-printable
       characters are printed in one of three forms: the C ``\[bfrnt]'' form; the control charac-
       ter  `^'  form (e.g., ``^@''); or hexadecimal leading ``\x'' form (e.g., ``\xab'').  Space
       is non-printable in the COMMAND column (``\x20'') and printable elsewhere.

       Lsof dynamically sizes the output columns each time it runs, guaranteeing that each column
       is  a minimum size.  It also guarantees that each column is separated from its predecessor
       by at least one space.

       COMMAND	  contains the first nine characters of the name of the UNIX  command  associated
		  with the process.

		  All command name characters maintained by the kernel in its structures are dis-
		  played in field output when the command name	descriptor  (`c')  is  specified.
		  See  the  OUTPUT  FOR OTHER COMMANDS section for information on selecting field
		  output and the associated command name descriptor.

       PID	  is the Process IDentification number of the process.

       PPID	  is the Parent Process IDentification number of the process.  It  is  only  dis-
		  played when the -R option has been specified.

       PGID	  is  the process group IDentification number associated with the process.  It is
		  only displayed when the -g option has been specified.

       USER	  is the user ID number or login name of the user to whom  the	process  belongs,
		  usually  the	same as reported by ps(1).  However, on Linux USER is the user ID
		  number or login that owns the directory in /proc where lsof  finds  information
		  about  the  process.	Usually that is the same value reported by ps(1), but may
		  differ when the process has changed its effective user ID.  (See the -l  option
		  description  for  information  on  when  a user ID number or login name is dis-
		  played.)

       FD	  is the File Descriptor number of the file or:

		       cwd  current working directory;
		       Lnn  library references (AIX);
		       jld  jail directory (FreeBSD);
		       ltx  shared library text (code and data);
		       Mxx  hex memory-mapped type number xx.
		       m86  DOS Merge mapped file;
		       mem  memory-mapped file;
		       mmap memory-mapped device;
		       pd   parent directory;
		       rtd  root directory;
		       txt  program text (code and data);
		       v86  VP/ix mapped file;

		  FD is followed by one of these characters, describing the mode under which  the
		  file is open:

		       r for read access;
		       w for write access;
		       u for read and write access;
		       space if mode unknown and no lock
			    character follows;
		       `-' if mode unknown and lock
			    character follows.

		  The  mode character is followed by one of these lock characters, describing the
		  type of lock applied to the file:

		       N for a Solaris NFS lock of unknown type;
		       r for read lock on part of the file;
		       R for a read lock on the entire file;
		       w for a write lock on part of the file;
		       W for a write lock on the entire file;
		       u for a read and write lock of any length;
		       U for a lock of unknown type;
		       x for an SCO OpenServer Xenix lock on part      of the file;
		       X for an SCO OpenServer Xenix lock on the      entire file;
		       space if there is no lock.

		  See the LOCKS section for more information on the lock information character.

		  The FD column contents constitutes a single field for parsing in  post-process-
		  ing scripts.

       TYPE	  is  the  type  of  the  node associated with the file - e.g., GDIR, GREG, VDIR,
		  VREG, etc.

		  or ``IPv4'' for an IPv4 socket;

		  or ``IPv6'' for an open IPv6 network file - even if its address is IPv4, mapped
		  in an IPv6 address;

		  or ``ax25'' for a Linux AX.25 socket;

		  or ``inet'' for an Internet domain socket;

		  or ``lla'' for a HP-UX link level access file;

		  or ``rte'' for an AF_ROUTE socket;

		  or ``sock'' for a socket of unknown domain;

		  or ``unix'' for a UNIX domain socket;

		  or ``x.25'' for an HP-UX x.25 socket;

		  or ``BLK'' for a block special file;

		  or ``CHR'' for a character special file;

		  or ``DEL'' for a Linux map file that has been deleted;

		  or ``DIR'' for a directory;

		  or ``DOOR'' for a VDOOR file;

		  or ``FIFO'' for a FIFO special file;

		  or ``LINK'' for a symbolic link file;

		  or ``MPB'' for a multiplexed block file;

		  or ``MPC'' for a multiplexed character file;

		  or ``PAS'' for a /proc/as file;

		  or ``PAXV'' for a /proc/auxv file;

		  or ``PCRE'' for a /proc/cred file;

		  or ``PCTL'' for a /proc control file;

		  or ``PCUR'' for the current /proc process;

		  or ``PCWD'' for a /proc current working directory;

		  or ``PDIR'' for a /proc directory;

		  or ``PETY'' for a /proc executable type (etype);

		  or ``PFD'' for a /proc file descriptor;

		  or ``PFDR'' for a /proc file descriptor directory;

		  or ``PFIL'' for an executable /proc file;

		  or ``PFPR'' for a /proc FP register set;

		  or ``PGD'' for a /proc/pagedata file;

		  or ``PGID'' for a /proc group notifier file;

		  or ``PIPE'' for pipes;

		  or ``PLC'' for a /proc/lwpctl file;

		  or ``PLDR'' for a /proc/lpw directory;

		  or ``PLDT'' for a /proc/ldt file;

		  or ``PLPI'' for a /proc/lpsinfo file;

		  or ``PLST'' for a /proc/lstatus file;

		  or ``PLU'' for a /proc/lusage file;

		  or ``PLWG'' for a /proc/gwindows file;

		  or ``PLWI'' for a /proc/lwpsinfo file;

		  or ``PLWS'' for a /proc/lwpstatus file;

		  or ``PLWU'' for a /proc/lwpusage file;

		  or ``PLWX'' for a /proc/xregs file'

		  or ``PMAP'' for a /proc map file (map);

		  or ``PMEM'' for a /proc memory image file;

		  or ``PNTF'' for a /proc process notifier file;

		  or ``POBJ'' for a /proc/object file;

		  or ``PODR'' for a /proc/object directory;

		  or ``POLP'' for an old format /proc light weight process file;

		  or ``POPF'' for an old format /proc PID file;

		  or ``POPG'' for an old format /proc page data file;

		  or ``PORT'' for a SYSV named pipe;

		  or ``PREG'' for a /proc register file;

		  or ``PRMP'' for a /proc/rmap file;

		  or ``PRTD'' for a /proc root directory;

		  or ``PSGA'' for a /proc/sigact file;

		  or ``PSIN'' for a /proc/psinfo file;

		  or ``PSTA'' for a /proc status file;

		  or ``PUSG'' for a /proc/usage file;

		  or ``PW'' for a /proc/watch file;

		  or ``PXMP'' for a /proc/xmap file;

		  or ``REG'' for a regular file;

		  or ``SMT'' for a shared memory transport file;

		  or ``STSO'' for a stream socket;

		  or ``UNNM'' for an unnamed type file;

		  or ``XNAM'' for an OpenServer Xenix special file of unknown type;

		  or ``XSEM'' for an OpenServer Xenix semaphore file;

		  or ``XSD'' for an OpenServer Xenix shared data file.

