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RedHat 9 (Linux i386) - man page for syslogd (redhat section 8)

SYSKLOGD(8)			   Linux System Administration			      SYSKLOGD(8)

NAME
       sysklogd - Linux system logging utilities.

SYNOPSIS
       syslogd	[  -a socket ] [ -d ] [ -f config file ] [ -h ] [ -l hostlist ] [ -m interval ] [
       -n ] [ -p socket ] [ -r ] [ -s domainlist ] [ -v ] [ -x ]

DESCRIPTION
       Sysklogd provides two system utilities which provide support for system logging and kernel
       message	trapping.   Support of both internet and unix domain sockets enables this utility
       package to support both local and remote logging.

       System logging is provided by a version of syslogd(8) derived from the stock BSD  sources.
       Support for kernel logging is provided by the klogd(8) utility which allows kernel logging
       to be conducted in either a standalone fashion or as a client of syslogd.

       Syslogd provides a kind of logging that many modern programs use.   Every  logged  message
       contains  at  least  a  time and a hostname field, normally a program name field, too, but
       that depends on how trusty the logging program is.

       While the syslogd sources have been heavily modified a  couple  of  notes  are  in  order.
       First  of  all  there  has  been  a  systematic attempt to insure that syslogd follows its
       default, standard BSD behavior.	The second important concept to note is that this version
       of  syslogd  interacts  transparently  with  the  version  of syslog found in the standard
       libraries.  If a binary linked to the standard shared libraries	fails  to  function  cor-
       rectly we would like an example of the anomalous behavior.

       The  main  configuration  file  /etc/syslog.conf or an alternative file, given with the -f
       option, is read at startup.  Any lines that begin with the hash	mark  (``#'')  and  empty
       lines are ignored.  If an error occurs during parsing the whole line is ignored.

OPTIONS
       -a socket
	      Using  this  argument  you  can specify additional sockets from that syslogd has to
	      listen to.  This is needed if you're going to let some daemon run within a chroot()
	      environment.   You  can use up to 19 additional sockets.	If your environment needs
	      even more, you have to increase the symbol MAXFUNIX  within  the	syslogd.c  source
	      file.   An example for a chroot() daemon is described by the people from OpenBSD at
	      http://www.psionic.com/papers/dns.html.

       -d     Turns on debug mode.  Using this the daemon will	not  proceed  a  fork(2)  to  set
	      itself  in  the  background,  but opposite to that stay in the foreground and write
	      much debug information on the current tty.  See  the  DEBUGGING  section	for  more
	      information.

       -f config file
	      Specify an alternative configuration file instead of /etc/syslog.conf, which is the
	      default.

       -h     By default syslogd will not forward messages it receives from remote hosts.  Speci-
	      fying  this  switch  on  the  command line will cause the log daemon to forward any
	      remote messages it receives to forwarding hosts which have been defined.

       -l hostlist
	      Specify a hostname that should be logged only with its simple hostname and not  the
	      fqdn.  Multiple hosts may be specified using the colon (``:'') separator.

       -m interval
	      The  syslogd  logs a mark timestamp regularly.  The default interval between two --
	      MARK -- lines is 20 minutes.  This can be changed with this  option.   Setting  the
	      interval to zero turns it off entirely.

       -n     Avoid  auto-backgrounding.  This is needed especially if the syslogd is started and
	      controlled by init(8).

       -p socket
	      You can specify an alternative unix domain socket instead of /dev/log.

       -r     This option will enable the facility to receive message from the network	using  an
	      internet	domain	socket with the syslog service (see services(5)).  The default is
	      to not receive any messages from the network.

	      This option is introduced in version 1.3 of the sysklogd package.  Please note that
	      the  default  behavior  is  the opposite of how older versions behave, so you might
	      have to turn this on.

       -s domainlist
	      Specify a domainname that should be stripped off before logging.	Multiple  domains
	      may be specified using the colon (``:'') separator.  Please be advised that no sub-
	      domains may be specified but only entire domains.  For example if  -s  north.de  is
	      specified  and  the host logging resolves to satu.infodrom.north.de no domain would
	      be cut, you will have to specify two domains like: -s north.de:infodrom.north.de.

       -v     Print version and exit.

