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RedHat 9 (Linux i386) - man page for sendmail (redhat section 8)

SENDMAIL(8)			     System Manager's Manual			      SENDMAIL(8)

       sendmail - an electronic mail transport agent

       sendmail [flags] [address ...]
       mailq [-v]

       Sendmail sends a message to one or more recipients, routing the message over whatever net-
       works are necessary.  Sendmail does internetwork forwarding as necessary  to  deliver  the
       message to the correct place.

       Sendmail is not intended as a user interface routine; other programs provide user-friendly
       front ends; sendmail is used only to deliver pre-formatted messages.

       With no flags, sendmail reads its standard input up to an end-of-file or a line consisting
       only  of  a single dot and sends a copy of the message found there to all of the addresses
       listed.	It determines the network(s) to use based on  the  syntax  and	contents  of  the

       Local  addresses  are looked up in a file and aliased appropriately.  Aliasing can be pre-
       vented by preceding the address with a backslash.  Beginning  with  8.10,  the  sender  is
       included  in  any alias expansions, e.g., if `john' sends to `group', and `group' includes
       `john' in the expansion, then the letter will also be delivered to `john'.

       -Ac    Use submit.cf even if the operation mode does not indicate an initial mail  submis-

       -Am    Use sendmail.cf even if the operation mode indicates an initial mail submission.

       -Btype Set the body type to type.  Current legal values are 7BIT or 8BITMIME.

       -ba    Go into ARPANET mode.  All input lines must end with a CR-LF, and all messages will
	      be generated with a CR-LF at the end.  Also, the ``From:'' and  ``Sender:''  fields
	      are examined for the name of the sender.

       -bd    Run  as  a daemon.  Sendmail will fork and run in background listening on socket 25
	      for incoming SMTP connections.  This is normally run from /etc/rc.

       -bD    Same as -bd except runs in foreground.

       -bh    Print the persistent host status database.

       -bH    Purge expired entries from the persistent host status database.

       -bi    Initialize the alias database.

       -bm    Deliver mail in the usual way (default).

       -bp    Print a listing of the queue(s).

       -bP    Print number of entries in the queue(s); only available with shared memory support.

       -bs    Use the SMTP protocol as described in RFC821 on standard input  and  output.   This
	      flag implies all the operations of the -ba flag that are compatible with SMTP.

       -bt    Run  in  address test mode.  This mode reads addresses and shows the steps in pars-
	      ing; it is used for debugging configuration tables.

       -bv    Verify names only - do not try to collect or deliver a  message.	 Verify  mode  is
	      normally used for validating users or mailing lists.

       -Cfile Use  alternate configuration file.  Sendmail refuses to run as root if an alternate
	      configuration file is specified.

       -dX    Set debugging value to X.

	      Set the full name of the sender.

       -fname Sets the name of the ``from'' person (i.e., the envelope sender of the mail).  This
	      address  may also be used in the From: header if that header is missing during ini-
	      tial submission.	The envelope sender address is used as the recipient for delivery
	      status  notifications and may also appear in a Return-Path: header.  -f should only
	      be used by ``trusted'' users (normally root, daemon, and network) or if the  person
	      you  are	trying	to  become  is	the same as the person you are.  Otherwise, an X-
	      Authentication-Warning header will be added to the message.

       -G     Relay (gateway) submission of a message, e.g., when rmail calls sendmail .

       -hN    Set the hop count to N.  The hop count is incremented every time the mail  is  pro-
	      cessed.	When  it reaches a limit, the mail is returned with an error message, the
	      victim of an aliasing loop.  If not specified, ``Received:'' lines in  the  message
	      are counted.

       -i     Ignore  dots alone on lines by themselves in incoming messages.  This should be set
	      if you are reading data from a file.

       -L tag Set the identifier used in syslog messages to the supplied tag.

       -N dsn Set delivery status notification conditions to dsn, which can  be  `never'  for  no
	      notifications  or  a comma separated list of the values `failure' to be notified if
	      delivery failed, `delay' to be notified if delivery is delayed, and `success' to be
	      notified when the message is successfully delivered.

       -n     Don't do aliasing.

       -O option=value
	      Set  option  option  to the specified value.  This form uses long names.	See below
	      for more details.

       -ox value
	      Set option x to the specified value.  This form uses single character  names  only.
	      The  short  names are not described in this manual page; see the Sendmail Installa-
	      tion and Operation Guide for details.