       FILE-ADDR  contains the kernel file structure address when f has been specified to +f;

       FCT	  contains  the  file  reference  count from the kernel file structure when c has
		  been specified to +f;

       FILE-FLAG  when g or G has been specified to +f, this field contains the contents  of  the
		  f_flag[s] member of the kernel file structure and the kernel's per-process open
		  file flags (if available); `G' causes them to be displayed in hexadecimal; `g',
		  as  short-hand names; two lists may be displayed with entries separated by com-
		  mas, the lists separated by a semicolon  (`;');  the	first  list  may  contain
		  short-hand names for f_flag[s] values from the following table:

		       AIO	 asynchronous I/O (e.g., FAIO)
		       AP	 append
		       ASYN	 asynchronous I/O (e.g., FASYNC)
		       BAS	 block, test, and set in use
		       BKIU	 block if in use
		       BL	 use block offsets
		       BSK	 block seek
		       CA	 copy avoid
		       CLON	 clone
		       CLRD	 CL read
		       CR	 create
		       DF	 defer
		       DFI	 defer IND
		       DFLU	 data flush
		       DIR	 direct
		       DLY	 delay
		       DOCL	 do clone
		       DSYN	 data-only integrity
		       EX	 open for exec
		       EXCL	 exclusive open
		       FSYN	 synchronous writes
		       GCDF	 defer during unp_gc() (AIX)
		       GCMK	 mark during unp_gc() (AIX)
		       GTTY	 accessed via /dev/tty
		       HUP	 HUP in progress
		       KERN	 kernel
		       KIOC	 kernel-issued ioctl
		       LCK	 has lock
		       LG	 large file
		       MBLK	 stream message block
		       MK	 mark
		       MNT	 mount
		       MSYN	 multiplex synchronization
		       NB	 non-blocking I/O
		       NBDR	 no BDRM check
		       NBIO	 SYSV non-blocking I/O
		       NBF	 n-buffering in effect
		       NC	 no cache
		       ND	 no delay
		       NDSY	 no data synchronization
		       NET	 network
		       NMFS	 NM file system
		       NOTO	 disable background stop
		       NSH	 no share
		       NTTY	 no controlling TTY
		       OLRM	 OLR mirror
		       PAIO	 POSIX asynchronous I/O
		       PP	 POSIX pipe
		       R	 read
		       RAIO	 Reliant UNIX RAIO request
		       RC	 file and record locking cache
		       REV	 revoked
		       RSH	 shared read
		       RSYN	 read synchronization
		       SL	 shared lock
		       SOCK	 socket
		       SQSH	 Sequent shared set on open
		       SQSV	 Sequent SVM set on open
		       SQR	 Sequent set repair on open
		       SQS1	 Sequent full shared open
		       SQS2	 Sequent partial shared open
		       STPI	 stop I/O
		       SWR	 synchronous read
		       SYN	 file integrity while writing
		       TCPM	 avoid TCP collision
		       TR	 truncate
		       W	 write
		       WKUP	 parallel I/O synchronization
		       WTG	 parallel I/O synchronization
		       VH	 vhangup pending
		       VTXT	 virtual text
		       XL	 exclusive lock

		  this	list  of  names  was  derived  from  F* #define's in dialect header files
		  <fcntl.h>, <linux</fs.h>, sys/fcntl.c>, <sys/fcntlcom.h>, and <sys/file.h>; see
		  the  lsof.h header file for a list showing the correspondence between the above
		  short-hand names and the header file definitions;

		  the second list (after the semicolon) may contain short-hand names  for  kernel
		  per-process open file flags from this table:

		       ALLC	 allocated
		       BR	 the file has been read
		       BHUP	 activity stopped by SIGHUP
		       BW	 the file has been written
		       CLSG	 closing
		       CX	 close-on-exec (see fcntl(F_SETFD))
		       MP	 memory-mapped
		       LCK	 lock was applied
		       RSVW	 reserved wait
		       SHMT	 UF_FSHMAT set (AIX)
		       USE	 in use (multi-threaded)

       NODE-ID	  (or  INODE-ADDR  for	some  dialects) contains a unique identifier for the file
		  node (usually the kernel vnode or inode address, but also occasionally  a  con-
		  catenation of device and node number) when n has been specified to +f;

       DEVICE	  contains  the  device  numbers,  separated  by commas, for a character special,
		  block special, regular, directory or NFS file;

		  or ``memory'' for a memory file system node under DEC OSF/1, Digital	UNIX,  or
		  Tru64 UNIX;

		  or the address of the private data area of a Solaris socket stream;

		  or  a  kernel  reference address that identifies the file (The kernel reference
		  address may be used for FIFO's, for example.);

		  or the base address or device name of a Linux AX.25 socket device.

		  Usually only the lower thirty two bits of DEC OSF/1,	Digital  UNIX,	or  Tru64
		  UNIX kernel addresses are displayed.

       SIZE, SIZE/OFF, or OFFSET
		  is  the  size of the file or the file offset in bytes.  A value is displayed in
		  this column only if it is available.	Lsof displays whatever value  -  size  or
		  offset - is appropriate for the type of the file and the version of lsof.

		  On  some  UNIX  dialects  lsof  can't obtain accurate or consistent file offset
		  information from its kernel data sources, sometimes just for	particular  kinds
		  of  files  (e.g., socket files.)  In other cases, files don't have true sizes -
		  e.g., sockets, FIFOs, pipes - so lsof displays  for  their  sizes  the  content
		  amounts  it  finds in their kernel buffer descriptors (e.g., socket buffer size
		  counts or TCP/IP window sizes.)  Consult the lsof FAQ (The  FAQ  section  gives
		  its location.)  for more information.

		  The file size is displayed in decimal; the offset is normally displayed in dec-
		  imal with a leading ``0t'' if it contains 8 digits or less; in hexadecimal with
		  a  leading  ``0x''  if  it  is  longer than 8 digits.  (Consult the -o o option
		  description for information on when 8 might default to some other value.)

		  Thus the leading ``0t'' and ``0x'' identify an offset when the column may  con-
		  tain both a size and an offset (i.e., its title is SIZE/OFF).

