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fetchmail(1)									     fetchmail(1)

       fetchmail - fetch mail from a POP, IMAP, ETRN, or ODMR-capable server

       fetchmail [option...] [mailserver...]

       fetchmail  is  a  mail-retrieval  and  forwarding  utility;  it	fetches  mail from remote
       mailservers and forwards it to your local (client) machine's  delivery  system.	 You  can
       then  handle  the  retrieved mail using normal mail user agents such as mutt(1), elm(1) or
       Mail(1).  The fetchmail utility can be run in a daemon mode to repeatedly poll one or more
       systems at a specified interval.

       The  fetchmail  program	can  gather  mail from servers supporting any of the common mail-
       retrieval protocols: POP2, POP3, IMAP2bis, IMAP4, and IMAPrev1.	It can also use the ESMTP
       ETRN  extension	and ODMR.  (The RFCs describing all these protocols are listed at the end
       of this manual page.)

       While fetchmail is primarily intended to be used over on-demand TCP/IP links (such as SLIP
       or  PPP	connections),  it  may also be useful as a message transfer agent for sites which
       refuse for security reasons to permit (sender-initiated) SMTP transactions with sendmail.

       As each message is retrieved fetchmail normally delivers it via SMTP to	port  25  on  the
       machine it is running on (localhost), just as though it were being passed in over a normal
       TCP/IP link.  The mail will then be delivered locally via your system's MDA (Mail Delivery
       Agent,  usually	sendmail(8)  but your system may use a different one such as smail, mmdf,
       exim, or qmail).  All the delivery-control mechanisms (such as  .forward  files)  normally
       available through your system MDA and local delivery agents will therefore work.

       If  no  port  25  listener is available, but your fetchmail configuration was told about a
       reliable local MDA, it will use that MDA for  local  delivery  instead.	 At  build  time,
       fetchmail normally looks for executable procmail(1) and sendmail(1) binaries.

       If  the program fetchmailconf is available, it will assist you in setting up and editing a
       fetchmailrc configuration.  It runs under X and requires that the language Python and  the
       Tk  toolkit  be present on your system.	If you are first setting up fetchmail for single-
       user mode, it is recommended that you use Novice mode.  Expert mode provides complete con-
       trol  of  fetchmail  configuration, including the multidrop features.  In either case, the
       `Autoprobe' button will tell you the most capable protocol a  given  mailserver	supports,
       and warn you of potential problems with that server.

       The  behavior  of  fetchmail is controlled by command-line options and a run control file,
       ~/.fetchmailrc, the syntax of which we describe in a later section (this file is what  the
       fetchmailconf program edits).  Command-line options override ~/.fetchmailrc declarations.

       Each  server  name  that  you  specify  following  the options on the command line will be
       queried.  If you don't specify any servers on the command line, each `poll' entry in  your
       ~/.fetchmailrc file will be queried.

       To  facilitate  the  use  of fetchmail in scripts and pipelines, it returns an appropriate
       exit code upon termination -- see EXIT CODES below.

       The following options modify the behavior of fetchmail.	It is seldom necessary to specify
       any of these once you have a working .fetchmailrc file set up.

       Almost  all  options  have  a corresponding keyword which can be used to declare them in a
       .fetchmailrc file.

       Some special options are not covered here, but  are  documented	instead  in  sections  on
       AUTHENTICATION and DAEMON MODE which follow.

   General Options
       -V | --version
	      Displays the version information for your copy of fetchmail.  No mail fetch is per-
	      formed.  Instead, for each server specified, all the option information that  would
	      be  computed  if	fetchmail  were connecting to that server is displayed.  Any non-
	      printables in passwords or other string  names  are  shown  as  backslashed  C-like
	      escape  sequences.   This  option is useful for verifying that your options are set
	      the way you want them.

       -c | --check
	      Return a status code to indicate whether there is mail  waiting,	without  actually
	      fetching	or  deleting  mail  (see EXIT CODES below).  This option turns off daemon
	      mode (in which it would be useless).  It doesn't play well with queries to multiple
	      sites,  and doesn't work with ETRN or ODMR.  It will return a false positive if you
	      leave read but undeleted mail in your server mailbox and your fetch protocol  can't
	      tell kept messages from new ones.  This means it will work with IMAP, not work with
	      POP2, and may occasionally flake out under POP3.

       -s | --silent
	      Silent mode.  Suppresses all progress/status messages that are normally  echoed  to
	      standard	error  during a fetch (but does not suppress actual error messages).  The
	      --verbose option overrides this.

       -v | --verbose
	      Verbose mode.  All control messages passed between fetchmail and the mailserver are
	      echoed  to  stdout.  Overrides --silent.	Doubling this option (-v -v) causes extra
	      diagnostic information to be printed.

   Disposal Options
       -a | --all
	      (Keyword: fetchall) Retrieve both old (seen) and new messages from the  mailserver.
	      The  default is to fetch only messages the server has not marked seen.  Under POP3,
	      this option also forces the use of RETR rather than TOP.	Note that POP2	retrieval
	      behaves  as  though --all is always on (see RETRIEVAL FAILURE MODES below) and this
	      option does not work with ETRN or ODMR.

       -k | --keep
	      (Keyword: keep) Keep retrieved messages on the remote mailserver.   Normally,  mes-
	      sages are deleted from the folder on the mailserver after they have been retrieved.
	      Specifying the keep option causes retrieved messages to remain in  your  folder  on
	      the mailserver.  This option does not work with ETRN or ODMR.

       -K | --nokeep
	      (Keyword:  nokeep)  Delete  retrieved  messages  from  the remote mailserver.  This
	      option forces retrieved mail to be deleted.  It may be useful if you have specified
	      a  default  of  keep  in your .fetchmailrc.  This option is forced on with ETRN and

       -F | --flush
	      POP3/IMAP only.  Delete old (previously retrieved)  messages  from  the  mailserver
	      before retrieving new messages. This option does not work with ETRN or ODMR.  Warn-
	      ing: if your local MTA hangs and fetchmail is aborted, the next time you run fetch-
	      mail,  it will delete mail that was never delivered to you.  What you probably want
	      is the default setting: if you don't specify `-k', then  fetchmail  will	automati-
	      cally delete messages after successful delivery.

   Protocol and Query Options
       -p <proto> | --protocol <proto>
	      (Keyword:  proto[col])  Specify  the  protocol  to  use when communicating with the
	      remote mailserver.  If no protocol is specified, the default is AUTO.  proto may be
	      one of the following:

	      AUTO   Tries  IMAP, POP3, and POP2 (skipping any of these for which support has not
		     been compiled in).

	      POP2   Post Office Protocol 2

	      POP3   Post Office Protocol 3

	      APOP   Use POP3 with old-fashioned MD5-challenge authentication.

	      RPOP   Use POP3 with RPOP authentication.

	      KPOP   Use POP3 with Kerberos V4 authentication on port 1109.

	      SDPS   Use POP3 with Demon Internet's SDPS extensions.

	      IMAP   IMAP2bis, IMAP4, or IMAP4rev1 (fetchmail autodetects their capabilities).

	      ETRN   Use the ESMTP ETRN option.

	      ODMR   Use the the On-Demand Mail Relay ESMTP profile.

       All these alternatives work in basically the same way (communicating with standard  server
       daemons	to fetch mail already delivered to a mailbox on the server) except ETRN and ODMR.
       The ETRN mode allows you to ask a compliant ESMTP server (such as BSD sendmail at  release
       8.8.0  or  higher) to immediately open a sender-SMTP connection to your client machine and
       begin forwarding any items addressed to your client machine in the server's queue of unde-
       livered mail.   The ODMR mode requires an ODMR-capable server and works similarly to ETRN,
       except that it does not require the client machine to have a static DNS.

       -U | --uidl
	      (Keyword: uidl) Force UIDL use  (effective  only	with  POP3).   Force  client-side
	      tracking	of  `newness'  of  messages (UIDL stands for ``unique ID listing'' and is
	      described in RFC1725).  Use with `keep' to use a mailbox as a baby news drop for	a
	      group  of  users.  The  fact that seen messages are skipped is logged, unless error
	      logging is done through syslog while running in daemon mode.

       -P <portnumber> | --port <portnumber>
	      (Keyword: port) The port option permits you to specify a TCP/IP port to connect on.
	      This  option  will  seldom  be  necessary as all the supported protocols have well-
	      established default port numbers.

       --principal <principal>
	      (Keyword: principal) The principal option permits you to specify a service  princi-
	      pal  for	mutual	authentication.  This is applicable to POP3 or IMAP with Kerberos

       -t <seconds> | --timeout <seconds>
	      (Keyword: timeout) The timeout option allows you to set a server-nonresponse  time-
	      out  in  seconds.   If  a mailserver does not send a greeting message or respond to
	      commands for the given number of seconds, fetchmail will hang up	on  it.   Without
	      such  a  timeout	fetchmail  might hang up indefinitely trying to fetch mail from a
	      down host.  This would be particularly annoying for a fetchmail  running	in  back-
	      ground.	There  is  a  default timeout which fetchmail -V will report.  If a given
	      connection receives too many timeouts in succession,  fetchmail  will  consider  it
	      wedged  and  stop retrying, the calling user will be notified by email if this hap-

       --plugin <command>
	      (Keyword: plugin) The plugin option allows you to use an external program to estab-
	      lish  the  TCP  connection.   This is useful if you want to use socks, SSL, ssh, or
	      need some special firewalling setup.  The program will be looked up  in  $PATH  and
	      can  optionally  be  passed  the hostname and port as arguments using "%h" and "%p"
	      respectively (note that the interpolation logic  is  rather  primitive,  and  these
	      token  must  be  bounded	by  whitespace	or beginning of string or end of string).
	      Fetchmail will write to the plugin's stdin and read from the plugin's stdout.

       --plugout <command>
	      (Keyword: plugout) Identical to the plugin option above, but this one is	used  for
	      the  SMTP  connections  (which  will probably not need it, so it has been separated
	      from plugin).

       -r <name> | --folder <name>
	      (Keyword: folder[s]) Causes a specified non-default mail folder on  the  mailserver
	      (or  comma-separated  list  of  folders) to be retrieved.  The syntax of the folder
	      name is server-dependent.  This option is not available under POP3, ETRN, or ODMR.

	      (Keyword: tracepolls) Tell fetchail to poll trace information in the form  `polling
	      %s  account  %s' to the Received line it generates, where the %s parts are replaced
	      by the user's remote name and the poll label (the  Received  header  also  normally
	      includes the server's truename).	This can be used to facilate mail filtering based
	      on the account it is being received from.

