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RedHat 9 (Linux i386) - man page for fuser (redhat section 1)

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FUSER(1)				  User Commands 				 FUSER(1)

       fuser - identify processes using files or sockets

       fuser [-a|-s] [-4|-6] [-n space] [-signal] [-kimuv] name ...
       fuser -l
       fuser -V

       fuser  displays	the  PIDs of processes using the specified files or file systems.  In the
       default display mode, each file name is followed by a letter denoting the type of access:

	      c      current directory.

	      e      executable being run.

	      f      open file. f is omitted in default display mode.

	      r      root directory.

	      m      mmap'ed file or shared library.

       fuser returns a non-zero return code if none of the specified files is accessed or in case
       of a fatal error. If at least one access has been found, fuser returns zero.

       In  order to look up processes using TCP and UDP sockets, the corresponding name space has
       to be selected with the -n option.  By default fuser will look in both IPv6 and IPv4 sock-
       ets.   To  change  the  default, behavour, use the -4 and -6 options. The socket(s) can be
       specified by the local and remote port, and the remote address. All fields  are	optional,
       but commas in front of missing fields must be present:


       Either symbolic or numeric values can be used for IP addresses and port numbers.

       -a     Show  all  files	specified  on  the  command line. By default, only files that are
	      accessed by at least one process are shown.

       -k     Kill processes accessing the file. Unless changed with -signal, SIGKILL is sent. An
	      fuser process never kills itself, but may kill other fuser processes. The effective
	      user ID of the process executing fuser is set to its real user ID before attempting
	      to kill.

       -i     Ask  the	user  for  confirmation before killing a process. This option is silently
	      ignored if -k is not present too.

       -l     List all known signal names.

       -m     name specifies a file on a mounted file system or a block device that  is  mounted.
	      All  processes accessing files on that file system are listed.  If a directory file
	      is specified, it is automatically changed to name/. to use  any  file  system  that
	      might be mounted on that directory.

       -n space
	      Select  a different name space. The name spaces file (file names, the default), udp
	      (local UDP ports), and tcp (local TCP ports) are supported.  For ports, either  the
	      port  number  or	the symbolic name can be specified. If there is no ambiguity, the
	      shortcut notation name/space (e.g. name/proto) can be used.

       -s     Silent operation. -u and -v are ignored in this mode.  -a must not be used with -s.

	      Use the specified signal instead of SIGKILL when killing processes. Signals can  be
	      specified either by name (e.g. -HUP) or by number (e.g. -1).

       -u     Append the user name of the process owner to each PID.

       -v     Verbose mode. Processes are shown in a ps-like style. The fields PID, USER and COM-
	      MAND are similar to ps. ACCESS shows how the process  accesses  the  file.  If  the
	      access  is  by  the  kernel (e.g. in the case of a mount point, a swap file, etc.),
	      kernel is shown instead of the PID.

       -V     Display version information.

       -4     Search only for IPv4 sockets.  This option must not be used with the -6 option  and
	      only has an effect with the tcp and udp namespaces.

       -6     Search  only for IPv6 sockets.  This option must not be used with the -4 option and
	      only has an effect with the tcp and udp namespaces.

       -      Reset all options and set the signal back to SIGKILL.

       /proc	 location of the proc file system

       fuser -km /home kills all processes accessing the file system /home in any way.

       if fuser -s /dev/ttyS1; then :; else something; fi invokes something if no  other  process
       is using /dev/ttyS1.

       fuser telnet/tcp shows all processes at the (local) TELNET port.

       Processes  accessing  the  same file or file system several times in the same way are only
       shown once.

       If the same object is specified several times on the command line, some of  those  entries
       may be ignored.

       fuser may only be able to gather partial information unless run with privileges. As a con-
       sequence, files opened by processes belonging to other users may not be	listed	and  exe-
       cutables may be classified as mapped only.

       Installing  fuser  SUID	root will avoid problems associated with partial information, but
       may be undesirable for security and privacy reasons.

       udp and tcp name spaces, and UNIX domain sockets can't be searched with kernels older than

       udp  and  tcp  currently  work with IPv6 and IPv4, but the address fields can only be IPv4

       Accesses by the kernel are only shown with the -v option.

       The -k option only works on processes. If the user is the  kernel,  fuser  will	print  an
       advice, but take no action beyond that.

       Werner Almesberger <Werner.Almesberger@epfl.ch>

       kill(1), killall(1), lsof(8), ps(1), kill(2)

Linux					 October 25, 1999				 FUSER(1)
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