		  If the -o option is specified, lsof always displays the file offset (or nothing
		  if no offset is available) and labels the column  OFFSET.   The  offset  always
		  begins with ``0t'' or ``0x'' as described above.

		  The  lsof  user  can	control  the  switch  from ``0t'' to ``0x'' with the -o o
		  option.  Consult its description for more information.

		  If the -s option is specified, lsof always displays the file size  (or  nothing
		  if no size is available) and labels the column SIZE.	The -o and -s options are
		  mutually exclusive; they can't both be specified.

		  For files that don't have a fixed size - e.g., don't reside on a disk device	-
		  lsof will display appropriate information about the current size or position of
		  the file if it is available in the kernel structures that define the file.

       NODE	  is the node number of a local file;

		  or the inode number of an NFS file in the server host;

		  or the Internet protocol type - e. g, ``TCP'';

		  or ``STR'' for a stream;

		  or ``CCITT'' for an HP-UX x.25 socket;

		  or the IRQ or inode number of a Linux AX.25 socket device.

       NAME	  is the name of the mount point and file system on which the file resides;

		  or the name of a file specified in the names option (after any  symbolic  links
		  have been resolved);

		  or the name of a character special or block special device;

		  or  the  local  and remote Internet addresses of a network file; the local host
		  name or IP number is followed by a colon  (':'),  the  port,	``->'',  and  the
		  two-part  remote  address;  IP  addresses  may be reported as numbers or names,
		  depending on the +|-M, -n, and -P options;  colon-separated  IPv6  numbers  are
		  enclosed  in	square brackets; IPv4 INADDR_ANY and IPv6 IN6_IS_ADDR_UNSPECIFIED
		  addresses, and zero port numbers are represented by an asterisk  ('*');  a  UDP
		  destination  address	may  be  followed by the amount of time elapsed since the
		  last packet was sent to the destination; TCP and UDP remote  addresses  may  be
		  followed  by	TCP/TPI  information  in  parentheses  -  state  (e.g., ``(ESTAB-
		  LISHED)'', ``(Unbound)''), queue sizes, and window sizes (not all  dialects)	-
		  in  a fashion similar to what netstat(1) reports; see the -T option description
		  or the description of the TCP/TPI field in OUTPUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS	for  more
		  information on state, queue size, and window size;

		  or  the  address  or	name of a UNIX domain socket, possibly including a stream
		  clone device name, a file system object's path name, local and  foreign  kernel
		  addresses, socket pair information, and a bound vnode address;

		  or the local and remote mount point names of an NFS file;

		  or ``STR'', followed by the stream name;

		  or a stream character device name, followed by ``->'' and the stream name;

		  or ``STR:'' followed by the SCO OpenServer stream device and module names, sep-
		  arated by ``->'';

		  or system directory name, `` -- '', and as many components of the path name  as
		  lsof	can find in the kernel's name cache for selected dialects (See the KERNEL
		  NAME CACHE section for more information.);

		  or ``PIPE->'', followed by a Solaris kernel pipe destination address;

		  or ``COMMON:'', followed by the vnode  device  information  structure's  device
		  name, for a Solaris common vnode;

		  or  the  address  family,  followed  by  a  slash  (`/'),  followed by fourteen
		  comma-separated bytes of a non-Internet raw socket address;

		  or the HP-UX x.25 local address, followed by the virtual connection number  (if
		  any), followed by the remote address (if any);

		  or  ``(dead)'' for disassociated DEC OSF/1, Digital UNIX, or Tru64 UNIX files -
		  typically terminal files that have been flagged with the  TIOCNOTTY  ioctl  and
		  closed by daemons;

		  or  ``rd=<offset>''  and  ``wr=<offset>''  for the values of the read and write
		  offsets of a FIFO;

		  or ``clone n:/dev/event'' for SCO OpenServer	file  clones  of  the  /dev/event
		  device, where n is the minor device number of the file;

		  or  ``(socketpair:  n)'' for a Solaris 2.6, 7, 8, or 9 BETA-Refresh UNIX domain
		  socket, created by the socketpair(3N) network function;

		  or ``no PCB'' for socket files that do not have  a  protocol	block  associated
		  with	them,  optionally followed by ``, CANTSENDMORE'' if sending on the socket
		  has been disabled, or ``, CANTRCVMORE'' if receiving on  the	socket	has  been
		  disabled (e.g., by the shutdown(2) function);

		  or  the  local  and  remote  addresses  of  a Linux IPX socket file in the form
		  <net>:[<node>:]<port>, followed in parentheses  by  the  transmit  and  receive
		  queue sizes, and the connection state;

		  or  ``dgram''  or  ``stream''  for the type  UnixWare 7.1.1 and above in-kernel
		  UNIX domain sockets, followed by a colon (':') and the  local  path  name  when
		  available, followed by ``->'' and the remote path name or kernel socket address
		  in hexadecimal when available.

       For dialects that support a ``namefs'' file system, allowing one file to  be  attached  to
       another	with  fattach(3C),  lsof will add ``(FA:<address1><direction><address2>)'' to the
       NAME column.  <address1> and <address2> are hexadecimal vnode addresses.  <direction> will
       be ``<-'' if <address2> has been fattach'ed to this vnode whose address is <address1>; and
       ``->'' if <address1>, the vnode address of this vnode, has been fattach'ed to  <address2>.
       <address1> may be omitted if it already appears in the DEVICE column.

LOCKS
       Lsof can't adequately report the wide variety of UNIX dialect file locks in a single char-
       acter.  What it reports in a single character is a compromise between the  information  it
       finds in the kernel and the limitations of the reporting format.

       Moreover,  when	a process holds several byte level locks on a file, lsof only reports the
       status of the first lock it encounters.	If it is a byte level lock, then the lock charac-
       ter  will  be reported in lower case - i.e., `r', `w', or `x' - rather than the upper case
       equivalent reported for a full file lock.

       Generally lsof can only report on locks held by local processes on local  files.   When	a
       local  process  sets a lock on a remotely mounted (e.g., NFS) file, the remote server host
       usually records the lock state.	One exception is Solaris - at some patch levels  of  2.3,
       and  in	all versions above 2.4, the Solaris kernel records information on remote locks in
       local structures.

       Lsof has trouble reporting locks for some UNIX dialects.  Consult the BUGS section of this
       manual page or the lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)  for more information.

OUTPUT FOR OTHER PROGRAMS
       When  the  -F option is specified, lsof produces output that is suitable for processing by
       another program - e.g, an awk or Perl script, or a C program.

