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RedHat 9 (Linux i386) - man page for procmail (redhat section 1)

PROCMAIL(1)			     General Commands Manual			      PROCMAIL(1)

       procmail - autonomous mail processor

       procmail [-ptoY] [-f fromwhom]
	    [parameter=value | rcfile] ...
       procmail [-toY] [-f fromwhom] [-a argument] ...
	    -d recipient ...
       procmail [-ptY] -m [parameter=value] ...  rcfile
	    [argument] ...
       procmail [-toY] [-a  argument] -z
       procmail -v

       For a quick start, see NOTES at the end.

       Procmail  should be invoked automatically over the .forward file mechanism as soon as mail
       arrives.  Alternatively, when installed by a system administrator (and in the standard Red
       Hat  Linux  configuration),  it	can  be invoked from within the mailer immediately.  When
       invoked, it first sets some environment variables to default values, reads the  mail  mes-
       sage  from stdin until an EOF, separates the body from the header, and then, if no command
       line arguments are present, it starts to look for a file named $HOME/.procmailrc.  Accord-
       ing  to	the processing recipes in this file, the mail message that just arrived gets dis-
       tributed into the right folder (and more).  If no rcfile is found, or  processing  of  the
       rcfile falls off the end, procmail will store the mail in the default system mailbox.

       If  no  rcfiles and no -p have been specified on the command line, procmail will, prior to
       reading $HOME/.procmailrc, interpret commands from  /etc/procmailrc  (if  present).   Care
       must  be taken when creating /etc/procmailrc, because, if circumstances permit, it will be
       executed with root privileges (contrary to the $HOME/.procmailrc file of course).

       If running suid root or with root privileges, procmail will be able to perform as a  func-
       tionally enhanced, backwards compatible mail delivery agent.

       Procmail  can  also  be	used as a general purpose mail filter, i.e., provisions have been
       made to enable procmail to be invoked in a special sendmail rule.

       The rcfile format is described in detail in the procmailrc(5) man page.

       The weighted scoring technique is described in detail in the procmailsc(5) man page.

       Examples for rcfile recipes can be looked up in the procmailex(5) man page.

       TERMINATE   Terminate prematurely and requeue the mail.

       HANGUP	   Terminate prematurely and bounce the mail.

       INTERRUPT   Terminate prematurely and bounce the mail.

       QUIT	   Terminate prematurely and silently lose the mail.

       ALARM	   Force a timeout (see TIMEOUT).

       USR1	   Equivalent to a VERBOSE=off.

       USR2	   Equivalent to a VERBOSE=on.

       -v   Procmail will print its version number, display its compile  time  configuration  and

       -p   Preserve any old environment.  Normally procmail clears the environment upon startup,
	    except for the value of TZ.  However, in any case: any default values  will  override
	    any  preexisting  environment variables, i.e., procmail will not pay any attention to
	    any predefined environment variables, it will happily overwrite  them  with  its  own
	    defaults.	For  the  list of environment variables that procmail will preset see the
	    procmailrc(5) man page.  If both -p and -m are specified, the list of preset environ-
	    ment variables shrinks to just: LOGNAME, HOME, SHELL, ORGMAIL and MAILDIR.

       -t   Make  procmail  fail  softly, i.e., if procmail cannot deliver the mail to any of the
	    destinations you gave, the mail will not bounce, but will return  to  the  mailqueue.
	    Another delivery-attempt will be made at some time in the future.

       -f fromwhom
	    Causes  procmail  to  regenerate the leading `From ' line with fromwhom as the sender
	    (instead of -f one could use the alternate and obsolete -r).   If  fromwhom  consists
	    merely  of	a single `-', then procmail will only update the timestamp on the `From '
	    line (if present, if not, it will generate a new one).

       -o   Instead of allowing anyone to generate `From ' lines, simply override the fakes.

       -Y   Assume traditional Berkeley mailbox format, ignore any Content-Length: fields.

       -a argument
	    This will set $1 to be equal to argument.  Each succeeding -a argument will  set  the
	    next number variable ($2, $3, etc).  It can be used to pass meta information along to
	    procmail.  This is typically done by passing along the $@x information from the send-
	    mail mailer rule.