       --ssl  (Keyword: ssl) Causes the connection to the mail server to be  encrypted	via  SSL.
	      Connect  to  the server using the specified base protocol over a connection secured
	      by SSL.  SSL support must be present at the server.  If no port is  specified,  the
	      connection  is attempted to the well known port of the SSL version of the base pro-
	      tocol.  This is generally a different port than the port used by the base protocol.
	      For  IMAP, this is port 143 for the clear protocol and port 993 for the SSL secured

       --sslcert <name>
	      (Keyword: sslcert) Specifies the file name of the client side public  SSL  certifi-
	      cate.  Some SSL encrypted servers may require client side keys and certificates for
	      authentication.  In most cases, this is optional.  This specifies the  location  of
	      the  public  key certificate to be presented to the server at the time the SSL ses-
	      sion is established.  It is not required (but may be provided) if the  server  does
	      not  require  it.  Some servers may require it, some servers may request it but not
	      require it, and some servers may not request it at all.  It may be the same file as
	      the private key (combined key and certificate file) but this is not recommended.

       --sslkey <name>
	      (Keyword: sslkey) Specifies the file name of the client side private SSL key.  Some
	      SSL encrypted servers may require client side keys and certificates for authentica-
	      tion.  In most cases, this is optional.  This specifies the location of the private
	      key used to sign transactions with the server at the time the SSL session is estab-
	      lished.	It  is	not required (but may be provided) if the server does not require
	      it.  Some servers may require it, some servers may request it but not  require  it,
	      and  some servers may not request it at all.  It may be the same file as the public
	      key (combined key and certificate file) but this is not recommended.  If a password
	      is  required  to	unlock the key, it will be prompted for at the time just prior to
	      establishing the session to the server.  This can cause some complications in  dae-
	      mon mode.

       --sslproto <name>
	      (Keyword:  sslproto) Forces an ssl protocol. Possible values are `ssl2', `ssl3' and
	      `tls1'. Try this if the default handshake does not work for your server.

	      (Keyword: sslcertck) Causes fetchmail to	strictly  check  the  server  certificate
	      against  a  set  of local trusted certificates (see the sslcertpath option). If the
	      server certificate is not signed by one of the  trusted  ones  (directly	or  indi-
	      rectly), the SSL connection will fail. This checking should prevent man-in-the-mid-
	      dle attacks against the SSL connection. Note that CRLs are seemingly not	currently
	      supported  by OpenSSL in certificate verification! Your system clock should be rea-
	      sonably accurate when using this option!

       --sslcertpath <directory>
	      (Keyword: sslcertpath) Sets the directory fetchmail uses to look up local  certifi-
	      cates.  The  default  is	your OpenSSL default one. The directory must be hashed as
	      OpenSSL expects it - every time you add or modify a certificate in  the  directory,
	      you need to use the c_rehash tool (which comes with OpenSSL in the tools/ subdirec-

	      (Keyword: sslfingerprint) Specify the fingerprint of the server key (an MD5 hash of
	      the  key)  in hexadecimal notation with colons separating groups of two digits. The
	      letter hex digits must be in upper case. This is the default format  OpenSSL  uses,
	      and  the	one  fetchmail	uses  to report the fingerprint when an SSL connection is
	      established. When this is specified, fetchmail will compare the server key  finger-
	      print  with  the given one, and the connection will fail if they do not match. This
	      can be used to prevent man-in-the-middle attacks.

   Delivery Control Options
       -S <hosts> | --smtphost <hosts>
	      (Keyword: smtp[host]) Specify a hunt list of hosts to forward mail to (one or  more
	      hostnames,  comma-separated).  Hosts are tried in list order; the first one that is
	      up becomes the forwarding target for the current	run.   Normally,  `localhost'  is
	      added to the end of the list as an invisible default.  However, when using Kerberos
	      authentication, the FQDN of the machine running fetchmail is added to  the  end  of
	      the  list  as  an invisible default. Each hostname may have a port number following
	      the host name.  The port number is separated from the host name  by  a  slash;  the
	      default  port  is 25 (or ``smtp'' under IPv6).  If you specify an absolute pathname
	      (beginning with a /), it will be interpreted as the name of a UNIX socket accepting
	      LMTP connections (such as is supported by the Cyrus IMAP daemon) Example:

		   --smtphost server1,server2/2525,server3,/var/imap/socket/lmtp

	      This option can be used with ODMR, and will make fetchmail a relay between the ODMR
	      server and SMTP or LMTP receiver.

       --fetchdomains <hosts>
	      (Keyword: fetchdomains) In ETRN or ODMR mode, this option  specifies  the  list  of
	      domains  the server should ship mail for once the connection is turned around.  The
	      default is the FQDN of the machine running fetchmail.

       -D <domain> | --smtpaddress <domain>
	      (Keyword: smtpaddress) Specify the domain to be appended to addresses  in  RCPT  TO
	      lines  shipped to SMTP. The name of the SMTP server (as specified by --smtphost, or
	      defaulted to "localhost") is used when this is not specified.

       --smtpname <user@domain>
	      (Keyword: smtpname) Specify the domain and user to be put in RCPT TO lines  shipped
	      to SMTP.	The default user is the current local user.

       -Z <nnn> | --antispam <nnn[, nnn]...>
	      (Keyword: antispam) Specifies the list of numeric SMTP errors that are to be inter-
	      preted as a spam-block response from the listener.  A value  of  -1  disables  this
	      option.  For the command-line option, the list values should be comma-separated.

       -m <command> | --mda <command>
	      (Keyword: mda) You can force mail to be passed to an MDA directly (rather than for-
	      warded to port 25) with the --mda or -m option.  To avoid  losing  mail,	use  this
	      option  only  with  MDAs	like procmail or sendmail that return a nonzero status on
	      disk-full and other resource-exhaustion errors; the nonzero status tells	fetchmail
	      that  delivery  failed  and prevents the message from being deleted off the server.
	      If fetchmail is running as root, it sets its userid to  that  of	the  target  user
	      while  delivering  mail through an MDA.  Some possible MDAs are "/usr/sbin/sendmail
	      -i -oem -f %F %T", "/usr/bin/deliver" and "/usr/bin/procmail -d %T" (but the latter
	      is  usually  redundant  as  it's	what  SMTP listeners normally forward to).  Local
	      delivery addresses will be inserted into the MDA command wherever you place  a  %T;
	      the mail message's From address will be inserted where you place an %F.  Do not use
	      an MDA invocation like "sendmail -i -oem -t" that dispatches  on	the  contents  of
	      To/Cc/Bcc,  it  will create mail loops and bring the just wrath of many postmasters
	      down upon your head.

       --lmtp (Keyword: lmtp) Cause delivery via LMTP (Local Mail Transfer Protocol).  A  service
	      port  must  be  explicitly specified (with a slash suffix) on each host in the smt-
	      phost hunt list if this option is selected; the default port 25 will (in accordance
	      with RFC 2033) not be accepted.

       --bsmtp <filename>
	      (keyword:  bsmtp)  Append  fetched  mail to a BSMTP file.  This simply contains the
	      SMTP commands that would normally be generated by fetchmail when passing mail to an
	      SMTP listener daemon.  An argument of `-' causes the mail to be written to standard
	      output.  Note that fetchmail's reconstruction of MAIL FROM and RCPT TO lines is not
	      guaranteed  correct;  the  caveats  discussed  under THE USE AND ABUSE OF MULTIDROP
	      MAILBOXES below apply.

   Resource Limit Control Options
       -l <maxbytes> | --limit <maxbytes>
	      (Keyword: limit) Takes a maximum octet size argument.  Messages  larger  than  this
	      size  will  not  be fetched and will be left on the server (in foreground sessions,
	      the progress messages will note that they are "oversized").  If the fetch  protocol
	      permits (in particular, under IMAP or POP3 without the fetchall option) the message
	      will not be marked seen An explicit --limit of 0 overrides any limits set  in  your
	      run  control  file.  This  option is intended for those needing to strictly control
	      fetch time due to expensive and variable phone rates.   In  daemon  mode,  oversize
	      notifications  are  mailed  to  the calling user (see the --warnings option).  This
	      option does not work with ETRN or ODMR.

       -w <interval> | --warnings <interval>
	      (Keyword: warnings) Takes an interval in seconds.  When you call fetchmail  with	a
	      `limit'  option  in daemon mode, this controls the interval at which warnings about
	      oversized messages are mailed to the calling user (or the  user  specified  by  the
	      `postmaster' option).  One such notification is always mailed at the end of the the
	      first poll that the oversized message is detected.  Thereafter,  renotification  is
	      suppressed  until after the warning interval elapses (it will take place at the end
	      of the first following poll).

       -b <count> | --batchlimit <count>
	      (Keyword: batchlimit) Specify the maximum number of messages that will  be  shipped
	      to  an  SMTP  listener  before the connection is deliberately torn down and rebuilt
	      (defaults to 0, meaning no limit).  An explicit --batchlimit  of	0  overrides  any
	      limits set in your run control file.  While sendmail(8) normally initiates delivery
	      of a message immediately after receiving the message terminator, some SMTP  listen-
	      ers  are	not  so  prompt.  MTAs like smail(8) may wait till the delivery socket is
	      shut down to deliver.  This may produce annoying delays when fetchmail is  process-
	      ing  very large batches.	Setting the batch limit to some nonzero size will prevent
	      these delays.  This option does not work with ETRN or ODMR.

       -B <number> | --fetchlimit <number>
	      (Keyword: fetchlimit) Limit the number of messages accepted from a given server  in
	      a  single  poll.	By default there is no limit. An explicit --fetchlimit of 0 over-
	      rides any limits set in your run control file.  This option does not work with ETRN
	      or ODMR.

       -e <count> | --expunge <count>
	      (keyword:  expunge)  Arrange for deletions to be made final after a given number of
	      messages.  Under POP2 or POP3, fetchmail cannot make deletions final without  send-
	      ing QUIT and ending the session -- with this option on, fetchmail will break a long
	      mail retrieval session into multiple subsessions, sending QUIT after each  sub-ses-
	      sion.  This is a good defense against line drops on POP3 servers that do not do the
	      equivalent of a QUIT on hangup.  Under IMAP, fetchmail normally issues  an  EXPUNGE
	      command  after each deletion in order to force the deletion to be done immediately.
	      This is safest when your connection to the server is flaky  and  expensive,  as  it
	      avoids  resending duplicate mail after a line hit.  However, on large mailboxes the
	      overhead of re-indexing after every message can slam the server pretty hard, so  if
	      your  connection	is reliable it is good to do expunges less frequently.	Also note
	      that some servers enforce a delay of a few seconds after each  quit,  so	fetchmail
	      may  not	be  able to get back in immediately after an expunge -- you may see "lock
	      busy" errors if this happens. If you specify this option to an integer N, it  tells
	      fetchmail  to  only  issue  expunges on every Nth delete.  An argument of zero sup-
	      presses expunges entirely (so no expunges at all will be	done  until  the  end  of
	      run).  This option does not work with ETRN or ODMR.