       Each unit of information is output in a field that is identified with a leading	character
       and terminated by a NL(012) (or a NUL(000) if the 0 (zero) field identifier character is
       specified.)  The data of the field follows  immediately	after  the  field  identification
       character and extends to the field terminator.

       It  is  possible  to think of field output as process and file sets.  A process set begins
       with a field whose identifier is `p' (for process IDentifier (PID)).  It  extends  to  the
       beginning  of  the  next  PID field or the beginning of the first file set of the process,
       whichever comes first.  Included in the process set are fields that identify the  command,
       the  process  group  IDentification  (PGID)  number, and the user ID (UID) number or login
       name.

       A file set begins with a field whose identifier is `f' (for file descriptor).  It is  fol-
       lowed  by lines that describe the file's access mode, lock state, type, device, size, off-
       set, inode, protocol, name and stream module names.  It extends to the  beginning  of  the
       next file or process set, whichever comes first.

       When  the  NUL(000) field terminator has been selected with the 0 (zero) field identifier
       character, lsof ends each process and file set with a NL(012) character.

       Lsof always produces one field, the PID (`p') field.  All other	fields	may  be  declared
       optionally  in  the  field  identifier  character list that follows the -F option.  When a
       field selection character identifies an item lsof does not normally  list  -  e.g.,  PPID,
       selected with -R - specification of the field character - e.g., ``-FR'' - also selects the
       listing of the item.

       It is entirely possible to select a set of fields that cannot easily be parsed - e.g.,  if
       the field descriptor field is not selected, it may be difficult to identify file sets.  To
       help you avoid this difficulty, lsof supports the -F option; it selects the output of  all
       fields  with NL terminators (the -F0 option pair selects the output of all fields with NUL
       terminators).  For compatibility reasons neither -F nor -F0 select the raw device field.

       These are the fields that lsof will produce.  The single character  listed  first  is  the
       field identifier.

	    a	 file access mode
	    c	 process command name (all characters from proc or
		 user structure)
	    C	 file structure share count
	    d	 file's device character code
	    D	 file's major/minor device number (0x<hexadecimal>)
	    f	 file descriptor
	    F	 file structure address (0x<hexadecimal>)
	    G	 file flaGs (0x<hexadecimal>; names if +fg follows)
	    i	 file's inode number
	    l	 file's lock status
	    L	 process login name
	    m	 marker between repeated output
	    n	 file name, comment, Internet address
	    N	 node identifier (ox<hexadecimal>
	    o	 file's offset (decimal)
	    p	 process ID (always selected)
	    g	 process group ID
	    P	 protocol name
	    r	 raw device number (0x<hexadecimal>)
	    R	 parent process ID
	    s	 file's size (decimal)
	    S	 file's stream identification
	    t	 file's type
	    T	 TCP/TPI information, identified by prefixes (the
		 `=' is part of the prefix):
		     ST=<state>
		     QR=<read queue size>
		     QS=<write queue size>
		     WR=<window read size>  (not all dialects)
		     WW=<window write size>  (not all dialects)
		 (TPI state information and window sizes aren't
		   reported for all supported UNIX dialects. The
		   -h or -? help output for the -T option will
		   show whether window size reporting can be
		   requested.)
	    u	 process user ID
	    0	 use NUL field terminator character in place of NL
	    1-9  dialect-specific field identifiers (The output
		 of -F? identifies the information to be found
		 in dialect-specific fields.)

       You  can get on-line help information on these characters and their descriptions by speci-
       fying the -F?  option pair.  (Escape the `?' character as  your	shell  requires.)   Addi-
       tional information on field content can be found in the OUTPUT section.

       As  an  example,  ``-F  pcfn''  will select the process ID (`p'), command name (`c'), file
       descriptor (`f') and file name (`n') fields with an NL field  terminator  character;  ``-F
       pcfn0'' selects the same output with a NUL(000) field terminator character.

       Lsof  doesn't produce all fields for every process or file set, only those that are avail-
       able.  Some fields are mutually exclusive: file device  characters  and	file  major/minor
       device  numbers; file inode number and protocol name; file name and stream identification;
       file size and offset.  One or the other member  of  these  mutually  exclusive  sets  will
       appear in field output, but not both.

       Normally  lsof  ends  each field with a NL(012) character.  The 0 (zero) field identifier
       character may be specified to change the field terminator character to a NUL(000).  A NUL
       terminator  may	be  easier to process with xargs(1), for example, or with programs whose
       quoting mechanisms may not easily cope with the range of characters in the  field  output.
       When  the  NUL  field  terminator is in use, lsof ends each process and file set with a NL(012).

       Three aids to producing programs that can process lsof field output are	included  in  the
       lsof distribution.  The first is a C header file, lsof_fields.h, that contains symbols for
       the field identification characters, indexes for storing them in a table, and  explanation
       strings that may be compiled into programs.  Lsof uses this header file.

       The  second aid is a set of sample scripts that process field output, written in awk, Perl
       4, and Perl 5.  They're located in the scripts subdirectory of the lsof distribution.

       The third aid is the C library used for the lsof test suite.  The test suite is written in
       C  and  uses  field  output to validate the correct operation of lsof.  The library can be
       found in the tests/LTlib.c file of the lsof distribution.  The library uses the first aid,
       the lsof_fields.h header file.

BLOCKS AND TIMEOUTS
       Lsof  can  be  blocked  by some kernel functions that it uses - lstat(2), readlink(2), and
       stat(2).  These functions are stalled in the kernel, for example,  when	the  hosts  where
       mounted NFS file systems reside become inaccessible.

       Lsof  attempts  to  break these blocks with timers and child processes, but the techniques
       are not wholly reliable.  When lsof does manage to break a block, it will report the break
       with an error message.  The messages may be suppressed with the -t and -w options.

       The  default  timeout  value  may  be  displayed  with the -h or -?  option, and it may be
       changed with the -S [t] option.	The minimum for t is two seconds, but  you  should  avoid
       small  values,  since  slow system responsiveness can cause short timeouts to expire unex-
       pectedly and perhaps stop lsof before it can produce any output.

       When lsof has to break a block during its access of mounted file  system  information,  it
       normally continues, although with less information available to display about open files.

       Lsof can also be directed to avoid the protection of timers and child processes when using
       the kernel functions that might block by specifying the -O option.  While this will  allow
       lsof  to  start up with less overhead, it exposes lsof completely to the kernel situations
       that might block it.  Use this option cautiously.

AVOIDING KERNEL BLOCKS
       You can use the -b option to tell lsof to avoid using kernel functions that  would  block.
       Some cautions apply.