       -d recipient ...
	    This  turns  on explicit delivery mode, delivery will be to the local user recipient.
	    This, of course, only is possible if procmail has root privileges (or if procmail  is
	    already  running  with  the  recipient's euid and egid).  Procmail will setuid to the
	    intended recipients and delivers the mail as if it were invoked by the recipient with
	    no	arguments  (i.e.,  if  no rcfile is found, delivery is like ordinary mail).  This
	    option is incompatible with -p.

       -m   Turns procmail into a general purpose mail filter.	In this mode one rcfile  must  be
	    specified  on  the command line.  After the rcfile, procmail will accept an unlimited
	    number of arguments.  If the rcfile is an absolute path starting with  /etc/procmail-
	    rcs/  without  backward  references  (i.e.	the parent directory cannot be mentioned)
	    procmail will, only if no security violations are found, take on the identity of  the
	    owner  of  the rcfile (or symbolic link).  For some advanced usage of this option you
	    should look in the EXAMPLES section below.

       -z   This turns on LMTP mode, wherein procmail acts as an RFC2033 LMTP  server.	 Delivery
	    takes  place in the same  manner and under the same restrictions as the delivery mode
	    enabled  with -d.  This option is incompatible with -p and -f.

       Any arguments containing an '=' are considered to  be  environment  variable  assignments,
       they  will  all	be  evaluated  after the default values have been assigned and before the
       first rcfile is opened.

       Any other arguments are presumed to be rcfile paths (either absolute,  or  if  they  start
       with `./' relative to the current directory; any other relative path is relative to $HOME,
       unless the -m option has been given, in which case all relative paths are relative to  the
       current	directory);  procmail will start with the first one it finds on the command line.
       The following ones will only be parsed if the preceding ones have  a  not  matching  HOST-
       directive entry, or in case they should not exist.

       If  no  rcfiles	are  specified,  it looks for $HOME/.procmailrc.  If not even that can be
       found, processing will continue according to the default settings of the environment vari-
       ables and the ones specified on the command line.

       Examples  for rcfile recipes can be looked up in the procmailex(5) man page.  A small sam-
       ple rcfile can be found in the NOTES section below.

       Skip the rest of this EXAMPLES section unless  you  are	a  system  administrator  who  is
       vaguely familiar with sendmail.cf syntax.

       The  -m	option	is typically used when procmail is called from within a rule in the send-
       mail.cf file.  In order to be able to do this it is convenient to create an  extra  `proc-
       mail'  mailer in your sendmail.cf file (in addition to the perhaps already present `local'
       mailer that starts up procmail).  To create such a `procmail' mailer I'd suggest something

	      Mprocmail, P=/usr/bin/procmail, F=mSDFMhun, S=11, R=21,
		      A=procmail -m $h $g $u

       This enables you to use rules like the following (most likely in ruleset 0) to filter mail
       through the procmail mailer (please note the leading tab to continue the rule, and the tab
       to separate the comments):

		      $#procmail $@/etc/procmailrcs/some.rc $:$1@some.where.procmail$2
		      $1<@$2>$3       Already filtered, map back

       And /etc/procmailrcs/some.rc could be as simple as:

	      SENDER = "<$1>"		      # fix for empty sender addresses
	      SHIFT = 1 		      # remove it from $@

	      :0			      # sink all junk mail
	      * ^Subject:.*junk

	      :0 w			      # pass along all other mail
	      ! -oi -f "$SENDER" "$@"

       Do  watch out when sending mail from within the /etc/procmailrcs/some.rc file, if you send
       mail to addresses which match the first rule again, you could be creating an endless  mail

       /etc/passwd	      to set the recipient's LOGNAME, HOME and SHELL variable defaults

			      system mailbox; both the system mailbox and the immediate directory
			      it is in will be created every time procmail starts and either  one
			      is not present

       /etc/procmailrc	      initial global rcfile

       /etc/procmailrcs/      special privileges path for rcfiles

       $HOME/.procmailrc      default rcfile

			      lockfile	for  the  system mailbox (not automatically used by proc-
			      mail, unless $DEFAULT equals /var/spool/mail/$LOGNAME and  procmail
			      is delivering to $DEFAULT)

       /usr/sbin/sendmail     default mail forwarder

       _????`hostname`	      temporary `unique' zero-length files created by procmail

       procmailrc(5), procmailsc(5), procmailex(5), sh(1), csh(1), mail(1), mailx(1), binmail(1),
       uucp(1), aliases(5), sendmail(8), egrep(1), grep(1), biff(1), comsat(8), lockfile(1),
       formail(1), cron(1)

       Autoforwarding mailbox found
			      The  system  mailbox  had its suid or sgid bit set, procmail termi-
			      nates with EX_NOUSER assuming that this mailbox must not be  deliv-
			      ered to.