   Authentication Options
       -u <name> | --username <name>
	      (Keyword:  user[name]) Specifies the user identification to be used when logging in
	      to the mailserver.  The appropriate user identification is both  server  and  user-
	      dependent.   The	default  is your login name on the client machine that is running
	      fetchmail.  See USER AUTHENTICATION below for a complete description.

       -I <specification> | --interface <specification>
	      (Keyword: interface) Require that a specific interface device be up and have a spe-
	      cific  local  or remote IP address (or range) before polling.  Frequently fetchmail
	      is used over a transient point-to-point  TCP/IP  link  established  directly  to	a
	      mailserver  via  SLIP or PPP.  That is a relatively secure channel.  But when other
	      TCP/IP routes to the mailserver exist (e.g. when the link is connected to an alter-
	      nate  ISP),  your  username  and password may be vulnerable to snooping (especially
	      when daemon mode automatically polls for mail, shipping a clear password	over  the
	      net at predictable intervals).  The --interface option may be used to prevent this.
	      When the specified link is not up or is not connected to	a  matching  IP  address,
	      polling will be skipped.	The format is:


	      The  field before the first slash is the interface name (i.e. sl0, ppp0 etc.).  The
	      field before the second slash is the acceptable IP address.  The	field  after  the
	      second  slash  is  a mask which specifies a range of IP addresses to accept.  If no
	      mask is present is assumed (i.e. an exact match).  This  option  is
	      currently  only  supported  under Linux and FreeBSD. Please see the monitor section
	      for below for FreeBSD specific information.

       -M <interface> | --monitor <interface>
	      (Keyword: monitor) Daemon mode can cause transient links	which  are  automatically
	      taken down after a period of inactivity (e.g. PPP links) to remain up indefinitely.
	      This option identifies a system TCP/IP interface	to  be	monitored  for	activity.
	      After  each  poll interval, if the link is up but no other activity has occurred on
	      the link, then the poll will be skipped.	However, when fetchmail is woken up by	a
	      signal,  the  monitor  check  is skipped and the poll goes through unconditionally.
	      This option is currently only supported under Linux and FreeBSD.	For  the  monitor
	      and  interface  options  to  work  for  non root users under FreeBSD, the fetchmail
	      binary must be installed SGID kmem. This would be a security  hole,  but	fetchmail
	      runs  with the effective GID set to that of the kmem group only when interface data
	      is being collected.

       --auth <type>
	      (Keyword: auth[enticate]) This option permits you to specify an authentication type
	      (see  USER  AUTHENTICATION below for details).  The possible values are any, `pass-
	      word',  `kerberos_v5'  and  `kerberos'  (or,  for  excruciating  exactness,   `ker-
	      beros_v4'), gssapi, cram-md5, otp, ntlm, and ssh.  When any (the default) is speci-
	      fied, fetchmail tries first methods that don't require  a  password  (GSSAPI,  KER-
	      BEROS_IV);  then	it  looks  for	methods that mask your password (CRAM-MD5, X-OTP,
	      NTLM); and only if the server doesn't support any of those will it ship your  pass-
	      word  en	clair.	 Other values may be used to force various authentication methods
	      (ssh suppresses authentication).	Any value other than password, cram-md5, ntlm  or
	      otp suppresses fetchmail's normal inquiry for a password.  Specify ssh when you are
	      using an end-to-end secure connection such as an ssh tunnel; specify gssapi or ker-
	      beros_v4	if  you are using a protocol variant that employs GSSAPI or K4.  Choosing
	      KPOP protocol automatically selects Kerberos authentication.  This option does  not
	      work with ETRN.

   Miscellaneous Options
       -f <pathname> | --fetchmailrc <pathname>
	      Specify  a  non-default name for the ~/.fetchmailrc run control file.  The pathname
	      argument must be either "-" (a single dash, meaning to read the configuration  from
	      standard	input)	or  a  filename.  Unless the --version option is also on, a named
	      file argument must have permissions no more open than 0600 (u=rw,g=,o=) or else  be

       -i <pathname> | --idfile <pathname>
	      (Keyword:  idfile)  Specify  an  alternate name for the .fetchids file used to save
	      POP3 UIDs.

       -n | --norewrite
	      (Keyword: no rewrite) Normally, fetchmail edits RFC-822 address headers (To,  From,
	      Cc, Bcc, and Reply-To) in fetched mail so that any mail IDs local to the server are
	      expanded to full addresses (@ and the  mailserver  hostname  are	appended).   This
	      enables  replies	on  the  client to get addressed correctly (otherwise your mailer
	      might think they should be addressed to local users on the client machine!).   This
	      option  disables	the  rewrite.	(This option is provided to pacify people who are
	      paranoid about having an MTA edit mail headers and want to know  they  can  prevent
	      it,  but it is generally not a good idea to actually turn off rewrite.)  When using
	      ETRN or ODMR, the rewrite option is ineffective.

       -E <line> | --envelope <line>
	      (Keyword: envelope) This option changes the header fetchmail assumes will  carry	a
	      copy  of the mail's envelope address.  Normally this is `X-Envelope-To' but as this
	      header is not standard, practice varies. See the discussion  of  multidrop  address
	      handling	below.	As a special case, `envelope "Received"' enables parsing of send-
	      mail-style Received lines.  This is the default, and it  should  not  be	necessary
	      unless  you  have  globally  disabled  Received  parsing	with `no envelope' in the
	      .fetchmailrc file.

       -Q <prefix> | --qvirtual <prefix>
	      (Keyword: qvirtual) The string prefix assigned to this option will be removed  from
	      the  user name found in the header specified with the envelope option (before doing
	      multidrop name mapping or localdomain checking,  if  either  is  applicable).  This
	      option  is  useful  if  you  are	using fetchmail to collect the mail for an entire
	      domain and your ISP (or your mail redirection provider) is using qmail.  One of the
	      basic features of qmail is the


	      message  header.	 Whenever qmail delivers a message to a local mailbox it puts the
	      username and hostname of the envelope recipient on this line.  The major reason for
	      this  is	to  prevent mail loops.  To set up qmail to batch mail for a disconnected
	      site the ISP-mailhost will have normally put that site in its  `Virtualhosts'  con-
	      trol file so it will add a prefix to all mail addresses for this site. This results
	      in mail sent to 'username@userhost.userdom.dom.com' having a  `Delivered-To:'  line
	      of the form:

	      Delivered-To: mbox-userstr-username@userhost.userdom.dom.com

	      The  ISP	can  make  the	'mbox-userstr-'  prefix anything they choose but a string
	      matching the user host name is likely.  By using the  option  `envelope  Delivered-
	      To:'  you can make fetchmail reliably identify the original envelope recipient, but
	      you have to strip the `mbox-userstr-' prefix to deliver to the correct user.   This
	      is what this option is for.

	      Parse  the  ~/.fetchmailrc  file, interpret any command-line options specified, and
	      dump a configuration report to standard output.  The configuration report is a data
	      structure  assignment in the language Python.  This option is meant to be used with
	      an interactive ~/.fetchmailrc editor like fetchmailconf, written in Python.

       All modes except ETRN require authentication of the client to  the  server.   Normal  user
       authentication in fetchmail is very much like the authentication mechanism of ftp(1).  The
       correct user-id and password depend upon the underlying security system at the mailserver.

       If the mailserver is a Unix machine on which you have an ordinary user account, your regu-
       lar  login  name  and password are used with fetchmail.	If you use the same login name on
       both the server and the client machines, you needn't worry about specifying a user-id with
       the  -u	option -- the default behavior is to use your login name on the client machine as
       the user-id on the server machine.  If you use  a  different  login  name  on  the  server
       machine,  specify that login name with the -u option.  e.g. if your login name is 'jsmith'
       on a machine named 'mailgrunt', you would start fetchmail as follows:

	      fetchmail -u jsmith mailgrunt

       The default behavior of fetchmail is to prompt you for your mailserver password before the
       connection  is established.  This is the safest way to use fetchmail and ensures that your
       password will not be compromised.  You may also specify your password  in  your	~/.fetch-
       mailrc file.  This is convenient when using fetchmail in daemon mode or with scripts.

       If  you	do  not  specify a password, and fetchmail cannot extract one from your ~/.fetch-
       mailrc file, it will look for a ~/.netrc file in your home directory before requesting one
       interactively;  if  an  entry  matching the mailserver is found in that file, the password
       will be used.  Fetchmail first looks for a match on poll name; if it finds none, it checks
       for  a  match  on  via  name.   See  the  ftp(1) man page for details of the syntax of the
       ~/.netrc file.  (This feature may allow you to avoid duplicating password  information  in
       more than one file.)

       On  mailservers	that do not provide ordinary user accounts, your user-id and password are
       usually assigned by the server administrator when you apply for a mailbox on  the  server.
       Contact	your  server administrator if you don't know the correct user-id and password for
       your mailbox account.

       Early versions of POP3 (RFC1081, RFC1225) supported a crude form of independent	authenti-
       cation  using  the  rhosts  file on the mailserver side.  Under this RPOP variant, a fixed
       per-user ID equivalent to a password was sent in clear over a link  to  a  reserved  port,
       with  the  command  RPOP  rather  than  PASS to alert the server that it should do special
       checking.  RPOP is supported by fetchmail (you can specify `protocol  RPOP'  to	have  the
       program	send `RPOP' rather than `PASS') but its use is strongly discouraged.  This facil-
       ity was vulnerable to spoofing and was withdrawn in RFC1460.

       RFC1460 introduced APOP authentication.	In this variant of POP3,  you  register  an  APOP
       password on your server host (the program to do this with on the server is probably called
       popauth(8)).  You put the same password in your ~/.fetchmailrc file.  Each time	fetchmail
       logs in, it sends a cryptographically secure hash of your password and the server greeting
       time to the server, which can verify it by checking its authorization database.