       First, using this option usually requires that your system supply alternate device numbers
       in place of the device numbers that lsof would  normally  obtain  with  the  lstat(2)  and
       stat(2)	kernel	functions.  See the ALTERNATE DEVICE NUMBERS section for more information
       on alternate device numbers.

       Second, you can't specify names for lsof to locate unless they're file system names.  This
       is  because  lsof needs to know the device and inode numbers of files listed with names in
       the lsof options, and the -b option prevents lsof from obtaining  them.	 Moreover,  since
       lsof  only  has	device	numbers for the file systems that have alternates, its ability to
       locate files on file systems depends completely on the availability and	accuracy  of  the
       alternates.   If  no alternates are available, or if they're incorrect, lsof won't be able
       to locate files on the named file systems.

       Third, if the names of your file system directories that lsof obtains from  your  system's
       mount  table are symbolic links, lsof won't be able to resolve the links.  This is because
       the -b option causes lsof to avoid the kernel readlink(2) function it uses to resolve sym-
       bolic links.

       Finally,  using	the  -b option causes lsof to issue warning messages when it needs to use
       the kernel functions that the -b option directs it to avoid.  You can suppress these  mes-
       sages  by specifying the -w option, but if you do, you won't see the alternate device num-
       bers reported in the warning messages.

ALTERNATE DEVICE NUMBERS
       On some dialects, when lsof has to break a block because it can't get information about	a
       mounted	file  system via the lstat(2) and stat(2) kernel functions, or because you speci-
       fied the -b option, lsof can obtain some of the information it needs - the  device  number
       and  possibly  the file system type - from the system mount table.  When that is possible,
       lsof will report the device number it obtained.	(You can suppress the report by  specify-
       ing the -w option.)

       You  can  assist  this  process	if  your  mount  table	is supported with an /etc/mtab or
       /etc/mnttab file that contains an options field by adding a ``dev=xxxx'' field  for  mount
       points that do not have one in their options strings.

       The  ``xxxx''  portion  of  the field is the hexadecimal value of the file system's device
       number.	(Consult the st_dev field of the output of the lstat(2) and stat(2) functions for
       the  appropriate  values for your file systems.)  Here's an example from a Sun Solaris 2.6
       /etc/mnttab for a file system remotely mounted via NFS:

	    nfs  ignore,noquota,dev=2a40001

       There's an advantage to having ``dev=xxxx'' entries in your mount table	file,  especially
       for  file  systems that are mounted from remote NFS servers.  When a remote server crashes
       and you want to identify its users by running lsof on one of its  clients,  lsof  probably
       won't  be  able to get output from the lstat(2) and stat(2) functions for the file system.
       If it can obtain the file system's device number from the mount table, it will be able  to
       display the files open on the crashed NFS server.

       Some  dialects  that do not use an ASCII /etc/mtab or /etc/mnttab file for the mount table
       may still provide an alternative device number  in  their  internal  mount  tables.   This
       includes  AIX,  Apple Darwin, DEC OSF/1, Digital UNIX, FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD, and Tru64
       UNIX.  Lsof knows how to obtain the alternative device number for these dialects and  uses
       it when its attempt to lstat(2) or stat(2) the file system is blocked.

       If  you're  not	sure your dialect supplies alternate device numbers for file systems from
       its mount table, use this lsof incantation to see if it reports any alternate device  num-
       bers:

	      lsof -b

       Look for standard error file warning messages that begin ``assuming "dev=xxxx" from ...''.

KERNEL NAME CACHE
       Lsof  is able to examine the kernel's name cache or use other kernel facilities (e.g., the
       ADVFS 4.x tag_to_path() function under Digital UNIX or Tru64 UNIX) on  some  dialects  for
       most file system types, excluding AFS, and extract recently used path name components from
       it.  (AFS file system path lookups don't use the kernel's name cache.)

       Lsof reports the complete paths it finds in the NAME column.  If  lsof  can't  report  all
       components  in  a  path, it reports in the NAME column the file system name, followed by a
       space, two `-' characters, another space, and the name components it  has  located,  sepa-
       rated by the `/' character.

       When lsof is run in repeat mode - i.e., with the -r option specified - the extent to which
       it can report path name components for the same file may vary from cycle to cycle.  That's
       because other running processes can cause the kernel to remove entries from its name cache
       and replace them with others.

       Lsof's use of the kernel name cache to identify the paths of files can lead it  to  report
       incorrect components under some circumstances.  This can happen when the kernel name cache
       uses device and node number as a key (e.g., Linux and SCO  OpenServer)  and  a  key  on	a
       rapidly	changing  file	system is reused.  If the UNIX dialect's kernel doesn't purge the
       name cache entry for a file when it is unlinked, lsof may find a reference  to  the  wrong
       entry in the cache.  The lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)	has more informa-
       tion on this situation.

       Lsof can report path name components for these dialects:

	    BSDI BSD/OS
	    DC/OSx
	    DEC OSF/1, Digital UNIX, Tru64 UNIX
	    FreeBSD
	    HP-UX
	    Linux
	    NetBSD
	    NEXTSTEP
	    OpenBSD
	    Reliant UNIX
	    Caldera OpenUNIX
	    SCO OpenServer
	    SCO UnixWare
	    Solaris

       Lsof can't report path name components for these dialects:

	    AIX

       If you want to know why lsof can't report path name components for some dialects, see  the
       lsof FAQ (The FAQ section gives its location.)

DEVICE CACHE FILE
       Examining  all  members	of the /dev (or /devices) node tree with stat(2) functions can be
       time consuming.	What's more, the information that lsof needs - device number, inode  num-
       ber, and path - rarely changes.

       Consequently,  lsof  normally  maintains  an  ASCII text file of cached /dev (or /devices)
       information (exception: the /proc-based Linux lsof where it's not needed.)  The local sys-
       tem  administrator  who	builds	lsof  can  control  the way the device cache file path is
       formed, selecting from these options:

	    Path from the -D option;
	    Path from an environment variable;
	    System-wide path;
	    Personal path (the default);
	    Personal path, modified by an environment variable.

       Consult the output of the -h, -D? , or -?  help options for the current	state  of  device
       cache support.  The help output lists the default read-mode device cache file path that is
       in effect for the current invocation of lsof.  The -D?  option output lists the	read-only
       and  write device cache file paths, the names of any applicable environment variables, and
       the personal device cache path format.

       Lsof can detect that the current device cache file has been  accidentally  or  maliciously
       modified  by integrity checks, including the computation and verification of a sixteen bit
       Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) sum on the file's	contents.   When  lsof	senses	something
       wrong with the file, it issues a warning and attempts to remove the current cache file and
       create a new copy, but only to a path that the process can legitimately write.