       Bad substitution of "x"
			      Not a valid environment variable name specified.

       Closing brace unexpected
			      There was no corresponding opening brace (nesting block).

       Conflicting options    Not all option combinations are useful

       Conflicting x suppressed
			      Flag x is not compatible with some other flag on this recipe.

       Couldn't create "x"    The system mailbox was missing and could not/will not be created.

       Couldn't create maildir part "x"
			      The  maildir folder "x" is missing one or more required subdirecto-
			      ries and procmail could not create them.

       Couldn't create or rename temp file "x"
			      An error occurred in the mechanics of  delivering to the	directory
			      folder "x".

       Couldn't determine implicit lockfile from "x"
			      There were no `>>' redirectors to be found, using simply `$LOCKEXT'
			      as locallockfile.

       Couldn't read "x"      Procmail was unable to open an rcfile or it was not a regular file,
			      or  procmail couldn't open an MH directory to find the highest num-
			      bered file.

       Couldn't unlock "x"    Lockfile was already gone, or write  permission  to  the	directory
			      where the lockfile is has been denied.

       Deadlock attempted on "x"
			      The  locallockfile specified on this recipe is equal to a still ac-
			      tive $LOCKFILE.

       Denying special privileges for "x"
			      Procmail will not take on the identity that comes with  the  rcfile
			      because  a  security  violation was found (e.g.  -p or variable as-
			      signments on the command line) or procmail had insufficient  privi-
			      leges to do so.

       Descriptor "x" was not open
			      As  procmail was started, stdin, stdout or stderr was not connected
			      (possibly an attempt to subvert security)

       Enforcing stricter permissions on "x"
			      The system mailbox of the recipient  was	found  to  be  unsecured,
			      procmail secured it.

       Error while writing to "x"
			      Nonexistent  subdirectory,  no  write permission, pipe died or disk

       Exceeded LINEBUF       Buffer overflow detected, LINEBUF was too small,	PROCMAIL_OVERFLOW
			      has been set.

       MAILDIR is not an absolute path

       MAILDIR path too long

       ORGMAIL is not an absolute path

       ORGMAIL path too long

       default rcfile is not an absolute path

       default rcfile path too long
			      The  specified  item's  full  path,  when expanded, was longer than
			      LINEBUF or didn't start with a file separator.

       Excessive output quenched from "x"
			      The program or filter "x" tried to produce too much output for  the
			      current  LINEBUF,  the rest was discarded and PROCMAIL_OVERFLOW has
			      been set.

       Extraneous x ignored   The action line or other flags on this recipe makes flag x meaning-

       Failed forking "x"     Process table is full (and NORESRETRY has been exhausted).

       Failed to execute "x"  Program not in path, or not executable.

       Forced unlock denied on "x"
			      No write permission in the directory where lockfile "x" resides, or
			      more than one procmail trying to force a lock at exactly	the  same

       Forcing lock on "x"    Lockfile	"x"  is going to be removed by force because of a timeout
			      (see also: LOCKTIMEOUT).

       Incomplete recipe      The start of a recipe was found, but it stranded in an EOF.

       Insufficient privileges
			      Procmail either needs root  privileges,  or  must  have  the  right
			      (e)uid and (e)gid to run in delivery mode.  The mail will bounce.

       Invalid regexp "x"     The  regular expression "x" contains errors (most likely some miss-
			      ing or extraneous parens).

       Kernel-lock failed     While trying to use the kernel-supported locking calls, one of them
			      failed (usually indicates an OS error), procmail ignores this error
			      and proceeds.

       Kernel-unlock failed   See above.

       Lock failure on "x"    Can only occur if you specify some real weird (and  illegal)  lock-
			      filenames or if the lockfile could not be created because of insuf-
			      ficient permissions or nonexistent subdirectories.

