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kill(1) [redhat man page]

KILL(1) 						     Linux Programmer's Manual							   KILL(1)

NAME
kill - terminate a process SYNOPSIS
kill [ -s signal | -p ] [ -a ] [ -- ] pid ... kill -l [ signal ] DESCRIPTION
The command kill sends the specified signal to the specified process or process group. If no signal is specified, the TERM signal is sent. The TERM signal will kill processes which do not catch this signal. For other processes, it may be necessary to use the KILL (9) signal, since this signal cannot be caught. Most modern shells have a builtin kill function, with a usage rather similar to that of the command described here. The `-a' and `-p' options, and the possibility to specify pids by command name is a local extension. OPTIONS
pid... Specify the list of processes that kill should signal. Each pid can be one of five things: n where n is larger than 0. The process with pid n will be signaled. 0 All processes in the current process group are signaled. -1 All processes with pid larger than 1 will be signaled. -n where n is larger than 1. All processes in process group n are signaled. When an argument of the form `-n' is given, and it is meant to denote a process group, either the signal must be specified first, or the argument must be preceded by a `--' option, otherwise it will be taken as the signal to send. commandname All processes invoked using that name will be signaled. -s signal Specify the signal to send. The signal may be given as a signal name or number. -l Print a list of signal names. These are found in /usr/include/linux/signal.h -a Do not restrict the commandname-to-pid conversion to processes with the same uid as the present process. -p Specify that kill should only print the process id (pid) of the named processes, and not send any signals. SEE ALSO
bash(1), tcsh(1), kill(2), sigvec(2), signal(7) AUTHOR
Taken from BSD 4.4. The ability to translate process names to process ids was added by Salvatore Valente <svalente@mit.edu>. Linux Utilities 14 October 1994 KILL(1)

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KILL(2) 						      BSD System Calls Manual							   KILL(2)

NAME
kill -- send signal to a process LIBRARY
Standard C Library (libc, -lc) SYNOPSIS
#include <signal.h> int kill(pid_t pid, int sig); DESCRIPTION
The kill() function sends the signal given by sig to pid, a process or a group of processes. sig may be one of the signals specified in sigaction(2) or it may be 0, in which case error checking is performed but no signal is actually sent. This can be used to check the valid- ity of pid. For a process to have permission to send a signal to a process designated by pid, the real or effective user ID of the receiving process must match that of the sending process or the user must have appropriate privileges (such as given by a set-user-ID program or the user is the super-user). A single exception is the signal SIGCONT, which may always be sent to any descendant of the current process. If pid is greater than zero: sig is sent to the process whose ID is equal to pid. If pid is zero: sig is sent to all processes whose process group ID is equal to the process group ID of the sender, and for which the process has permission; this is a variant of killpg(3). If pid is -1: If the user has super-user privileges, the signal is sent to all processes excluding system processes and the process sending the signal. If the user is not the super user, the signal is sent to all processes with the same uid as the user excluding the process sending the signal. No error is returned if any process could be signaled. For compatibility with System V, if the process number is negative but not -1, the signal is sent to all processes whose process group ID is equal to the absolute value of the process number. This is a variant of killpg(3). RETURN VALUES
Upon successful completion, a value of 0 is returned. Otherwise, a value of -1 is returned and errno is set to indicate the error. ERRORS
kill() will fail and no signal will be sent if: [EINVAL] sig is not a valid signal number. [ESRCH] No process can be found corresponding to that specified by pid. [ESRCH] The process id was given as 0 but the sending process does not have a process group. [EPERM] The sending process is not the super-user and its effective user id does not match the effective user-id of the receiving process. When signaling a process group, this error is returned if any members of the group could not be signaled. SEE ALSO
getpgrp(2), getpid(2), sigaction(2), killpg(3), signal(7) STANDARDS
The kill() function is expected to conform to ISO/IEC 9945-1:1990 (``POSIX.1''). BSD
April 19, 1994 BSD

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