       The path from which a lsof process may attempt to read a device cache file may not be  the
       same  as the path to which it can legitimately write.  Thus when lsof senses that it needs
       to update the device cache file, it may choose a different path for writing  it	from  the
       path from which it read an incorrect or outdated version.

       If  available,  the -Dr option will inhibit the writing of a new device cache file.  (It's
       always available when specified without a path name argument.)

       When a new device is added to the system, the device cache file may need to be  recreated.
       Since  lsof  compares  the  mtime of the device cache file with the mtime and ctime of the
       /dev (or /devices) directory, it usually detects that a new device has been added; in that
       case lsof issues a warning message and attempts to rebuild the device cache file.

       Whenever  lsof  writes  a  device cache file, it sets its ownership to the real UID of the
       executing process, and its permission modes to 0600,  this  restricting	its  reading  and
       writing to the file's owner.

LSOF PERMISSIONS THAT AFFECT DEVICE CACHE FILE ACCESS
       Two  permissions  of  the lsof executable affect its ability to access device cache files.
       The permissions are set by the local system administrator when lsof is installed.

       The first and rarer permission is setuid-root.  It comes into effect  when  lsof  is  exe-
       cuted;  its  effective UID is then root, while its real (i.e., that of the logged-on user)
       UID is not.  The lsof  distribution  recommends	that  versions	for  these  dialects  run
       setuid-root.

	    DC/OSx 1.1 for Pyramid systems
	    Reliant UNIX 5.4[34] for Pyramid systems

       The  second and more common permission is setgid.  It comes into effect when the effective
       group IDentification number (GID) of the lsof process is set to one that can access kernel
       memory devices - e.g., ``kmem'', ``sys'', or ``system''.

       An  lsof process that has setgid permission usually surrenders the permission after it has
       accessed the kernel memory devices.  When it does that, lsof can allow more liberal device
       cache  path formations.	The lsof distribution recommends that versions for these dialects
       run setgid and be allowed to surrender setgid permission.

	    AIX 4.3.[23], 5L, and 5.1
	    Apple Darwin 1.[23] and 1.4 for Power Macintosh systems
	    BSDI BSD/OS 4.1 for Intel-based systems
	    DEC OSF/1, Digital UNIX, Tru64 UNIX 4.0, and 5.[01]
	    FreeBSD 4.[2345] and 5.0 for Intel-based systems
	    HP-UX 11.00
	    NetBSD 1.5 for Alpha, Intel, and SPARC-based systems
	    NEXTSTEP 3.[13] for NEXTSTEP architectures
	    OpenBSD 2.[89] and 3.0 for Intel-based systems
	    Caldera OpenUNIX
	    SCO OpenServer Release 5.0.[46] for Intel-based systems
	    SCO UnixWare 7.1.1 for Intel-based systems
	    Solaris 2.6, 7, 8, and 9 BETA-Refresh

       (Note: lsof for AIX 5L and above needs setuid-root permission if its -X option is used.)

       Lsof for these dialects does not support a device cache, so the permissions given  to  the
       executable don't apply to the device cache file.

	    Linux 2.1.72 and above (/proc-based lsof)

DEVICE CACHE FILE PATH FROM THE -D OPTION
       The  -D	option	provides  limited means for specifying the device cache file path.  Its ?
       function will report the read-only and write device cache file paths that lsof will use.

       When the -D b, r, and u functions are available, you can use  them  to  request	that  the
       cache  file  be built in a specific location (b[path]); read but not rebuilt (r[path]); or
       read and rebuilt (u[path]).  The b, r, and u functions are restricted  under  some  condi-
       tions.  They are restricted when the lsof process is setuid-root.  The path specified with
       the r function is always read-only, even when it is available.

       The b, r, and u functions are also restricted when the lsof process runs setgid	and  lsof
       doesn't	surrender  the	setgid	permission.  (See the LSOF PERMISSIONS THAT AFFECT DEVICE
       CACHE FILE ACCESS section for a list of	implementations  that  normally  don't	surrender
       their setgid permission.)

       A further -D function, i (for ignore), is always available.

       When  available, the b function tells lsof to read device information from the kernel with
       the stat(2) function and build a device cache file at the indicated path.

       When available, the r function tells lsof to read the device cache file,  but  not  update
       it.   When  a  path  argument accompanies -Dr, it names the device cache file path.  The r
       function is always available when it is specified without a path name argument.	 If  lsof
       is  not running setuid-root and surrenders its setgid permission, a path name argument may
       accompany the r function.

       When available, the u function tells lsof to attempt to read  and  use  the  device  cache
       file.   If  it  can't  read the file, or if it finds the contents of the file incorrect or
       outdated, it will read information from the kernel, and attempt to write an  updated  ver-
       sion  of  the  device  cache file, but only to a path it considers legitimate for the lsof
       process effective and real UIDs.

DEVICE CACHE PATH FROM AN ENVIRONMENT VARIABLE
       Lsof's second choice for the device cache file is the contents of the  LSOFDEVCACHE  envi-
       ronment	variable.   It avoids this choice if the lsof process is setuid-root, or the real
       UID of the process is root.

       A further restriction applies to a device cache file  path  taken  from	the  LSOFDEVCACHE
       environment  variable:  lsof  will  not	write a device cache file to the path if the lsof
       process doesn't surrender its setgid permission.  (See the LSOF	PERMISSIONS  THAT  AFFECT
       DEVICE  CACHE  FILE ACCESS section for information on implementations that don't surrender
       their setgid permission.)

       The local system administrator can disable the use of the LSOFDEVCACHE  environment  vari-
       able  or  change its name when building lsof.  Consult the output of -D?  for the environ-
       ment variable's name.

SYSTEM-WIDE DEVICE CACHE PATH
       The local system administrator may choose to have a system-wide	device	cache  file  when
       building lsof.  That file will generally be constructed by a special system administration
       procedure when the system is booted or when the contents of /dev or /devices) changes.  If
       defined, it is lsof's third device cache file path choice.

       You can tell that a system-wide device cache file is in effect for your local installation
       by examining the lsof help option output - i.e., the output from the -h or -?  option.

       Lsof will never write to the system-wide device cache file path by default.   It  must  be
       explicitly  named  with	a  -D function in a root-owned procedure.  Once the file has been
       written,  the  procedure  must  change  its  permission	modes  to  0644  (owner-read  and
       owner-write, group-read, and other-read).

PERSONAL DEVICE CACHE PATH (DEFAULT)
       The  default  device  cache file path of the lsof distribution is one recorded in the home
       directory of the real UID that executes lsof.  Added to the home  directory  is	a  second
       path component of the form .lsof_hostname.