       If your fetchmail was built with Kerberos support and you specify Kerberos  authentication
       (either	with  --auth  or the .fetchmailrc option authenticate kerberos_v4) it will try to
       get a Kerberos ticket from the mailserver at the start of each query.  Note: if either the
       pollnane  or  via  name	is  `hesiod',  fetchmail  will	try  to use Hesiod to look up the

       If you use POP3 or IMAP with GSSAPI authentication, fetchmail will expect  the  server  to
       have  RFC1731-  or  RFC1734-conformant GSSAPI capability, and will use it.  Currently this
       has only been tested over Kerberos V, so you're expected to already have a ticket-granting
       ticket.	You  may  pass	a  username different from your principal name using the standard
       --user command or by the .fetchmailrc option user.

       If your IMAP daemon returns the PREAUTH response in  its  greeting  line,  fetchmail  will
       notice  this  and  skip	the  normal authentication step.  This can be useful, e.g. if you
       start imapd explicitly using ssh.  In this case you can declare the  authentication  value
       `ssh'  on that site entry to stop .fetchmail from asking you for a password when it starts

       If you are using POP3, and the server issues a one-time-password challenge  conforming  to
       RFC1938,  fetchmail  will  use  your  password  as  a pass phrase to generate the required
       response. This avoids sending secrets over the net unencrypted.

       Compuserve's RPA authentication (similar to APOP) is supported. If you compile in the sup-
       port,  fetchmail  will try to perform an RPA pass-phrase authentication instead of sending
       over the password en clair if it detects "@compuserve.com" in the hostname.

       If you are using IMAP, Microsoft's NTLM authentication (used  by  Microsoft  Exchange)  is
       supported.  If you compile in the support, fetchmail will try to perform an NTLM authenti-
       cation (instead of sending over	the  password  en  clair)  whenever  the  server  returns
       AUTH=NTLM  in  its  capability  response.  Specify  a  user  option  value that looks like
       `user@domain': the part to the left of the @ will be passed as the username and	the  part
       to the right as the NTLM domain.

       If  you	are  using  IPsec,  the  -T  (--netsec) option can be used to pass an IP security
       request to be used when outgoing IP connections are initialized.  You  can  also  do  this
       using  the  `netsec'  server  option in the .fetchmailrc file.  In either case, the option
       value is a string in the format accepted by the	net_security_strtorequest()  function  of
       the inet6_apps library.

       You  can  access  SSL  encrypted services by specifying the --ssl option.  You can also do
       this using the "ssl" server option in the .fetchmailrc file.  With SSL encryption enabled,
       queries	are initiated over a connection after negotiating an SSL session.  Some services,
       such as POP3 and IMAP, have different well known ports defined for the SSL encrypted  ser-
       vices.	The  encrypted	ports  will  be selected automatically when SSL is enabled and no
       explicit port is specified.

       When connecting to an SSL encrypted server, the	server	presents  a  certificate  to  the
       client  for  validation.  The certificate is checked to verify that the common name in the
       certificate matches the name of the server being contacted  and	that  the  effective  and
       expiration  dates in the certificate indicate that it is currently valid.  If any of these
       checks fail, a warning message is printed, but the connection continues.  The server  cer-
       tificate  does  not  need  to  be signed by any specific Certifying Authority and may be a
       "self-signed" certificate.

       Some SSL encrypted servers may request a client side certificate.  A  client  side  public
       SSL  certificate  and  private  SSL key may be specified.  If requested by the server, the
       client certificate is sent to the server for validation.  Some servers may require a valid
       client  certificate  and may refuse connections if a certificate is not provided or if the
       certificate is not valid.  Some servers may require client side certificates be signed  by
       a recognized Certifying Authority.  The format for the key files and the certificate files
       is that required by the underlying SSL libraries (OpenSSL in the general case).

       A word of care about the use of SSL: While above mentioned setup with  self-signed  server
       certificates  retrieved	over  the  wires  can  protect you from a passive eavesdropper it
       doesn't help against an active attacker. It's clearly  an  improvement  over  sending  the
       passwords  in  clear  but you should be aware that a man-in-the-middle attack is trivially
       possible  (in  particular  with	tools	such   as   dsniff,   http://www.monkey.org/~dug-
       song/dsniff/).	Use  of  an ssh tunnel (see below for some examples) is preferable if you
       care seriously about the security of your mailbox.

       fetchmail also supports authentication to the ESMTP server on the client side according to
       RFC  2554.   You can specify a name/password pair to be used with the keywords `esmtpname'
       and `esmtppassword'; the former defaults to the username of the calling user.

       The --daemon <interval> or -d <interval> option runs fetchmail in daemon mode.	You  must
       specify a numeric argument which is a polling interval in seconds.

       In daemon mode, fetchmail puts itself in background and runs forever, querying each speci-
       fied host and then sleeping for the given polling interval.

       Simply invoking

	      fetchmail -d 900

       will, therefore, poll all the hosts described in your ~/.fetchmailrc  file  (except  those
       explicitly excluded with the `skip' verb) once every fifteen minutes.

       It is possible to set a polling interval in your ~/.fetchmailrc file by saying `set daemon
       <interval>', where <interval> is an integer number of seconds.  If you do this,	fetchmail
       will  always  start  in	daemon	mode  unless you override it with the command-line option
       --daemon 0 or -d0.

       Only one daemon process is permitted per user; in daemon mode, fetchmail makes a  per-user
       lockfile to guarantee this.

       Normally,  calling  fetchmail with a daemon in the background sends a wakeup signal to the
       daemon, forcing it to poll mailservers immediately.   (The  wakeup  signal  is  SIGHUP  if
       fetchmail  is  running  as  root,  SIGUSR1  otherwise.)	The wakeup action also clears any
       `wedged' flags indicating that connections have wedged due  to  failed  authentication  or
       multiple timeouts.

       The  option --quit will kill a running daemon process instead of waking it up (if there is
       no such process, fetchmail notifies you).  If the --quit option is the  only  command-line
       option, that's all there is to it.

       The  quit  option may also be mixed with other command-line options; its effect is to kill
       any running daemon before doing what the other options specify in combination with the  rc

       The  -L <filename> or --logfile <filename> option (keyword: set logfile) allows you to re-
       direct status messages emitted while detached into a specified logfile (follow the  option
       with  the  logfile  name).   The logfile is opened for append, so previous messages aren't
       deleted.  This is primarily useful for debugging configurations.

       The --syslog option (keyword: set syslog) allows you to redirect status and error messages
       emitted	to  the  syslog(3) system daemon if available.	Messages are logged with an id of
       fetchmail, the facility LOG_MAIL, and priorities LOG_ERR,  LOG_ALERT  or  LOG_INFO.   This
       option  is intended for logging status and error messages which indicate the status of the
       daemon and the results while fetching mail from the server(s).  Error messages for command
       line  options  and  parsing  the  .fetchmailrc file are still written to stderr, or to the
       specified log file.  The --nosyslog option turns  off  use  of  syslog(3),  assuming  it's
       turned on in the ~/.fetchmailrc file, or that the -L or --logfile <file> option was used.

       The  -N or --nodetach option suppresses backgrounding and detachment of the daemon process
       from its control terminal.  This is primarily useful for debugging.  Note that  this  also
       causes the logfile option to be ignored (though perhaps it shouldn't).

       Note that while running in daemon mode polling a POP2 or IMAP2bis server, transient errors
       (such as DNS failures or sendmail delivery refusals) may force the fetchall option on  for
       the duration of the next polling cycle.	This is a robustness feature.  It means that if a
       message is fetched (and thus marked seen by the mailserver) but not delivered locally  due
       to  some  transient  error,  it	will be re-fetched during the next poll cycle.	(The IMAP
       logic doesn't delete messages until they're delivered, so this problem does not arise.)

       If you touch or change the ~/.fetchmailrc file while fetchmail is running in daemon  mode,
       this  will  be detected at the beginning of the next poll cycle.  When a changed ~/.fetch-
       mailrc is detected, fetchmail rereads it and restarts  from  scratch  (using  exec(2);  no
       state  information  is  retained  in  the  new instance).  Note also that if you break the
       ~/.fetchmailrc file's syntax, the new instance will softly and  silently  vanish  away  on

       The  --postmaster  <name> option (keyword: set postmaster) specifies the last-resort user-
       name to which multidrop mail is to be forwarded if no  matching	local  recipient  can  be
       found.	Normally  this	is  just the user who invoked fetchmail.  If the invoking user is
       root, then the default of this option is the user `postmaster'.	Setting postmaster to the
       empty string causes such mail to be discarded.

       The  --nobounce	option suppresses the normal action of bouncing errors back to the sender
       in an RFC1894-conformant error message.	If nobounce is on, the message	will  go  to  the
       postmaster instead.

       The  --invisible  option (keyword: set invisible) tries to make fetchmail invisible.  Nor-
       mally, fetchmail behaves like any other MTA would -- it generates a Received  header  into
       each  message describing its place in the chain of transmission, and tells the MTA it for-
       wards to that the mail came from the machine fetchmail  itself  is  running  on.   If  the
       invisible option is on, the Received header is suppressed and fetchmail tries to spoof the
       MTA it forwards to into thinking it came directly from the mailserver host.

       The --showdots option (keyword: set showdots) forces fetchmail to show progress dots  even
       if  the current tty is not stdout (for example logfiles).  Starting with fetchmail version
       5.3.0, progress dots are only shown on stdout by default.

       By specifying the --tracepolls option, you can ask fetchmail to	add  information  to  the
       Received header on the form "polling {label} account {user}", where {label} is the account
       label (from the specified rcfile, normally ~/.fetchmailrc)  and	{user}	is  the  username
       which  is  used	to  log  on to the mail server. This header can be used to make filtering
       email where no useful header information is available and you  want  mail  from	different
       accounts  sorted  into  different mailboxes (this could, for example, occur if you have an
       account on the same server running a mailing list, and are subscribed to  the  list  using
       that account). The default is not adding any such header.  In .fetchmailrc, this is called

       The protocols fetchmail uses to talk to mailservers are next to	bulletproof.   In  normal
       operation  forwarding to port 25, no message is ever deleted (or even marked for deletion)
       on the host until the SMTP listener on the client side has acknowledged to fetchmail  that
       the message has been either accepted for delivery or rejected due to a spam block.

       When  forwarding  to  an  MDA, however, there is more possibility of error.  Some MDAs are
       `safe' and reliably return a nonzero status on any delivery error, even one due to  tempo-
       rary  resource  limits.	The well-known procmail(1) program is like this; so are most pro-
       grams designed as mail transport agents, such as sendmail(1), and exim(1).  These programs
       give  back a reliable positive acknowledgement and can be used with the mda option with no
       risk of mail loss.  Unsafe MDAs, though, may return 0 even on delivery failure.	 If  this
       happens, you will lose mail.