	      Set the name of the protocol used to receive the message.  This  can  be	a  simple
	      protocol name such as ``UUCP'' or a protocol and hostname, such as ``UUCP:ucbvax''.

	      Process  saved  messages	in  the  queue	at  given intervals.  If time is omitted,
	      process the queue once.  Time is given as a tagged number, with `s' being  seconds,
	      `m'  being minutes (default), `h' being hours, `d' being days, and `w' being weeks.
	      For example, `-q1h30m' or `-q90m' would both set the timeout  to	one  hour  thirty
	      minutes.	By default, sendmail will run in the background.  This option can be used
	      safely with -bd.

	      Similar to -qtime, except that instead of periodically forking a child  to  process
	      the  queue, sendmail forks a single persistent child for each queue that alternates
	      between processing the queue and sleeping.  The sleep time is given  as  the  argu-
	      ment; it defaults to 1 second.  The process will always sleep at least 5 seconds if
	      the queue was empty in the previous queue run.

       -qf    Process saved messages in the queue once and do not fork(), but run  in  the  fore-

       -qG name
	      Process jobs in queue group called name only.

       -q[!]I substr
	      Limit  processed	jobs to those containing substr as a substring of the queue id or
	      not when !  is specified.

       -q[!]R substr
	      Limit processed jobs to those containing substr as a substring of one of the recip-
	      ients or not when !  is specified.

       -q[!]S substr
	      Limit processed jobs to those containing substr as a substring of the sender or not
	      when !  is specified.

       -R return
	      Set the amount of the message to be returned if the message  bounces.   The  return
	      parameter  can  be `full' to return the entire message or `hdrs' to return only the
	      headers.	In the latter case also local bounces return only the headers.

       -rname An alternate and obsolete form of the -f flag.

       -t     Read message for recipients.  To:, Cc:, and Bcc: lines will be scanned for  recipi-
	      ent addresses.  The Bcc: line will be deleted before transmission.

       -V envid
	      Set  the original envelope id.  This is propagated across SMTP to servers that sup-
	      port DSNs and is returned in DSN-compliant error messages.

       -v     Go into verbose mode.  Alias expansions will be announced, etc.

       -X logfile
	      Log all traffic in and out of mailers in the indicated log file.	This should  only
	      be used as a last resort for debugging mailer bugs.  It will log a lot of data very

       --     Stop processing command flags and use the rest of the arguments as addresses.

       There are also a number of processing options that may be set.  Normally these  will  only
       be  used  by  a system administrator.  Options may be set either on the command line using
       the -o flag (for short names), the -O flag (for long names), or in the configuration file.
       This  is  a partial list limited to those options that are likely to be useful on the com-
       mand line and only shows the long names; for a complete list (and  details),  consult  the
       Sendmail Installation and Operation Guide.  The options are:

	      Use alternate alias file.

	      On  mailers that are considered ``expensive'' to connect to, don't initiate immedi-
	      ate connection.  This requires queueing.

	      Checkpoint the queue file after every N successful deliveries (default  10).   This
	      avoids  excessive  duplicate  deliveries	when sending to long mailing lists inter-
	      rupted by system crashes.

	      Set the delivery mode to x.  Delivery modes are `i' for  interactive  (synchronous)
	      delivery,  `b'  for  background (asynchronous) delivery, `q' for queue only - i.e.,
	      actual delivery is done the next time the queue is run, and `d' for deferred -  the
	      same  as	`q'  except  that  database lookups for maps which have set the -D option
	      (default for the host map) are avoided.

	      Set error processing to mode x.  Valid modes are `m' to mail back  the  error  mes-
	      sage, `w' to ``write'' back the error message (or mail it back if the sender is not
	      logged in), `p' to print the errors on the terminal (default), `q'  to  throw  away
	      error messages (only exit status is returned), and `e' to do special processing for
	      the BerkNet.  If the text of the message is not mailed back by modes `m' or `w' and
	      if  the  sender  is local to this machine, a copy of the message is appended to the
	      file dead.letter in the sender's home directory.

	      Save UNIX-style From lines at the front of messages.

	      The maximum number of times a message is allowed to ``hop'' before we decide it  is
	      in a loop.

	      Do not take dots on a line by themselves as a message terminator.

	      Send error messages in MIME format.  If not set, the DSN (Delivery Status Notifica-
	      tion) SMTP extension is disabled.

	      Set connection cache timeout.

	      Set connection cache size.

	      The log level.

	      Don't send to ``me'' (the sender) if I am in an alias expansion.