       This  is  lsof's  fourth  device cache file path choice, and is usually the default.  If a
       system-wide device cache file path was defined when lsof was  built,  this  fourth  choice
       will  be applied when lsof can't find the system-wide device cache file.  This is the only
       time lsof uses two paths when reading the device cache file.

       The hostname part of the second component is the base  name  of	the  executing	host,  as
       returned  by  gethostname(2).  The base name is defined to be the characters preceding the
       first `.'  in the gethostname(2) output, or all the gethostname(2) output if  it  contains
       no `.'.

       The  device  cache file belongs to the user ID and is readable and writable by the user ID
       alone - i.e., its modes are 0600.  Each distinct real user ID on a given  host  that  exe-
       cutes  lsof has a distinct device cache file.  The hostname part of the path distinguishes
       device cache files in an NFS-mounted home directory into  which	device	cache  files  are
       written from several different hosts.

       The  personal  device cache file path formed by this method represents a device cache file
       that lsof will attempt to read, and will attempt to write should it not	exist  or  should
       its contents be incorrect or outdated.

       The -Dr option without a path name argument will inhibit the writing of a new device cache
       file.

       The -D?	option will list the format specification for constructing  the  personal  device
       cache  file.   The  conversions	used  in  the  format  specification are described in the
       00DCACHE file of the lsof distribution.

MODIFIED PERSONAL DEVICE CACHE PATH
       If this option is defined by the local system administrator when lsof is built, the  LSOF-
       PERSDCPATH  environment	variable  contents may be used to add a component of the personal
       device cache file path.

       The LSOFPERSDCPATH variable contents are inserted in the path at the place marked  by  the
       local  system  administrator with the ``%p'' conversion in the HASPERSDC format specifica-
       tion of the dialect's machine.h header file.  (It's placed right after the home	directory
       in the default lsof distribution.)

       Thus,   for   example,	if  LSOFPERSDCPATH  contains  ``LSOF'',  the  home  directory  is
       ``/Homes/abe'', the host name is ``vic.cc.purdue.edu'', and the HASPERSDC  format  is  the
       default (``%h/%p.lsof_%L''), the modified personal device cache file path is:

	    /Homes/abe/LSOF/.lsof_vic

       The LSOFPERSDCPATH environment variable is ignored when the lsof process is setuid-root or
       when the real UID of the process is root.

       Lsof will not write to a modified personal device cache file  path  if  the  lsof  process
       doesn't	surrender  setgid permission.  (See the LSOF PERMISSIONS THAT AFFECT DEVICE CACHE
       FILE ACCESS section for a list of implementations that normally don't surrender their set-
       gid permission.)

       If, for example, you want to create a sub-directory of personal device cache file paths by
       using the LSOFPERSDCPATH environment variable to name it, and lsof doesn't  surrender  its
       setgid  permission,  you will have to allow lsof to create device cache files at the stan-
       dard personal path and move them to your subdirectory with shell commands.

       The local system administrator may: disable this option when lsof  is  built;  change  the
       name  of  the  environment  variable  from  LSOFPERSDCPATH  to  something else; change the
       HASPERSDC format to include the personal path component in another place; or  exclude  the
       personal  path component entirely.  Consult the output of the -D?  option for the environ-
       ment variable's name and the HASPERSDC format specification.

DIAGNOSTICS
       Errors are identified with messages on the standard error file.

       Lsof returns a one(1) if any error was detected, including the failure to locate  command
       names,  file  names,  Internet addresses or files, login names, NFS files, PIDs, PGIDs, or
       UIDs it was asked to list.  If the -V option is specified, lsof will indicate  the  search
       items it failed to list.

       It  returns a zero(0) if no errors were detected and if it was able to list some informa-
       tion about all the specified search arguments.

       When lsof cannot open access to /dev (or /devices) or one of its  subdirectories,  or  get
       information  on	a  file  in them with stat(2), it issues a warning message and continues.
       That lsof will issue warning messages about inaccessible files in /dev  (or  /devices)  is
       indicated  in  its  help output - requested with the -h or >B -?  options -  with the mes-
       sage:

	    Inaccessible /dev warnings are enabled.

       The warning message may be suppressed with the -w option.  It  may  also  have  been  sup-
       pressed	by  the system administrator when lsof was compiled by the setting of the WARNDE-
       VACCESS definition.  In this case, the output from the help options will include the  mes-
       sage:

	    Inaccessible /dev warnings are disabled.

       Inaccessible  device  warning  messages usually disappear after lsof has created a working
       device cache file.

EXAMPLES
       For a more extensive set of examples, documented more fully, see the 00QUICKSTART file  of
       the lsof distribution.

       To list all open files, use:

	      lsof

       To list all open Internet, x.25 (HP-UX), and UNIX domain files, use:

	      lsof -i -U

       To list all open IPv4 network files in use by the process whose PID is 1234, use:

	      lsof -i 4 -a -p 1234

       Presuming the UNIX dialect supports IPv6, to list only open IPv6 network files, use:

	      lsof -i 6

       To  list all files using any protocol on ports 513, 514, or 515 of host wonderland.cc.pur-
       due.edu, use:

	      lsof -i @wonderland.cc.purdue.edu:513-515

       To list all files using any protocol on any port of mace.cc.purdue.edu  (cc.purdue.edu  is
       the default domain), use:

	      lsof -i @mace

       To list all open files for login name ``abe'', or user ID 1234, or process 456, or process
       123, or process 789, use:

	      lsof -p 456,123,789 -u 1234,abe

       To list all open files on device /dev/hd4, use:

	      lsof /dev/hd4

       To find the process that has /u/abe/foo open, use:

	      lsof /u/abe/foo

       To send a SIGHUP to the processes that have /u/abe/bar open, use:

	      kill -HUP `lsof -t /u/abe/bar`

       To find any open file, including an open UNIX domain socket file, with the name	/dev/log,
       use:

	      lsof /dev/log

       To  find  processes  with  open	files on the NFS file system named /nfs/mount/point whose
       server is inaccessible, and presuming your mount table  supplies  the  device  number  for
       /nfs/mount/point, use:

	      lsof -b /nfs/mount/point

       To do the preceding search with warning messages suppressed, use:

	      lsof -bw /nfs/mount/point

       To ignore the device cache file, use:

	      lsof -Di

       To obtain PID and command name field output for each process, file descriptor, file device
       number, and file inode number for each file of each process, use:

	      lsof -FpcfDi

       To list the files at descriptors 1 and 3 of every process running  the  lsof  command  for
       login ID ``abe'' every 10 seconds, use:

	      lsof -c lsof -a -d 1 -d 3 -u abe -r10

       To  list the current working directory of processes running a command that is exactly four
       characters long and has an 'o' or 'O' in character three, use this regular expression form
       of the -c c option:

	      lsof -c /^..o.$/i -a -d cwd

       To find an IP version 4 socket file by its associated numeric dot-form address, use:

	      lsof -i@128.210.15.17

       To  find  an IP version 6 socket file (when the UNIX dialect supports IPv6) by its associ-
       ated numeric colon-form address, use:

	      lsof -i@[0:1:2:3:4:5:6:7]