       The  normal mode of fetchmail is to try to download only `new' messages, leaving untouched
       (and undeleted) messages you have already read directly on the server (or fetched  with	a
       previous  fetchmail  --keep).   But  you may find that messages you've already read on the
       server are being fetched (and deleted) even when you don't specify --all.  There are  sev-
       eral reasons this can happen.

       One  could  be  that  you're  using POP2.  The POP2 protocol includes no representation of
       `new' or `old' state in messages, so fetchmail must treat all  messages	as  new  all  the
       time.  But POP2 is obsolete, so this is unlikely.

       Under  POP3,  blame  RFC1725.  That version of the POP3 protocol specification removed the
       LAST command, and some POP servers follow it (you can verify this by invoking fetchmail -v
       to  the	mailserver  and watching the response to LAST early in the query).  The fetchmail
       code tries to compensate by using POP3's UID feature, storing the identifiers of  messages
       seen  in  each  session	until  the next session, in the .fetchids file.  But this doesn't
       track messages seen with other clients, or read directly with a mailer on the host but not
       deleted afterward.  A better solution would be to switch to IMAP.

       Another	potential  POP3  problem  might  be servers that insert messages in the middle of
       mailboxes (some VMS implementations of mail are rumored to do this).  The  fetchmail  code
       assumes that new messages are appended to the end of the mailbox; when this is not true it
       may treat some old messages as new and vice versa.  The only real fix for this problem  is
       to  switch to IMAP.

       Yet  another  POP3  problem is that if they can't make tempfiles in the user's home direc-
       tory, some POP3 servers will hand back an undocumented response that causes  fetchmail  to
       spuriously report "No mail".

       The  IMAP  code uses the presence or absence of the server flag \Seen to decide whether or
       not a message is new.  Under Unix, it counts on your IMAP server to notice  the	BSD-style
       Status  flags  set  by mail user agents and set the \Seen flag from them when appropriate.
       All Unix IMAP servers we know of do this, though it's not specified by the IMAP RFCs.   If
       you  ever  trip	over  a  server  that doesn't, the symptom will be that messages you have
       already read on your host will look new to the server.  In this (unlikely) case, only mes-
       sages you fetched with fetchmail --keep will be both undeleted and marked old.

       In  ETRN  and  ODMR modes, fetchmail does not actually retrieve messages; instead, it asks
       the server's SMTP listener to start a queue flush to the client via  SMTP.   Therefore  it
       sends only undelivered messages.

       Many  SMTP  listeners allow administrators to set up `spam filters' that block unsolicited
       email from specified domains.  A MAIL FROM or DATA line that triggers  this  feature  will
       elicit an SMTP response which (unfortunately) varies according to the listener.

       Newer  versions	of sendmail return an error code of 571.  This return value is blessed by
       RFC1893 as "Delivery not authorized, message refused".

       According to RFC2821, the correct thing to return in  this  situation  is  550  "Requested
       action  not  taken:  mailbox  unavailable"  (the  draft adds "[E.g., mailbox not found, no
       access, or command rejected for policy reasons].").

       Older versions of the exim MTA return 501 "Syntax error in parameters or arguments".

       The postfix MTA runs 554 as an antispam response.

       Zmailer may reject code with a 500 response (followed by an enhanced status code that con-
       tains more information).

       Return  codes which fetchmail treats as antispam responses and discards the message can be
       set with the `antispam' option.	This is one of the only three  circumstance  under  which
       fetchmail  ever	discards mail (the others are the 552 and 553 errors described below, and
       the suppression of multidropped messages with a message-ID already seen).

       If fetchmail is fetching from an IMAP server, the antispam response will be  detected  and
       the  message rejected immediately after the headers have been fetched, without reading the
       message body.  Thus, you won't pay for downloading spam message bodies.

       By default, the list of antispam responses is empty.

       If the spambounce option is on, mail that is spam-blocked triggers an RFC1892 bounce  mes-
       sage informing the originator that we do not accept mail from it.

       Besides	the spam-blocking described above, fetchmail takes special actions on the follow-
       ing SMTP/ESMTP error responses

       452 (insufficient system storage)
	    Leave the message in the server mailbox for later retrieval.

       552 (message exceeds fixed maximum message size)
	    Delete the message from the server.  Send bounce-mail to the originator.

       553 (invalid sending domain)
	    Delete the message from the server.  Don't even try to send bounce-mail to the origi-

       Other errors trigger bounce mail back to the originator.

       The  preferred way to set up fetchmail is to write a .fetchmailrc file in your home direc-
       tory (you may do this directly, with a text  editor,  or  indirectly  via  fetchmailconf).
       When  there  is	a  conflict  between the command-line arguments and the arguments in this
       file, the command-line arguments take precedence.

       To protect the security of your passwords, when --version is not  on  your  ~/.fetchmailrc
       may  not  have  more  than 0600 (u=rw,g=,o=) permissions; fetchmail will complain and exit

       You may read the .fetchmailrc file as a list of commands to be executed when fetchmail  is
       called with no arguments.

   Run Control Syntax
       Comments begin with a '#' and extend through the end of the line.  Otherwise the file con-
       sists of a series of server entries or global option statements in a  free-format,  token-
       oriented syntax.

       There  are four kinds of tokens: grammar keywords, numbers (i.e. decimal digit sequences),
       unquoted strings, and quoted strings.  A quoted string is bounded by double quotes and may
       contain whitespace (and quoted digits are treated as a string).	An unquoted string is any
       whitespace-delimited token that is neither numeric, string quoted nor contains the special
       characters `,', `;', `:', or `='.

       Any amount of whitespace separates tokens in server entries, but is otherwise ignored. You
       may use standard C-style escapes (\n, \t, \b, octal, and hex) to embed non-printable char-
       acters or string delimiters in strings.

       Each  server  entry consists of one of the keywords `poll' or `skip', followed by a server
       name, followed by server options, followed by any number of user descriptions.  Note:  the
       most common cause of syntax errors is mixing up user and server options.

       For backward compatibility, the word `server' is a synonym for `poll'.

       You can use the noise keywords `and', `with', `has', `wants', and `options' anywhere in an
       entry to make it resemble English.  They're ignored, but but can make entries much  easier
       to read at a glance.  The punctuation characters ':', ';' and ',' are also ignored.

   Poll vs. Skip
       The  `poll' verb tells fetchmail to query this host when it is run with no arguments.  The
       `skip' verb tells fetchmail not to poll this host unless it is  explicitly  named  on  the
       command line.  (The `skip' verb allows you to experiment with test entries safely, or eas-
       ily disable entries for hosts that are temporarily down.)

   Keyword/Option Summary
       Here are the legal options.  Keyword suffixes enclosed in square  brackets  are	optional.
       Those corresponding to command-line options are followed by `-' and the appropriate option

       Here are the legal global options:

       Keyword		   Opt	 Function
       set daemon		 Set a background poll interval  in
       set postmaster		 Give  the  name of the last-resort
				 mail recipient
       set no bouncemail	 Direct error  mail  to  postmaster
				 rather than sender
       set no spambounce	 Send spam bounces
       set logfile		 Name  of  a file to dump error and
				 status messages to
       set idfile		 Name of  the  file  to  store	UID
				 lists in
       set syslog		 Do   error  logging  through  sys-
       set nosyslog		 Turn  off  error  logging  through
       set properties		 String  value is ignored by fetch-
				 mail (may  be	used  by  extension

       Here are the legal server options:

       Keyword		  Opt	Function
       via			Specify  DNS  name  of mailserver,
				overriding poll name
       proto[col]	  -p	Specify  protocol  (case  insensi-
				tive):	POP2,  POP3,  IMAP,  APOP,
       local[domains]		Specify domain(s) to  be  regarded
				as local
       port		  -P	Specify TCP/IP service port
       auth[enticate]		Set  authentication  type (default
       timeout		  -t	Server inactivity timeout in  sec-
				onds (default 300)
       envelope 	  -E	Specify   envelope-address  header
       no envelope		Disable   looking   for   envelope
       qvirtual 	  -Q	Qmail  virtual	domain	prefix	to
				remove from user name
       aka			Specify  alternate  DNS  names	of

       interface	  -I	specify  IP interface(s) that must
				be up  for  server  poll  to  take
       monitor		  -M	Specify  IP address to monitor for
       plugin			Specify command through  which	to
				make server connections.
       plugout			Specify  command  through which to
				make listener connections.
       dns			Enable DNS  lookup  for  multidrop
       no dns			Disable DNS lookup for multidrop
       checkalias		Do  comparison	by  IP address for
       no checkalias		Do comparison  by  name  for  mul-
				tidrop (default)
       uidl		  -U	Force	POP3  to  use  client-side
       no uidl			Turn off POP3 use  of  client-side
				UIDLs (default)
       interval 		Only  check this site every N poll
				cycles; N is a numeric argument.
       netsec			Pass  in  IPsec  security   option
       principal		Set  Kerberos principal (only use-
				ful with imap and kerberos)
       esmtpname		Set name for  RFC2554  authentica-
				tion to the ESMTP server.
       esmtppassword		Set password for RFC2554 authenti-
				cation to the ESMTP server.