       Lost "x" 	      Procmail tried to clone itself but could not find back  rcfile  "x"
			      (it  either  got	removed or it was a relative path and you changed
			      directory since procmail opened it last time).

       Missing action	      The current recipe was found to be incomplete.

       Missing closing brace  A nesting block was started, but never finished.

       Missing name	      The -f option needs an extra argument.

       Missing argument       You specified the -a option but forgot the argument.

       Missing rcfile	      You specified the -m option, procmail expects the name of an rcfile
			      as argument.

       Missing recipient      You  specified  the  -d option or called procmail under a different
			      name, it expects one or more recipients as arguments.

       No space left to finish writing "x"
			      The filesystem containing "x" does not have enough  free	space  to
			      permit delivery of the message to the file.

       Out of memory	      The  system  is out of swap space (and NORESRETRY has been exhaust-

       Processing continued   The unrecognised options on the command line are ignored,  proceed-
			      ing as usual.

       Program failure (nnn) of "x"
			      Program  that  was  started by procmail returned nnn instead of EX-
			      IT_SUCCESS (=0); if nnn is negative, then this is  the  signal  the
			      program died on.

       Quota exceeded while writing "x"
			      The  filesize  quota for the recipient on the filesystem containing
			      "x" does not permit delivering the message to the file.

       Renaming bogus "x" into "x"
			      The system mailbox of the recipient was found to be bogus, procmail
			      performed evasive actions.

       Rescue of unfiltered data succeeded/failed
			      A  filter  returned  unsuccessfully, procmail tried to get back the
			      original text.

       Skipped: "x"	      Couldn't do anything with "x" in the rcfile (syntax error),  ignor-
			      ing it.

       Suspicious rcfile "x"  The owner of the rcfile was not the recipient or root, the file was
			      world writable, or  the  directory  that	contained  it  was  world
			      writable,  or  this  was the default rcfile ($HOME/.procmailrc) and
			      either it was group writable or the directory that contained it was
			      group writable (the rcfile was not used).

       Terminating prematurely whilst waiting for ...
			      Procmail received a signal while it was waiting for ...

       Timeout, terminating "x"
			      Timeout has occurred on program or filter "x".

       Timeout, was waiting for "x"
			      Timeout  has  occurred on program, filter or file "x".  If it was a
			      program or filter, then it didn't seem to be running anymore.

       Truncated file to former size
			      The file could not be delivered to successfully, so  the	file  was
			      truncated to its former size.

       Truncating "x" and retrying lock
			      "x" does not seem to be a valid filename or the file is not empty.

       Unable to treat as directory "x"
			      Either  the suffix on "x" would indicate that it should be an MH or
			      maildir folder, or it was listed as an second folder into which  to
			      link, but it already exists and is not a directory.

       Unexpected EOL	      Missing closing quote, or trying to escape EOF.

       Unknown user "x"       The specified recipient does not have a corresponding uid.

       Extended diagnostics can be turned on and off through setting the VERBOSE variable.

       [pid] time & date      Procmail's pid and a timestamp.  Generated whenever procmail logs a
			      diagnostic and at least a second has elapsed since the  last  time-

       Acquiring kernel-lock  Procmail	now  tries  to	kernel-lock the most recently opened file

       Assigning "x"	      Environment variable assignment.

       Assuming identity of the recipient, VERBOSE=off
			      Dropping all privileges (if any), implicitly turns off extended di-

       Bypassed locking "x"   The  mail spool directory was not accessible to procmail, it relied
			      solely on kernel locks.

       Executing "x"	      Starting program "x".  If it is started by procmail directly (with-
			      out  an  intermediate shell), procmail will show where it separated
			      the arguments by inserting commas.

       HOST mismatched "x"    This host was called "x", HOST contained something else.

       Locking "x"	      Creating lockfile "x".

       Linking to "x"	      Creating a hardlink between directory folders.

       Match on "x"	      Condition matched.

       Matched "x"	      Assigned "x" to MATCH.

       No match on "x"	      Condition didn't match, recipe skipped.

       Non-zero exitcode (nnn) by "x"
			      Program that was started by procmail as a condition or as  the  ac-
			      tion  of	a  recipe  with  the `W' flag returned nnn instead of EX-
			      IT_SUCCESS (=0); the usage indicates that this is not  an  entirely
			      unexpected condition.