       To find an IP version 6 socket file (when the UNIX dialect supports IPv6) by an associated
       numeric	colon-form address that has a run of zeroes in it - e.g., the loop-back address -
       use:

	      lsof -i@[::1]

BUGS
       Since lsof reads kernel memory in its search for open files, rapid changes in kernel  mem-
       ory may produce unpredictable results.

       When  a	file  has  multiple  record  locks, the lock status character (following the file
       descriptor) is derived from a test of the first lock structure, not from  any  combination
       of the individual record locks that might be described by multiple lock structures.

       Lsof  can't  search  for  files	with  restrictive access permissions by name unless it is
       installed with root set-UID permission.	Otherwise it is limited to searching for files to
       which its user or its set-GID group (if any) has access permission.

       The  display  of  the  destination address of a raw socket (e.g., for ping) depends on the
       UNIX operating system.  Some dialects store the destination address in  the  raw  socket's
       protocol control block, some do not.

       Lsof  can't  always represent Solaris device numbers in the same way that ls(1) does.  For
       example, the major and minor device numbers that the lstat(2) and stat(2) functions report
       for the directory on which CD-ROM files are mounted (typically /cdrom) are not the same as
       the ones that it reports for the device on  which  CD-ROM  files  are  mounted  (typically
       /dev/sr0).  (Lsof reports the directory numbers.)

       The support for /proc file systems is available only for BSD, DEC OSF/1, Digital UNIX, and
       Tru64 UNIX dialects, Linux, and dialects derived from SYSV R4  -  e.g.,	FreeBSD,  NetBSD,
       OpenBSD, Solaris, UnixWare.

       Some  /proc  file  items - device number, inode number, and file size - are unavailable in
       some dialects.  Searching for files in a /proc file system may require that the full  path
       name be specified.

       No  text  (txt) file descriptors are displayed for Linux processes.  All entries for files
       other than the current working directory, the root directory, and numerical file  descrip-
       tors are labeled mem descriptors.

       Lsof can't search for DEC OSF/1, Digital UNIX, and Tru64 UNIX named pipes by name, because
       their kernel implementation of lstat(2) returns an improper  device  number  for  a  named
       pipe.

       Lsof  can't  report  fully  or  correctly on HP-UX 9.01, 10.20, and 11.00 locks because of
       insufficient access to kernel data or errors in the kernel data.  See the  lsof	FAQ  (The
       FAQ section gives its location.)  for details.

       The  AIX SMT file type is a fabrication.  It's made up for file structures whose type(15)
       isn't defined in the AIX /usr/include/sys/file.h header file.  One way to create such file
       structures is to run X clients with the DISPLAY variable set to ``:0.0''.

       The  +|-f[cfgGn]  option is not supported under /proc-based Linux lsof, because it doesn't
       read kernel structures from kernel memory.

ENVIRONMENT
       Lsof may access these environment variables.

       LSOFDEVCACHE	 defines the path to a device cache file.  See the DEVICE CACHE PATH FROM
			 AN ENVIRONMENT VARIABLE section for more information.

       LSOFPERSDCPATH	 defines  the  middle  component of a modified personal device cache file
			 path.	See the MODIFIED PERSONAL DEVICE  CACHE  PATH  section	for  more
			 information.

FAQ
       Frequently-asked  questions  and their answers (an FAQ) are available in the 00FAQ file of
       the lsof distribution.

       That  file   is	 also	available   via   anonymous   ftp   from   vic.cc.purdue.edu   at
       pub/tools/unix/lsofFAQ.	The URL is:

	      ftp://vic.cc.purdue.edu/pub/tools/unix/lsof/FAQ

FILES
       /dev/kmem	 kernel virtual memory device

       /dev/mem 	 physical memory device

       /dev/swap	 system paging device

       .lsof_hostname	 lsof's  device  cache file (The suffix, hostname, is the first component
			 of the host's name returned by gethostname(2).)

AUTHORS
       Lsof was written by Victor A. Abell <abe@purdue.edu> of Purdue  University.   Many  others
       have contributed to lsof.  They're listed in the 00CREDITS file of the lsof distribution.

DISTRIBUTION
       The  latest  distribution of lsof is available via anonymous ftp from the host vic.cc.pur-
       due.edu.  You'll find the lsof distribution in the pub/tools/unix/lsof directory.

       You can also use this URL:

	      ftp://vic.cc.purdue.edu/pub/tools/unix/lsof

       Lsof is also mirrored elsewhere.  When you access  vic.cc.purdue.edu  and  change  to  its
       pub/tools/unix/lsof  directory,	you'll	be  given  a  list  of	some  mirror  sites.  The
       pub/tools/unix/lsof directory also contains a more complete list in its mirrors file.  Use
       mirrors with caution - not all mirrors always have the latest lsof revision.

       Some  pre-compiled  Lsof  executables are available on vic.cc.purdue.edu, but their use is
       discouraged - it's better that you build your own from the sources.  If you feel you  must
       use a pre-compiled executable, please read the cautions that appear in the README files of
       the pub/tools/unix/lsof/binaries subdirectories and in the 00* files of the distribution.

       More information on the lsof distribution can be found in its README.lsof_<version>  file.
       If you intend to get the lsof distribution and build it, please read README.lsof_<version>
       and the other 00* files of the distribution before sending questions to the author.

SEE ALSO
       Lsof versions 2 and 3 have been tested under older UNIX dialects.  They are available  via
       anonymous ftp from vic.cc.purdue.edu in the pub/tools/unix/lsof/OLD directory.

       access(2),  awk(1),  crash(1),  fattach(3C),  ff(1),  fstat(8),	fuser(1), gethostname(2),
       isprint(3), kill(1), lstat(2),  modload(8),  mount(8),  netstat(1),  ofiles(8L),  perl(1),
       ps(1), readlink(2), stat(2), uname(1).

					  Revision-4.63 				  LSOF(8)


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