       Here are the legal user options:

       Keyword		  Opt	Function
       user[name]	  -u	Set remote user name  (local  user
				name if name followed by `here')
       is			Connect   local  and  remote  user
       to			Connect  local	and  remote   user
       pass[word]		Specify remote account password
       ssl			Connect  to server over the speci-
				fied  base  protocol   using   SSL
       sslcert			Specify  file for client side pub-
				lic SSL certificate
       sslkey			Specify file for client side  pri-
				vate SSL key
       sslproto 		Force ssl protocol for connection
       folder		  -r	Specify remote folder to query
       smtphost 	  -S	Specify smtp host(s) to forward to
       fetchdomains		Specify  domains  for  which  mail
				should be fetched
       smtpaddress	  -D	Specify the domain to  be  put	in
				RCPT TO lines
       smtpname 		Specify  the user and domain to be
				put in RCPT TO lines
       antispam 	  -Z	Specify  what  SMTP  returns   are
				interpreted as spam-policy blocks
       mda		  -m	Specify MDA for local delivery
       bsmtp		  -o	Specify BSMTP batch file to append
       preconnect		Command to be executed before each
       postconnect		Command  to be executed after each

       keep		  -k	Don't delete  seen  messages  from
       flush		  -F	Flush  all  seen  messages  before
       fetchall 	  -a	Fetch all messages whether seen or
       rewrite			Rewrite  destination addresses for
				reply (default)
       stripcr			Strip carriage returns	from  ends
				of lines
       forcecr			Force  carriage returns at ends of
       pass8bits		Force BODY=8BITMIME to ESMTP  lis-
       dropstatus		Strip  Status and X-Mozilla-Status
				lines out of incoming mail
       dropdelivered		Strip Delivered-To  lines  out	of
				incoming mail
       mimedecode		Convert  quoted-printable to 8-bit
				in MIME messages
       idle			Idle  waiting  for  new   messages
				after each poll (IMAP only)
       no keep		  -K	Delete	seen  messages from server
       no flush 		Don't  flush  all  seen   messages
				before querying (default)
       no fetchall		Retrieve    only    new   messages
       no rewrite		Don't rewrite headers
       no stripcr		Don't	strip	carriage   returns
       no forcecr		Don't  force  carriage	returns at
				EOL (default)
       no pass8bits		Don't force BODY=8BITMIME to ESMTP
				listener (default)
       no dropstatus		Don't	 drop	 Status    headers
       no dropdelivered 	Don't  drop  Delivered-To  headers
       no mimedecode		Don't  convert quoted-printable to
				8-bit in MIME messages (default)
       no idle			Don't idle waiting  for  new  mes-
				sages after each poll (IMAP only)
       limit		  -l	Set message size limit
       warnings 	  -w	Set message size warning interval
       batchlimit	  -b	Max  # messages to forward in sin-
				gle connect
       fetchlimit	  -B	Max # messages to fetch in  single
       expunge		  -e	Perform  an  expunge  on every #th
				message (IMAP and POP3 only)
       tracepolls		Add poll  tracing  information	to
				the Received header
       properties		String	value is ignored by fetch-
				mail (may  be  used  by  extension

       Remember that all user options must follow all server options.

       In  the .fetchmailrc file, the `envelope' string argument may be preceded by a whitespace-
       separated number.  This number, if specified, is the number of such headers to skip  (that
       is,  an argument of 1 selects the second header of the given type).  This is sometime use-
       ful for ignoring bogus Received headers created by an ISP's local delivery agent.

   Keywords Not Corresponding To Option Switches
       The `folder' and `smtphost' options (unlike their command-line  equivalents)  can  take	a
       space- or comma-separated list of names following them.

       All options correspond to the obvious command-line arguments, except the following: `via',
       `interval', `aka', `is', `to', `dns'/`no dns', `checkalias'/`no	checkalias',  `password',
       `preconnect',   `postconnect',	`localdomains',   `stripcr'/`no  stripcr',  `forcecr'/`no
       forcecr', `pass8bits'/`no pass8bits' `dropstatus/no dropstatus', `dropdelivered/no dropde-
       livered', `mimedecode/no mimedecode', `idle/no idle', and `no envelope'.

       The  `via'  option  is for if you want to have more than one configuration pointing at the
       same site.  If it is present, the string argument will be taken as the actual DNS name  of
       the  mailserver	host  to  query.  This will override the argument of poll, which can then
       simply be a distinct label for the configuration (e.g. what you would give on the  command
       line to explicitly query this host).

       The  `interval'	option	(which takes a numeric argument) allows you to poll a server less
       frequently than the basic poll interval.  If you say `interval N' the server  this  option
       is attached to will only be queried every N poll intervals.

       The  `is'  or `to' keywords associate the following local (client) name(s) (or server-name
       to client-name mappings separated by =) with the mailserver user name in the entry.  If an
       is/to list has `*' as its last name, unrecognized names are simply passed through.

       A single local name can be used to support redirecting your mail when your username on the
       client machine is different from your name on the mailserver.  When there is only a single
       local name, mail is forwarded to that local username regardless of the message's Received,
       To, Cc, and Bcc headers.  In this case fetchmail never does DNS lookups.

       When there is more than one local name (or name mapping) the fetchmail code does  look  at
       the  Received,  To,  Cc, and Bcc headers of retrieved mail (this is `multidrop mode').  It
       looks for addresses with hostname parts that match your poll name or your `via', `aka'  or
       `localdomains' options, and usually also for hostname parts which DNS tells it are aliases
       of the mailserver.  See the discussion of `dns', `checkalias', `localdomains',  and  `aka'
       for details on how matching addresses are handled.

       If fetchmail cannot match any mailserver usernames or localdomain addresses, the mail will
       be bounced.  Normally it will be bounced to the sender, but if `nobounce' is on it will go
       to the postmaster (which in turn defaults to being the calling user).

       The  `dns'  option  (normally  on) controls the way addresses from multidrop mailboxes are
       checked.  On, it enables logic to check each host address that doesn't match an	`aka'  or
       `localdomains'  declaration by looking it up with DNS.  When a mailserver username is rec-
       ognized attached to a matching hostname part, its local mapping is added to  the  list  of
       local recipients.

       The  `checkalias' option (normally off) extends the lookups performed by the `dns' keyword
       in multidrop mode, providing a way to cope with remote MTAs that identify themselves using
       their  canonical name, while they're polled using an alias.  When such a server is polled,
       checks to extract the envelope address fail, and fetchmail reverts to delivery  using  the
       To/Cc/Bcc  headers  (See  below	`Header vs. Envelope addresses').  Specifying this option
       instructs fetchmail to retrieve all the IP addresses associated with both  the  poll  name
       and  the  name  used  by  the remote MTA and to do a comparison of the IP addresses.  This
       comes in handy in situations where the remote server  undergoes	frequent  canonical  name
       changes,  that  would  otherwise require modifications to the rcfile.  `checkalias' has no
       effect if `no dns' is specified in the rcfile.

       The `aka' option is for use with multidrop mailboxes.  It allows you to pre-declare a list
       of  DNS aliases for a server.  This is an optimization hack that allows you to trade space
       for speed.  When fetchmail, while processing a multidrop mailbox, grovels through  message
       headers	looking  for  names of the mailserver, pre-declaring common ones can save it from
       having to do DNS lookups.  Note: the names you give as arguments to `aka' are  matched  as
       suffixes  --  if  you specify (say) `aka netaxs.com', this will match not just a hostnamed
       netaxs.com, but any hostname that ends with `.netaxs.com'; such as  (say)  pop3.netaxs.com
       and mail.netaxs.com.

       The  `localdomains'  option allows you to declare a list of domains which fetchmail should
       consider local.	When fetchmail is parsing address lines in multidrop modes, and a  trail-
       ing segment of a host name matches a declared local domain, that address is passed through
       to the listener or MDA unaltered (local-name mappings are not applied).

       If you are using `localdomains', you may also need to specify `no  envelope',  which  dis-
       ables  fetchmail's  normal attempt to deduce an envelope address from the Received line or
       X-Envelope-To header or whatever header has been previously set by `envelope'.  If you set
       `no  envelope'  in the defaults entry it is possible to undo that in individual entries by
       using `envelope <string>'.  As a special case, `envelope "Received"' restores the  default
       parsing of Received lines.

       The  password option requires a string argument, which is the password to be used with the
       entry's server.

       The `preconnect' keyword allows you to specify a shell command to be executed just  before
       each  time  fetchmail  establishes a mailserver connection.  This may be useful if you are
       attempting to set up secure POP connections with  the  aid  of  ssh(1).	 If  the  command
       returns a nonzero status, the poll of that mailserver will be aborted.

       Similarly, the `postconnect' keyword similarly allows you to specify a shell command to be
       executed just after each time a mailserver connection is taken down.

       The `forcecr' option controls whether lines terminated by LF only are given CRLF  termina-
       tion  before forwarding.  Strictly speaking RFC821 requires this, but few MTAs enforce the
       requirement it so this option is normally off (only one such MTA, qmail, is in significant
       use at time of writing).

       The  `stripcr' option controls whether carriage returns are stripped out of retrieved mail
       before it is forwarded.	It is normally not necessary to set this, because it defaults  to
       `on'  (CR  stripping  enabled)  when there is an MDA declared but `off' (CR stripping dis-
       abled) when forwarding is via SMTP.  If `stripcr' and `forcecr'	are  both  on,	`stripcr'
       will override.

       The  `pass8bits'  option  exists to cope with Microsoft mail programs that stupidly slap a
       "Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit" on everything.  With this option off (the  default)  and
       such  a	header	present,  fetchmail declares BODY=7BIT to an ESMTP-capable listener; this
       causes problems for messages actually using 8-bit ISO or KOI-8 character sets, which  will
       be  garbled  by	having	the  high bits of all characters stripped.  If `pass8bits' is on,
       fetchmail is forced to declare BODY=8BITMIME to any ESMTP-capable listener.  If	the  lis-
       tener is 8-bit-clean (as all the major ones now are) the right thing will probably result.

       The  `dropstatus'  option  controls whether nonempty Status and X-Mozilla-Status lines are
       retained in fetched mail (the default) or discarded.  Retaining them allows  your  MUA  to
       see what messages (if any) were marked seen on the server.  On the other hand, it can con-
       fuse some new-mail notifiers, which assume that anything with a Status line in it has been
       seen.   (Note:  the empty Status lines inserted by some buggy POP servers are uncondition-
       ally discarded.)

       The `dropdelivered' option controls wether Delivered-To headers will be	kept  in  fetched
       mail  (the default) or discarded. These headers are added by Qmail and Postfix mailservers
       in order to avoid mail loops but may get in your way if you try to "mirror"  a  mailserver
       within the same domain. Use with caution.

       The `mimedecode' option controls whether MIME messages using the quoted-printable encoding
       are automatically converted into pure 8-bit data. If you are delivering mail to an  ESMTP-
       capable,  8-bit-clean  listener	(that includes all of the major MTAs like sendmail), then
       this will automatically convert quoted-printable message headers and data into 8-bit data,
       making it easier to understand when reading mail. If your e-mail programs know how to deal
       with MIME messages, then this option is not needed.   The  mimedecode  option  is  off  by
       default, because doing RFC2047 conversion on headers throws away character-set information
       and can lead to bad results if the encoding of the headers differs from the body encoding.

       The `idle' option is usable only with IMAP servers supporting  the  RFC2177  IDLE  command
       extension.   If	it is enabled, and fetchmail detects that IDLE is supported, an IDLE will
       be issued at the end of each poll.  This will tell the IMAP server to hold the  connection
       open  and  notify  the client when new mail is available.  If you need to poll a link fre-
       quently,  IDLE  can  save  bandwidth  by  eliminating  TCP/IP  connects	and  LOGIN/LOGOUT
       sequences.  On  the other hand, an IDLE connection will eat almost all of your fetchmail's
       time, because it will never drop the connection and allow other pools to occur unless  the
       server  times  out  the	IDLE.  It also doesn't work with multiple folders; only the first
       folder will ever be polled.