       -x     Disable name lookups when receiving remote messages.  This  avoids  deadlocks  when
	      the nameserver is running on the same machine that runs the syslog daemon.

SIGNALS
       Syslogd	reacts	to  a  set of signals.	You may easily send a signal to syslogd using the
       following:

	      kill -SIGNAL `cat /var/run/syslogd.pid`

       SIGHUP This lets syslogd perform a re-initialization.  All open files are closed, the con-
	      figuration  file	(default  is  /etc/syslog.conf)  will be reread and the syslog(3)
	      facility is started again.

       SIGTERM
	      The syslogd will die.

       SIGINT, SIGQUIT
	      If debugging is enabled these are ignored, otherwise syslogd will die.

       SIGUSR1
	      Switch debugging on/off.	This option can only be used if syslogd is  started  with
	      the -d debug option.

       SIGCHLD
	      Wait for childs if some were born, because of wall'ing messages.

CONFIGURATION FILE SYNTAX DIFFERENCES
       Syslogd	uses a slightly different syntax for its configuration file than the original BSD
       sources.  Originally all messages of a specific priority and above were forwarded  to  the
       log file.

	      For  example  the  following  line  caused ALL output from daemons using the daemon
	      facilities (debug is the lowest priority, so every higher will also  match)  to  go
	      into /usr/adm/daemons:

		   # Sample syslog.conf
		   daemon.debug 	    /usr/adm/daemons

       Under  the  new	scheme this behavior remains the same.	The difference is the addition of
       four new specifiers, the asterisk (*) wildcard, the equation  sign  (=),  the  exclamation
       mark (!), and the minus sign (-).

       The  *  specifies  that	all messages for the specified facility are to be directed to the
       destination.  Note that this behavior is degenerate with specifying a  priority	level  of
       debug.  Users have indicated that the asterisk notation is more intuitive.

       The  = wildcard is used to restrict logging to the specified priority class.  This allows,
       for example, routing only debug messages to a particular logging source.

	      For example the following line in syslog.conf would direct debug messages from  all
	      sources to the /usr/adm/debug file.

		   # Sample syslog.conf
		   *.=debug	       /usr/adm/debug

       The ! is used to exclude logging of the specified priorities.  This affects all (!) possi-
       bilities of specifying priorities.

	      For example the following lines would log all messages of the facility mail  except
	      those  with  the	priority  info	to the /usr/adm/mail file.  And all messages from
	      news.info (including) to news.crit (excluding) would be logged to the /usr/adm/news
	      file.

		   # Sample syslog.conf
		   mail.*;mail.!=info	    /usr/adm/mail
		   news.info;news.!crit     /usr/adm/news

       You  may use it intuitively as an exception specifier.  The above mentioned interpretation
       is simply inverted.  Doing that you may use

	    mail.none
       or
	    mail.!*
       or
	    mail.!debug

       to skip every message that comes with a mail facility.  There is much room  to  play  with
       it. :-)

       The  -  may  only be used to prefix a filename if you want to omit sync'ing the file after
       every write to it.

       This may take some acclimatization for those individuals used to the pure BSD behavior but
       testers	have  indicated that this syntax is somewhat more flexible than the BSD behavior.
       Note that these changes should not affect standard syslog.conf(5) files.  You must specif-
       ically modify the configuration files to obtain the enhanced behavior.

SUPPORT FOR REMOTE LOGGING
       These  modifications  provide  network  support	to the syslogd facility.  Network support
       means that messages can be forwarded from one node running syslogd to another node running
       syslogd where they will be actually logged to a disk file.

       To  enable this you have to specify the -r option on the command line.  The default behav-
       ior is that syslogd won't listen to the network.

       The strategy is to have syslogd listen on a unix domain socket for locally  generated  log
       messages.   This behavior will allow syslogd to inter-operate with the syslog found in the
       standard C library.  At the same time syslogd listens on the standard syslog port for mes-
       sages forwarded from other hosts.  To have this work correctly the services(5) files (typ-
       ically found in /etc) must have the following entry:

		   syslog	   514/udp

       If this entry is missing syslogd neither  can  receive  remote  messages  nor  send  them,
       because the UDP port cant be opened.  Instead syslogd will die immediately, blowing out an
       error message.