       Notified comsat: "$LOGNAME@offset:file"
			      Sent  comsat/biff  a  notice that mail arrived for user $LOGNAME at
			      `offset' in `file'.

       Opening "x"	      Opening file "x" for appending.

       Rcfile: "x"	      Rcfile changed to "x".

       Reiterating kernel-lock
			      While attempting several locking	methods,  one  of  these  failed.
			      Procmail will reiterate until they all succeed in rapid succession.

       Score: added newtotal "x"
			      This  condition  scored `added' points, which resulted in a `newto-
			      tal' score.

       Unlocking "x"	      Removing lockfile "x" again.

       You should create a shell script that uses lockfile(1) before invoking your mail shell  on
       any mailbox file other than the system mailbox (unless of course, your mail shell uses the
       same lockfiles (local or global) you specified in your rcfile).

       In the unlikely event that you absolutely need to kill procmail before  it  has	finished,
       first  try and use the regular kill command (i.e., not kill -9, see the subsection Signals
       for suggestions), otherwise some lockfiles might not get removed.

       Beware when using the -t option, if procmail repeatedly is  unable  to  deliver	the  mail
       (e.g., due to an incorrect rcfile), the system mailqueue could fill up.	This could aggra-
       vate both the local postmaster and other users.

       The /etc/procmailrc file might be executed with root privileges, so  be	very  careful  of
       what  you put in it.  SHELL will be equal to that of the current recipient, so if procmail
       has to invoke the shell, you'd better set it to some safe value first.  See  also :  DROP-

       Keep in mind that if chown(1) is permitted on files in /etc/procmailrcs/, that they can be
       chowned to root (or anyone else) by their current owners.  For maximum security, make sure
       this directory is executable to root only.

       Procmail is not the proper tool for sharing one mailbox among many users, such as when you
       have one POP account for all mail to your domain. It can be done if you manage to  config-
       ure  your  MTA to add some headers with the envelope recipient data in order to tell Proc-
       mail who a message is for, but this is usually not the right thing  to  do.   Perhaps  you
       want to investigate if your MTA offers `virtual user tables', or check out the `multidrop'
       facility of Fetchmail.

       After removing a lockfile by force, procmail waits $SUSPEND seconds before creating a  new
       lockfile so that another process that decides to remove the stale lockfile will not remove
       the newly created lock by mistake.

       Procmail uses the regular TERMINATE signal to terminate any runaway filter,  but  it  does
       not check if the filter responds to that signal and it only sends it to the filter itself,
       not to any of the filter's children.

       A continued Content-Length: field is not handled correctly.

       The embedded newlines in a continued header should be skipped when matching instead of be-
       ing treated as a single space as they are now.

       If  there is an existing Content-Length: field in the header of the mail and the -Y option
       is not specified, procmail will trim the field to report the correct size.  Procmail  does
       not change the fieldwidth.

       If  there is no Content-Length: field or the -Y option has been specified and procmail ap-
       pends to regular mailfolders, any lines in the body of the message that	look  like  post-
       marks  are prepended with `>' (disarms bogus mailheaders).  The regular expression that is
       used to search for these postmarks is:
	      `\nFrom '

       If the destination name used in explicit delivery mode is  not  in  /etc/passwd,  procmail
       will  proceed as if explicit delivery mode was not in effect.  If not in explicit delivery
       mode and should the uid procmail is running under, have no corresponding  /etc/passwd  en-
       try,  then  HOME  will  default	to /, LOGNAME will default to #uid, SHELL will default to
       /bin/sh, and ORGMAIL will default to /tmp/dead.letter.

       When in explicit delivery mode, procmail will generate a leading `From ' line if  none  is
       present.  If one is already present procmail will leave it intact.  If procmail is not in-
       voked with one of the following user or group ids: root, daemon, uucp,  mail,  x400,  net-
       work,  list, slist, lists or news, but still has to generate or accept a new `From ' line,
       it will generate an additional `>From ' line to help distinguish fake mails.

       For security reasons procmail will only use an absolute or $HOME-relative rcfile if it  is
       owned  by  the recipient or root, not world writable, and the directory it is contained in
       is not world writable.  The $HOME/.procmailrc file has the additional  constraint  of  not
       being group-writable or in a group-writable directory.