       The `properties' option is an extension mechanism.  It takes a string argument,	which  is
       ignored	by  fetchmail  itself.	 The  string  argument may be used to store configuration
       information for scripts which require it.  In particular,  the  output  of  `--configdump'
       option  will  make  properties  associated with a user entry readily available to a Python

   Miscellaneous Run Control Options
       The words `here' and `there' have useful English-like significance.  Normally  `user  eric
       is  esr'  would mean that mail for the remote user `eric' is to be delivered to `esr', but
       you can make this clearer by saying `user eric there is esr here', or reverse it by saying
       `user esr here is eric there'

       Legal protocol identifiers for use with the `protocol' keyword are:

	   auto (or AUTO)
	   pop2 (or POP2)
	   pop3 (or POP3)
	   sdps (or SDPS)
	   imap (or IMAP)
	   apop (or APOP)
	   kpop (or KPOP)

       Legal authentication types are `any', `password', `kerberos', 'kereberos_v5' and `gssapi',
       `cram-md5', `otp', `ntlm', `ssh`.  The `password' type specifies authentication by  normal
       transmission  of a password (the password may be plaintext or subject to protocol-specific
       encryption as in APOP); `kerberos' tells fetchmail to try to get a Kerberos ticket at  the
       start  of  each	query instead, and send an arbitrary string as the password; and `gssapi'
       tells fetchmail to use GSSAPI authentication.  See the description of the  `auth'  keyword
       for more.

       Specifying  `kpop'  sets  POP3  protocol  over  port 1109 with Kerberos V4 authentication.
       These defaults may be overridden by later options.

       There are currently four global option statements; `set logfile' followed by a string sets
       the  same  global  specified  by --logfile.  A command-line --logfile option will override
       this.  Also, `set daemon' sets the poll interval as --daemon does.  This can be overridden
       by  a  command-line  --daemon  option; in particular --daemon 0 can be used to force fore-
       ground operation. The `set postmaster' statement sets the address to which multidrop  mail
       defaults  if there are no local matches.  Finally, `set syslog' sends log messages to sys-

       When trying to determine the originating address of a  message,	fetchmail  looks  through
       headers in the following order:

	       Resent-Sender: (ignored if it doesn't contain an @ or !)
	       Sender: (ignored if it doesn't contain an @ or !)

       The  originating  address  is used for logging, and to set the MAIL FROM address when for-
       warding to SMTP.  This order is intended to cope gracefully with  receiving  mailing  list
       messages  in  multidrop	mode.  The  intent  is that if a local address doesn't exist, the
       bounce message won't be returned blindly to the author or to the list itself,  but  rather
       to the list manager (which is less annoying).

       In  multidrop  mode,  destination headers are processed as follows: First, fetchmail looks
       for the Received: header (or whichever one is  specified  by  the  `envelope'  option)  to
       determine  the  local recipient address. If the mail is addressed to more than one recipi-
       ent, the Received line won't contain any information regarding recipient addresses.

       Then fetchmail looks for the Resent-To:,  Resent-Cc:,  and  Resent-Bcc:	lines.	 If  they
       exists,	they  should  contain  the  final  recipients  and  have  precedence  over  their
       To:/Cc:/Bcc: counterparts.  If the Resent-* lines doesn't exist, the To:,  Cc:,	Bcc:  and
       Apparently-To:  lines are looked for. (The presence of a Resent-To: is taken to imply that
       the person referred by the To: address has already  received  the  original  copy  of  the

       Note  that  although there are password declarations in a good many of the examples below,
       this is mainly for illustrative purposes.  We recommend stashing account/password pairs in
       your  $HOME/.netrc  file,  where  they can be used not just by fetchmail but by ftp(1) and
       other programs.

       Basic format is:

	 poll SERVERNAME protocol PROTOCOL username NAME password PASSWORD


	 poll pop.provider.net protocol pop3 username "jsmith" password "secret1"

       Or, using some abbreviations:

	 poll pop.provider.net proto pop3 user "jsmith" password "secret1"

       Multiple servers may be listed:

	 poll pop.provider.net proto pop3 user "jsmith" pass "secret1"
	 poll other.provider.net proto pop2 user "John.Smith" pass "My^Hat"

       Here's a version of those two with more whitespace and some noise words:

	 poll pop.provider.net proto pop3
	     user "jsmith", with password secret1, is "jsmith" here;
	 poll other.provider.net proto pop2:
	     user "John.Smith", with password "My^Hat", is "John.Smith" here;

       This version is much easier to read and doesn't cost significantly more (parsing  is  done
       only once, at startup time).

       If  you	need  to  include  whitespace in a parameter string, enclose the string in double
       quotes.	Thus:

	 poll mail.provider.net with proto pop3:
	       user "jsmith" there has password "u can't krak this"
			   is jws here and wants mda "/bin/mail"

       You may have an initial server description headed by the  keyword  `defaults'  instead  of
       `poll'  followed  by  a name.  Such a record is interpreted as defaults for all queries to
       use. It may be overwritten by individual server descriptions.  So, you could write:

	 defaults proto pop3
	       user "jsmith"
	 poll pop.provider.net
	       pass "secret1"
	 poll mail.provider.net
	       user "jjsmith" there has password "secret2"

       It's possible to specify more than one user per server (this is only likely to  be  useful
       when  running  fetchmail  in  daemon  mode  as root).  The `user' keyword leads off a user
       description, and every user specification in a multi-user entry must include  it.   Here's
       an example:

	 poll pop.provider.net proto pop3 port 3111
	       user "jsmith" with pass "secret1" is "smith" here
	       user jones with pass "secret2" is "jjones" here keep

       This associates the local username `smith' with the pop.provider.net username `jsmith' and
       the local username `jjones' with the pop.provider.net username `jones'.	Mail for  `jones'
       is kept on the server after download.

       Here's what a simple retrieval configuration for a multi-drop mailbox looks like:

	 poll pop.provider.net:
	       user maildrop with pass secret1 to golux 'hurkle'='happy' snark here

       This  says  that  the mailbox of account `maildrop' on the server is a multi-drop box, and
       that messages in it should be parsed for the server  user  names  `golux',  `hurkle',  and
       `snark'.   It  further specifies that `golux' and `snark' have the same name on the client
       as on the server, but mail for server user `hurkle' should be  delivered  to  client  user

       Here's an example of another kind of multidrop connection:

	 poll pop.provider.net localdomains loonytoons.org toons.org:
	       user maildrop with pass secret1 to * here

       This  also  says that the mailbox of account `maildrop' on the server is a multi-drop box.
       It tells fetchmail that any address in the loonytoons.org or toons.org domains  (including
       subdomain addresses like `joe@daffy.loonytoons.org') should be passed through to the local
       SMTP listener without modification.  Be careful of mail loops if you do this!

       Here's an example configuration using ssh and the plugin option.   The  queries	are  made
       directly  on the stdin and stdout of imapd via ssh.  Note that in this setup, IMAP authen-
       tication can be skipped.

       poll mailhost.net with proto imap:
	       plugin "ssh %h /usr/sbin/imapd" auth ssh;
		       user esr is esr here

       Use the multiple-local-recipients feature with caution -- it can bite.  All multidrop fea-
       tures are ineffective in ETRN and ODMR modes.

       Also, note that in multidrop mode duplicate mails are suppressed.  A piece of mail is con-
       sidered duplicate if it has the same message-ID as the message immediately  preceding  and
       more  than one addressee.  Such runs of messages may be generated when copies of a message
       addressed to multiple users are delivered to a multidrop box.

   Header vs. Envelope addresses
       The fundamental problem is that by having your mailserver toss several peoples' mail in	a
       single maildrop box, you may have thrown away potentially vital information about who each
       piece of mail was actually addressed to (the `envelope address', as opposed to the  header
       addresses  in  the  RFC822 To/Cc/Bcc headers).  This `envelope address' is the address you
       need in order to reroute mail properly.

       Sometimes fetchmail can deduce the envelope address.  If the mailserver	MTA  is  sendmail
       and  the  item of mail had just one recipient, the MTA will have written a `by/for' clause
       that gives the envelope addressee into its Received header. But this doesn't work reliably
       for  other MTAs, nor if there is more than one recipient.  By default, fetchmail looks for
       envelope addresses in these lines; you can restore this	default  with  -E  "Received"  or
       `envelope Received'.

       Alternatively,  some  SMTP  listeners  and/or mail servers insert a header in each message
       containing a copy of the envelope addresses.  This header (when it exists)  is  often  `X-
       Envelope-To'.   Fetchmail's assumption about this can be changed with the -E or `envelope'
       option.	Note that writing an envelope header of this kind exposes the names of recipients
       (including  blind-copy  recipients)  to	all  receivers	of  the messages; it is therefore
       regarded by some administrators as a security/privacy problem.

       A slight variation of the `X-Envelope-To' header is the `Delivered-To'  put  by	qmail  to
       avoid  mail  loops.  It	will  probably	prefix	the user name with a string that normally
       matches the user's domain. To remove this prefix you can use the -Q or `qvirtual' option.

       Sometimes, unfortunately, neither of these methods works.  When they all  fail,	fetchmail
       must  fall  back  on  the  contents  of	To/Cc/Bcc  headers  to try to determine recipient
       addressees -- and these are not reliable.   In  particular,  mailing-list  software  often
       ships mail with only the list broadcast address in the To header.

       When fetchmail cannot deduce a recipient address that is local, and the intended recipient
       address was anyone other than fetchmail's invoking user, mail will get lost.  This is what
       makes the multidrop feature risky.

       A  related problem is that when you blind-copy a mail message, the Bcc information is car-
       ried only as envelope address (it's not put in the headers fetchmail can see unless  there
       is  an  X-Envelope header).  Thus, blind-copying to someone who gets mail over a fetchmail
       link will fail unless the the mailserver host routinely writes X-Envelope or an equivalent
       header into messages in your maildrop.

   Good Ways To Use Multidrop Mailboxes
       Multiple  local	names  can be used to administer a mailing list from the client side of a
       fetchmail collection.  Suppose your name is `esr', and you want to both pick up	your  own
       mail  and  maintain  a mailing list called (say) "fetchmail-friends", and you want to keep
       the alias list on your client machine.

       On your server, you can alias `fetchmail-friends' to `esr'; then,  in  your  .fetchmailrc,
       declare `to esr fetchmail-friends here'.  Then, when mail including `fetchmail-friends' as
       a local address gets fetched, the list name will be appended to	the  list  of  recipients
       your  SMTP  listener sees.  Therefore it will undergo alias expansion locally.  Be sure to
       include `esr' in the local alias expansion of fetchmail-friends, or you'll never see  mail
       sent only to the list.  Also be sure that your listener has the "me-too" option set (send-
       mail's -oXm command-line option or OXm declaration) so your name isn't removed from  alias
       expansions in messages you send.