       To cause messages to be forwarded to another host replace the normal file line in the sys-
       log.conf file with the name of the host to which the messages is to be sent prepended with
       an @.

	      For example, to forward ALL messages to a remote host use the following syslog.conf
	      entry:

		   # Sample syslogd configuration file to
		   # messages to a remote host forward all.
		   *.*		  @hostname

	      To  forward all kernel messages to a remote host the configuration file would be as
	      follows:

		   # Sample configuration file to forward all kernel
		   # messages to a remote host.
		   kern.*	  @hostname

       If the remote hostname cannot be resolved at startup, because the name-server might not be
       accessible  (it may be started after syslogd) you don't have to worry.  Syslogd will retry
       to resolve the name ten times and then complain.  Another possibility to avoid this is  to
       place the hostname in /etc/hosts.

       With  normal  syslogds  you  would  get	syslog-loops  if  you send out messages that were
       received from a remote host to the same host (or more complicated to  a	third  host  that
       sends  it  back	to the first one, and so on).  In my domain (Infodrom Oldenburg) we acci-
       dently got one and our disks filled up with the same single message. :-(

       To avoid this in further times no messages that were received from a remote host are  sent
       out  to	another  (or  the  same)  remote host anymore.	If there are scenarios where this
       doesn't make sense, please drop me (Joey) a line.

       If the remote host is located in the same domain as the host, syslogd is running on,  only
       the simple hostname will be logged instead of the whole fqdn.

       In a local network you may provide a central log server to have all the important informa-
       tion kept on one machine.  If the network consists of different domains you don't have  to
       complain about logging fully qualified names instead of simple hostnames.  You may want to
       use the strip-domain feature -s of this server.	You can tell the  syslogd  to  strip  off
       several domains other than the one the server is located in and only log simple hostnames.

       Using  the  -l option there's also a possibility to define single hosts as local machines.
       This, too, results in logging only their simple hostnames and not the fqdns.

       The UDP socket used to forward messages to remote hosts or to receive messages  from  them
       is  only  opened  when it is needed.  In releases prior to 1.3-23 it was opened every time
       but not opened for reading or forwarding respectively.

OUTPUT TO NAMED PIPES (FIFOs)
       This version of syslogd has support for logging output to named pipes (fifos).  A fifo  or
       named  pipe  can  be  used  as  a destination for log messages by prepending a pipy symbol
       (``|'') to the name of the file.  This is handy for debugging.  Note that the fifo must be
       created with the mkfifo command before syslogd is started.

	      The following configuration file routes debug messages from the kernel to a fifo:

		   # Sample configuration to route kernel debugging
		   # messages ONLY to /usr/adm/debug which is a
		   # named pipe.
		   kern.=debug		    |/usr/adm/debug

INSTALLATION CONCERNS
       There  is  probably  one  important consideration when installing this version of syslogd.
       This version of syslogd is dependent on proper formatting of messages by the syslog  func-
       tion.  The functioning of the syslog function in the shared libraries changed somewhere in
       the region of libc.so.4.[2-4].n.  The specific change was to  null-terminate  the  message
       before transmitting it to the /dev/log socket.  Proper functioning of this version of sys-
       logd is dependent on null-termination of the message.

       This problem will typically manifest itself if old statically linked  binaries  are  being
       used  on  the system.  Binaries using old versions of the syslog function will cause empty
       lines to be logged followed by the  message  with  the  first  character  in  the  message
       removed.   Relinking these binaries to newer versions of the shared libraries will correct
       this problem.

       Both the syslogd(8) and the klogd(8) can either be run from init(8) or started as part  of
       the  rc.*   sequence.   If  it  is  started from init the option -n must be set, otherwise
       you'll get tons of syslog daemons started.  This is because init(8) depends on the process
       ID.

SECURITY THREATS
       There is the potential for the syslogd daemon to be used as a conduit for a denial of ser-
       vice attack.  Thanks go to John Morrison (jmorriso@rflab.ee.ubc.ca)  for  alerting  me  to
       this potential.	A rogue program(mer) could very easily flood the syslogd daemon with sys-
       log messages resulting in the log files consuming all the remaining space on the  filesys-
       tem.   Activating  logging  over the inet domain sockets will of course expose a system to
       risks outside of programs or individuals on the local machine.