       If /var/spool/mail/$LOGNAME is a bogus mailbox (i.e., does not belong to the recipient, is
       unwritable, is a symbolic link or is a hard link), procmail will upon startup try  to  re-
       name  it into a file starting with `BOGUS.$LOGNAME.' and ending in an inode-sequence-code.
       If this turns out to be impossible, ORGMAIL will have no initial value, and hence will in-
       hibit delivery without a proper rcfile.

       If  /var/spool/mail/$LOGNAME already is a valid mailbox, but has got too loose permissions
       on it, procmail will correct this.  To prevent procmail from doing this make sure the  u+x
       bit is set.

       When  delivering  to  directories,  MH  folders, or maildir folders, you don't need to use
       lockfiles to prevent several concurrently running procmail programs from messing up.

       Delivering to MH folders is slightly more time consuming than delivering to normal  direc-
       tories or mailboxes, because procmail has to search for the next available number (instead
       of having the filename immediately available).

       On general failure procmail will return EX_CANTCREAT, unless option -t  is  specified,  in
       which case it will return EX_TEMPFAIL.

       To make `egrepping' of headers more consistent, procmail concatenates all continued header
       fields; but only internally.  When delivering the mail, line breaks will appear as before.

       If procmail is called under a name not starting with `procmail' (e.g., if it is linked  to
       another	name and invoked as such), it comes up in explicit delivery mode, and expects the
       recipients' names as command line arguments (as if -d had been specified).

       Comsat/biff notifications are done using udp.  They are sent off once when procmail gener-
       ates  the  regular  logfile  entry.  The notification messages have the following extended
       format (or as close as you can get when final delivery was not to a file):

       Whenever procmail itself opens a file to deliver to, it consistently  uses  the	following
       kernel locking strategies: fcntl(2).

       Procmail is NFS-resistant and eight-bit clean.

       Calling up procmail with the -h or -? options will cause it to display a command-line help
       and recipe flag quick-reference page.

       There exists an excellent newbie FAQ about mailfilters (and procmail in particular); it is
       maintained by Nancy McGough <nancym@ii.com> and can be obtained by sending a mail to mail-
       server@rtfm.mit.edu with the following in the body:
	      send usenet/news.answers/mail/filtering-faq

       Instead of using the system provided invocation of procmail when  mail  arrives,  you  can
       control the invocation of procmail yourself.  In this case your $HOME/.forward (beware, it
       has to be world readable) file should contain the line below.  Be sure to include the sin-
       gle and double quotes, and unless you know your site to be running smrsh (the SendMail Re-
       stricted SHell), it must be an absolute path.

       "|exec /usr/bin/procmail"

       Procmail can also be invoked to postprocess an already filled system mailbox.  This can be
       useful  if you don't want to or can't use a $HOME/.forward file (in which case the follow-
       ing script could periodically be called from within cron(1), or whenever you start reading



	      if cd $HOME &&
	       test -s $ORGMAIL &&
	       lockfile -r0 -l1024 .newmail.lock 2>/dev/null
		trap "rm -f .newmail.lock" 1 2 3 13 15
		umask 077
		lockfile -l1024 -ml
		cat $ORGMAIL >>.newmail &&
		 cat /dev/null >$ORGMAIL
		lockfile -mu
		formail -s procmail <.newmail &&
		 rm -f .newmail
		rm -f .newmail.lock
	      exit 0

   A sample small $HOME/.procmailrc:
       MAILDIR=$HOME/Mail      #you'd better make sure it exists
       DEFAULT=$MAILDIR/mbox   #completely optional
       LOGFILE=$MAILDIR/from   #recommended

       * ^From.*berg

       * ^Subject:.*Flame

       Other examples for rcfile recipes can be looked up in the procmailex(5) man page.

       This  program  is  part	of  the  procmail  mail-processing-package  (v3.22)  available at
       http://www.procmail.org/ or ftp.procmail.org in pub/procmail/.

       There exists a mailinglist for questions relating to any program in the procmail package:
		     for submitting questions/answers.
		     for subscription requests.

       If you would like to stay informed about new versions and official  patches  send  a  sub-
       scription request to
       (this is a readonly list).

       Stephen R. van den Berg
       Philip A. Guenther

BuGless 				    2001/08/27				      PROCMAIL(1)

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