       This  trick is not without its problems, however.  You'll begin to see this when a message
       comes in that is addressed only to a mailing list you do not  have  declared  as  a  local
       name.   Each  such message will feature an `X-Fetchmail-Warning' header which is generated
       because fetchmail cannot find a valid local name in the recipient  addresses.   Such  mes-
       sages  default (as was described above) to being sent to the local user running fetchmail,
       but the program has no way to know that that's actually the right thing.

   Bad Ways To Abuse Multidrop Mailboxes
       Multidrop mailboxes and fetchmail serving multiple users in daemon mode do not  mix.   The
       problem,  again,  is  mail from mailing lists, which typically does not have an individual
       recipient address on it.   Unless fetchmail can deduce an envelope address, such mail will
       only  go  to  the account running fetchmail (probably root).  Also, blind-copied users are
       very likely never to see their mail at all.

       If you're tempted to use fetchmail to retrieve mail for multiple users from a single  mail
       drop via POP or IMAP, think again (and reread the section on header and envelope addresses
       above).	It would be smarter to just let the mail sit in the mailserver's  queue  and  use
       fetchmail's  ETRN  or ODMR modes to trigger SMTP sends periodically (of course, this means
       you have to poll more frequently than the  mailserver's	expiry	period).   If  you  can't
       arrange this, try setting up a UUCP feed.

       If you absolutely must use multidrop for this purpose, make sure your mailserver writes an
       envelope-address header that fetchmail can see.	Otherwise you will lose mail and it  will
       come back to haunt you.

   Speeding Up Multidrop Checking
       Normally,  when	multiple  users  are  declared	fetchmail extracts recipient addresses as
       described above and checks each host part with  DNS  to	see  if  it's  an  alias  of  the
       mailserver.   If  so,  the name mappings described in the to ... here declaration are done
       and the mail locally delivered.

       This is the safest but also slowest  method.   To  speed  it  up,  pre-declare  mailserver
       aliases with `aka'; these are checked before DNS lookups are done.  If you're certain your
       aka list contains all DNS aliases of the mailserver (and all MX names pointing at it)  you
       can declare `no dns' to suppress DNS lookups entirely and only match against the aka list.

       To  facilitate  the use of fetchmail in shell scripts, an exit code is returned to give an
       indication of what occurred during a given connection.

       The exit codes returned by fetchmail are as follows:

       0      One or more messages  were  successfully	retrieved  (or,  if  the  -c  option  was
	      selected, were found waiting but not retrieved).

       1      There  was  no mail awaiting retrieval.  (There may have been old mail still on the
	      server but not selected for retrieval.)

       2      An error was encountered when attempting to open a socket to retrieve mail.  If you
	      don't  know  what a socket is, don't worry about it -- just treat this as an 'unre-
	      coverable error'.  This error can also be because a protocol fetchmail wants to use
	      is not listed in /etc/services.

       3      The  user authentication step failed.  This usually means that a bad user-id, pass-
	      word, or APOP id was specified.  Or it may mean that you	tried  to  run	fetchmail
	      under circumstances where it did not have standard input attached to a terminal and
	      could not prompt for a missing password.

       4      Some sort of fatal protocol error was detected.

       5      There was a syntax error in the arguments to fetchmail.

       6      The run control file had bad permissions.

       7      There was an error condition reported by the server.  Can also  fire  if	fetchmail
	      timed out while waiting for the server.

       8      Client-side  exclusion  error.   This  means fetchmail either found another copy of
	      itself already running, or failed in such a way that it isn't sure whether  another
	      copy is running.

       9      The  user authentication step failed because the server responded "lock busy".  Try
	      again after a brief pause!  This error is not implemented for  all  protocols,  nor
	      for all servers.	If not implemented for your server, "3" will be returned instead,
	      see above.  May be returned when talking to  qpopper  or	other  servers	that  can
	      respond with "lock busy" or some similar text containing the word "lock".

       10     The fetchmail run failed while trying to do an SMTP port open or transaction.

       11     Fatal  DNS  error.  Fetchmail encountered an error while performing a DNS lookup at
	      startup and could not proceed.

       12     BSMTP batch file could not be opened.

       13     Poll terminated by a fetch limit (see the --fetchlimit option).

       14     Server busy indication.

       23     Internal error.  You should see a message on standard error with details.

       When fetchmail queries more than one host, return status is 0 if  any  query  successfully
       retrieved mail. Otherwise the returned error status is that of the last host queried.

	    default run control file

	    default location of file associating hosts with last message IDs seen (used only with
	    newer RFC1725-compliant POP3 servers supporting the UIDL command).

	    lock file to help prevent concurrent runs (non-root mode).

	    your FTP run control file, which (if present) will be searched  for  passwords  as	a
	    last resort before prompting for one interactively.

	    lock file to help prevent concurrent runs (root mode, Linux systems).

	    lock file to help prevent concurrent runs (root mode, systems without /var/run).

       If  the FETCHMAILUSER variable is set, it is used as the name of the calling user (default
       local name) for purposes such as mailing error notifications.  Otherwise,  if  either  the
       LOGNAME	or USER variable is correctly set (e.g. the corresponding UID matches the session
       user ID) then that name is used as the default local name.  Otherwise getpwuid(3) must  be
       able  to retrieve a password entry for the session ID (this elaborate logic is designed to
       handle the case of multiple names per userid gracefully).

       If the environment variable FETCHMAILHOME is set to a valid and existing  directory  name,
       the  .fetchmailrc  and  .fetchids and .fetchmail.pid files are put there instead of in the
       invoking user's home directory (and lose the leading dots on  their  names).   The  .netrc
       file is looked for in the the invoking user's home directory regardless of FETCHMAILHOME's

       If a fetchmail daemon is running as root, SIGHUP wakes it up  from  its	sleep  phase  and
       forces a poll of all non-skipped servers (this is in accordance with the usual conventions
       for system daemons).

       If fetchmail is running in daemon mode as non-root, use SIGUSR1 to wake	it  (this  is  so
       SIGHUP due to logout can retain the default action of killing it).

       Running	fetchmail in foreground while a background fetchmail is running will do whichever
       of these is appropriate to wake it up.

       The mda and plugin options interact badly.  In order to collect error status from the MDA,
       fetchmail has to change its normal signal handling so that dead plugin processes don't get
       reaped until the end of the poll cycle.	This can cause resource starvation  if	too  many
       zombies	accumulate.  So either don't deliver to a MDA using plugins or risk being overrun
       by an army of undead.

       The RFC822 address parser used in multidrop mode chokes on some @-addresses that are tech-
       nically	legal  but  bizarre.  Strange uses of quoting and embedded comments are likely to
       confuse it.

       In a message with multiple envelope headers, only the last one processed will  be  visible
       to fetchmail.  To get around this, use a mailserver-side filter that consolidates the con-
       tents of all envelope headers into a single one (procmail, mailagent, or maildrop  can  be
       programmed to do this fairly easily).

       Use  of	some of these protocols requires that the program send unencrypted passwords over
       the TCP/IP connection to the mailserver.  This creates a  risk  that  name/password  pairs
       might  be snaffled with a packet sniffer or more sophisticated monitoring software.  Under
       Linux and FreeBSD, the --interface option can be used to restrict polling to  availability
       of a specific interface device with a specific local or remote IP address, but snooping is
       still possible if (a) either host has a network device that can be opened  in  promiscuous
       mode,  or  (b) the intervening network link can be tapped.  We recommend the use of ssh(1)
       tunnelling to not only shroud your passwords but encrypt the entire conversation.

       Use of the %F or %T escapes in an mda option could open a security hole, because they pass
       text  manipulable  by  an  attacker  to	a  shell command.  Potential shell characters are
       replaced by `_' before execution.  The hole is further reduced by the fact that	fetchmail
       temporarily  discards  any suid privileges it may have while running the MDA.  For maximum
       safety, however, don't use an mda command containing %F or %T when fetchmail is	run  from
       the root account itself.

       Fetchmail's  method of sending bouncemail and spam bounces requires that port 25 of local-
       host be available for sending mail via SMTP.

       If you modify a ~/.fetchmailrc while a background instance is running and break	the  syn-
       tax,  the  background  instance	will  die  silently.  Unfortunately, it can't die noisily
       because we don't yet know whether syslog should be enabled.  On	some  systems,	fetchmail
       dies  quietly  even  if	there is no syntax error; this seems to have something to do with
       buggy terminal ioctl code in the kernel.

       The -f - option (reading a configuration from  stdin)  is  incompatible	with  the  plugin

       The  UIDL code is generally flaky and tends to lose its state on errors and line drops (so
       that old messages are re-seen).	If this happens to you, switch to IMAP4.

       The `principal' option only handles Kerberos IV, not V.

       Send comments, bug reports, gripes, and the like to the fetchmail-friends list <fetchmail-
       friends@lists.ccil.org>.   An  HTML  FAQ  is available at the fetchmail home page; surf to
       http://www.tuxedo.org/~esr/fetchmail or do a WWW search	for  pages  with  `fetchmail'  in
       their titles.

       Eric S. Raymond <esr@snark.thyrsus.com>.  Too many other people to name here have contrib-
       uted code and patches.  This program is descended from and  replaces  popclient,  by  Carl
       Harris  <ceharris@mal.com>;  the  internals  have  become quite different, but some of its
       interface design is directly traceable to that ancestral program.

       mutt(1), elm(1), mail(1), sendmail(8), popd(8), imapd(8), netrc(5)

	    RFC 821, RFC2821, RFC 1869, RFC 1652, RFC 1870, RFC 1983, RFC 1985, RFC 2554.

	    RFC 822, RFC2822, RFC 1123, RFC 1892, RFC 1894.

	    RFC 937

	    RFC 1081, RFC 1225, RFC 1460, RFC 1725, RFC1734, RFC 1939,	RFC  1957,  RFC2195,  RFC

	    RFC 1460, RFC 1725, RFC 1939.

	    RFC 1081, RFC 1225.

	    RFC 1176, RFC 1732.

	    RFC 1730, RFC 1731, RFC 1732, RFC 2060, RFC 2061, RFC 2195, RFC 2177, RFC 2683.

	    RFC 1985.

	    RFC 2645.

       OTP: RFC 1938.

	    RFC 2033.

	    RFC 1508.

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