	      Validate the right hand side of aliases during a newaliases(1) command.

	      If set, this message may have old style headers.	If not set, this message is guar-
	      anteed  to  have	new  style  headers  (i.e.,  commas  instead  of  spaces  between
	      addresses).  If set, an adaptive algorithm is used that  will  correctly	determine
	      the header format in most cases.

	      Select the directory in which to queue messages.

	      Save statistics in the named file.

	      Set  the timeout on undelivered messages in the queue to the specified time.  After
	      delivery has failed (e.g., because of a host being down) for this amount	of  time,
	      failed messages will be returned to the sender.  The default is five days.

	      If  set,	a user database is consulted to get forwarding information.  You can con-
	      sider this an adjunct to the  aliasing  mechanism,  except  that	the  database  is
	      intended	to  be distributed; aliases are local to a particular host.  This may not
	      be available if your sendmail does not have the USERDB option compiled in.

	      Fork each job during queue runs.	May be convenient on memory-poor machines.

	      Strip incoming messages to seven bits.

	      Set the handling of eight bit input to seven bit destinations to mode:  m  (mimefy)
	      will  convert  to  seven-bit  MIME format, p (pass) will pass it as eight bits (but
	      violates protocols), and s (strict) will bounce the message.

	      Sets how long a job must ferment in the queue between attempts to send it.

	      Sets the default character set used to label  8-bit  data  that  is  not	otherwise

	      If  opening  a connection fails, sleep for sleeptime seconds and try again.  Useful
	      on dial-on-demand sites.

	      Set the behaviour when there are no recipient headers (To:, Cc:  or  Bcc:)  in  the
	      message to action: none leaves the message unchanged, add-to adds a To: header with
	      the envelope recipients, add-apparently-to adds an Apparently-To: header	with  the
	      envelope recipients, add-bcc adds an empty Bcc: header, and add-to-undisclosed adds
	      a header reading `To: undisclosed-recipients:;'.

	      Sets the maximum number of children that an incoming  SMTP  daemon  will	allow  to
	      spawn at any time to N.

	      Sets the maximum number of connections per second to the SMTP port to N.

       In aliases, the first character of a name may be a vertical bar to cause interpretation of
       the rest of the name as a command to pipe the mail to.  It may be necessary to  quote  the
       name  to keep sendmail from suppressing the blanks from between arguments.  For example, a
       common alias is:

	      msgs: "|/usr/bin/msgs -s"

       Aliases may also have the syntax ``:include:filename'' to ask sendmail to read  the  named
       file for a list of recipients.  For example, an alias such as:

	      poets: ":include:/usr/local/lib/poets.list"

       would read /usr/local/lib/poets.list for the list of addresses making up the group.

       Sendmail  returns an exit status describing what it did.  The codes are defined in <sysex-

       EX_OK  Successful completion on all addresses.

	      User name not recognized.

	      Catchall meaning necessary resources were not available.

	      Syntax error in address.

	      Internal software error, including bad arguments.

	      Temporary operating system error, such as ``cannot fork''.

	      Host name not recognized.

	      Message could not be sent immediately, but was queued.

       If invoked as newaliases, sendmail will rebuild the alias database.  If invoked as  mailq,
       sendmail will print the contents of the mail queue.  If invoked as hoststat, sendmail will
       print the persistent host status database.  If invoked as purgestat, sendmail  will  purge
       expired	entries  from the persistent host status database.  If invoked as smtpd, sendmail
       will act as a daemon, as if the -bd option were specified.

       sendmail often gets blamed for many problems that are actually the result of  other  prob-
       lems,  such  as	overly permissive modes on directories.  For this reason, sendmail checks
       the modes on system directories and files to determine if they can be  trusted.	 Although
       these  checks can be turned off and your system security reduced by setting the DontBlame-
       Sendmail option, the permission problems should be fixed.  For more information, see:


       Except for the file /etc/mail/sendmail.cf itself the following pathnames are all specified
       in /etc/mail/sendmail.cf.  Thus, these values are only approximations.

	      raw data for alias names

	      data base of alias names

	      configuration file

	      help file

	      collected statistics

	      temp files

       mail(1), rmail(1), syslog(3), aliases(5), mailaddr(7),

       DARPA  Internet	Request  For  Comments RFC819, RFC821, RFC822.	Sendmail Installation and
       Operation Guide, No. 8, SMM.


       The sendmail command appeared in 4.2BSD.

				   $Date: 2002/05/24 15:42:13 $ 		      SENDMAIL(8)

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