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LS(1)					       FSF					    LS(1)

       ls - list directory contents

       ls [OPTION]... [FILE]...

       List  information about the FILEs (the current directory by default).  Sort entries alpha-
       betically if none of -cftuSUX nor --sort.

       Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too.

       -a, --all
	      do not hide entries starting with .

       -A, --almost-all
	      do not list implied . and ..

	      print the author of each file

       -b, --escape
	      print octal escapes for nongraphic characters

	      use SIZE-byte blocks

       -B, --ignore-backups
	      do not list implied entries ending with ~

       -c     with -lt: sort by, and show, ctime (time of last modification of file status infor-
	      mation) with -l: show ctime and sort by name otherwise: sort by ctime

       -C     list entries by columns

	      control  whether	color  is  used  to distinguish file types.  WHEN may be `never',
	      `always', or `auto'

       -d, --directory
	      list directory entries instead of contents

       -D, --dired
	      generate output designed for Emacs' dired mode

       -f     do not sort, enable -aU, disable -lst

       -F, --classify
	      append indicator (one of */=@|) to entries

	      across -x, commas -m, horizontal -x, long -l, single-column -1, verbose -l,  verti-
	      cal -C

	      like -l --time-style=full-iso

       -g     like -l, but do not list owner

       -G, --no-group
	      inhibit display of group information

       -h, --human-readable
	      print sizes in human readable format (e.g., 1K 234M 2G)

       --si   likewise, but use powers of 1000 not 1024

       -H, --dereference-command-line
	      follow symbolic links on the command line

       --indicator-style=WORD append indicator with style WORD to entry names:
	      none (default), classify (-F), file-type (-p)

       -i, --inode
	      print index number of each file

       -I, --ignore=PATTERN
	      do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN

       -k     like --block-size=1K

       -l     use a long listing format

       -L, --dereference
	      when  showing  file  information for a symbolic link, show information for the file
	      the link references rather than for the link itself

       -m     fill width with a comma separated list of entries

       -n, --numeric-uid-gid
	      like -l, but list numeric UIDs and GIDs

       -N, --literal
	      print raw entry names (don't treat e.g. control characters specially)

       -o     like -l, but do not list group information

       -p, --file-type
	      append indicator (one of /=@|) to entries

       -q, --hide-control-chars
	      print ? instead of non graphic characters

	      show non graphic characters as-is (default unless program is `ls' and output  is	a

       -Q, --quote-name
	      enclose entry names in double quotes

	      use  quoting  style  WORD for entry names: literal, locale, shell, shell-always, c,

       -r, --reverse
	      reverse order while sorting

       -R, --recursive
	      list subdirectories recursively

       -s, --size
	      print size of each file, in blocks

       -S     sort by file size

	      extension -X, none -U, size -S, time -t, version -v

	      status -c, time -t, atime -u, access -u, use -u

	      show time as WORD instead of modification time: atime, access, use, ctime  or  sta-
	      tus; use specified time as sort key if --sort=time

	      show times using style STYLE: full-iso, long-iso, iso, locale, +FORMAT

	      FORMAT  is  interpreted  like `date'; if FORMAT is FORMAT1<newline>FORMAT2, FORMAT1
	      applies to non-recent files and FORMAT2 to recent files; if STYLE is prefixed  with
	      `posix-', STYLE takes effect only outside the POSIX locale

       -t     sort by modification time

       -T, --tabsize=COLS
	      assume tab stops at each COLS instead of 8

       -u     with -lt: sort by, and show, access time with -l: show access time and sort by name
	      otherwise: sort by access time

       -U     do not sort; list entries in directory order

       -v     sort by version

       -w, --width=COLS
	      assume screen width instead of current value

       -x     list entries by lines instead of by columns

       -X     sort alphabetically by entry extension

       -1     list one file per line

       --help display this help and exit

	      output version information and exit

       SIZE may be (or may be an integer optionally followed by) one of  following:  kB  1000,	K
       1024, MB 1,000,000, M 1,048,576, and so on for G, T, P, E, Z, Y.

       By  default, color is not used to distinguish types of files.  That is equivalent to using
       --color=none.  Using the --color option without the optional WHEN argument  is  equivalent
       to  using --color=always.  With --color=auto, color codes are output only if standard out-
       put is connected to a terminal (tty).

       Written by Richard Stallman and David MacKenzie.

       Report bugs to <bug-coreutils@gnu.org>.

       Copyright (C) 2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
       This is free software; see the source for copying conditions.  There is NO  warranty;  not

       The  full documentation for ls is maintained as a Texinfo manual.  If the info and ls pro-
       grams are properly installed at your site, the command

	      info ls

       should give you access to the complete manual.

ls (coreutils) 4.5.3			  February 2003 				    LS(1)
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