       There are a number of methods of protecting a machine:

       1.     Implement kernel firewalling to limit which hosts or networks have  access  to  the
	      514/UDP socket.

       2.     Logging  can  be	directed  to an isolated or non-root filesystem which, if filled,
	      will not impair the machine.

       3.     The ext2 filesystem can be used which can be configured to limit a certain percent-
	      age  of a filesystem to usage by root only.  NOTE that this will require syslogd to
	      be run as a non-root process.  ALSO NOTE that this will  prevent	usage  of  remote
	      logging since syslogd will be unable to bind to the 514/UDP socket.

       4.     Disabling inet domain sockets will limit risk to the local machine.

       5.     Use step 4 and if the problem persists and is not secondary to a rogue program/dae-
	      mon get a 3.5 ft (approx. 1 meter) length of sucker rod* and have a chat	with  the
	      user in question.

	      Sucker  rod def. -- 3/4, 7/8 or 1in. hardened steel rod, male threaded on each end.
	      Primary use in the oil industry in Western North Dakota and other locations to pump
	      'suck'  oil from oil wells.  Secondary uses are for the construction of cattle feed
	      lots and for dealing with the occasional recalcitrant or belligerent individual.

DEBUGGING
       When debugging is turned on using -d option then syslogd will be very verbose  by  writing
       much  of  what it does on stdout.  Whenever the configuration file is reread and re-parsed
       you'll see a tabular, corresponding to the internal data structure.  This tabular consists
       of four fields:

       number This  field  contains a serial number starting by zero.  This number represents the
	      position in the internal data structure (i.e. the array).  If one  number  is  left
	      out then there might be an error in the corresponding line in /etc/syslog.conf.

       pattern
	      This  field  is tricky and represents the internal structure exactly.  Every column
	      stands for a facility (refer to syslog(3)).  As you can see, there are  still  some
	      facilities left free for former use, only the left most are used.  Every field in a
	      column represents the priorities (refer to syslog(3)).

       action This field describes the particular action that takes place whenever a  message  is
	      received	that  matches  the  pattern.  Refer to the syslog.conf(5) manpage for all
	      possible actions.

       arguments
	      This field shows additional arguments to the actions in the last field.  For  file-
	      logging  this  is  the filename for the logfile; for user-logging this is a list of
	      users; for remote logging this is the hostname of the machine to log to;	for  con-
	      sole-logging  this  is the used console; for tty-logging this is the specified tty;
	      wall has no additional arguments.

FILES
       /etc/syslog.conf
	      Configuration file for syslogd.  See syslog.conf(5) for exact information.
       /dev/log
	      The Unix domain socket to from where local syslog messages are read.
       /var/run/syslogd.pid
	      The file containing the process id of syslogd.

BUGS
       If an error occurs in one line the whole rule is ignored.

       Syslogd doesn't change the filemode of opened logfiles at any stage of process.	If a file
       is  created  it	is  world readable.  If you want to avoid this, you have to create it and
       change permissions on your own.	This could be done in combination with rotating  logfiles
       using the savelog(8) program that is shipped in the smail 3.x distribution.  Remember that
       it might be a security hole if everybody is able to read auth.* messages  as  these  might
       contain passwords.

SEE ALSO
       syslog.conf(5), klogd(8), logger(1), syslog(2), syslog(3), services(5), savelog(8)

COLLABORATORS
       Syslogd	is  taken from BSD sources, Greg Wettstein (greg@wind.enjellic.com) performed the
       port to Linux, Martin Schulze (joey@linux.de) fixed some bugs and added several	new  fea-
       tures.	Klogd  was  originally written by Steve Lord (lord@cray.com), Greg Wettstein made
       major improvements.

       Dr. Greg Wettstein
       Enjellic Systems Development
       Oncology Research Division Computing Facility
       Roger Maris Cancer Center
       Fargo, ND
       greg@wind.enjellic.com

       Stephen Tweedie
       Department of Computer Science
       Edinburgh University, Scotland
       sct@dcs.ed.ac.uk

       Juha Virtanen
       jiivee@hut.fi

       Shane Alderton
       shane@ion.apana.org.au

       Martin Schulze
       Infodrom Oldenburg
       joey@linux.de

Version 1.3				 12 October 1998			      SYSKLOGD(8)


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