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convert(1)									       convert(1)


	      convert - convert an image or sequence of images

       convert [ options ... ] input_file output_file

       Convert	converts  an input file using one image format to an output file with a differing
       image format. In addition, various types of image processing can be performed on the  con-
       verted image during the conversion process. Convert recognizes the image formats listed in

       To make a thumbnail of a JPEG image, use:

	   convert -size 120x120 cockatoo.jpg -resize 120x120
		   +profile '*' thumbnail.jpg

       In this example, "-size 120x120" gives a hint to the JPEG decoder that the image is  going
       to  be downscaled to 120x120, allowing it to run faster by avoiding returning a full-reso-
       lution image.  The "-resize 120x120" specifies the desired dimensions of the output image.
       It  will be scaled so its largest dimension is 120 pixels.  The "+profile '*'" removes any
       ICM, EXIF, IPTC, or other profiles that might be present in the input and aren't needed in
       the thumbnail.

       To convert a MIFF image of a cockatoo to a SUN raster image, use:

	   convert cockatoo.miff sun:cockatoo.ras

       To convert a multi-page PostScript document to individual FAX pages, use:

	   convert -monochrome document.ps fax:page

       To convert a TIFF image to a PostScript A4 page with the image in the lower left-hand cor-
       ner, use:

	   convert -page A4+0+0 image.tiff document.ps

       To convert a raw Gray image with a 128 byte header to a portable graymap, use:

	   convert -depth 8 -size 768x512+128 gray:raw

       To convert a Photo CD image to a TIFF image, use:

	   convert -size 1536x1024 img0009.pcd image.tiff
	   convert img0009.pcd[4] image.tiff

       To create a visual image directory of all your JPEG images, use:

	   convert 'vid:*.jpg' directory.miff

       To annotate an image with blue text using font 12x24 at position (100,100), use:

	   convert -font helvetica -fill blue
		   -draw "text 100,100 Cockatoo"
		   bird.jpg bird.miff

       To tile a 640x480 image with a JPEG texture with bumps use:

	   convert -size 640x480 tile:bumps.jpg tiled.png

       To surround an icon with an ornamental border to use with Mosaic(1), use:

	   convert -mattecolor "#697B8F" -frame 6x6 bird.jpg

       To create a MNG animation from a DNA molecule sequence, use:

	   convert -delay 20 dna.* dna.mng

       Options are processed in command line order. Any option you specify on  the  command  line
       remains	in  effect for the set of images that follows, until the set is terminated by the
       appearance of any option or -noop.  Some options only affect the decoding  of  images  and
       others only the encoding.  The latter can appear after the final group of input images.

       For a more detailed description of each option, see ImageMagick(1).

	      join images into a single multi-image file

       -affine <matrix>
	      drawing transform matrix

	      remove pixel aliasing

	      append a set of images

	      average a set of images

       -background <color>
	      the background color

       -blur <radius>x<sigma>
	      blur the image with a gaussian operator

       -border <width>x<height>
	      surround the image with a border of color

       -bordercolor <color>
	      the border color

       -box <color>
	      set the color of the annotation bounding box

       -cache <threshold>
	      megabytes of memory available to the pixel cache

       -channel <type>
	      the type of channel

       -charcoal <factor>
	      simulate a charcoal drawing

       -chop <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}
	      remove pixels from the interior of an image

       -clip  apply the clipping path, if one is present

	      merge a sequence of images

       -colorize <value>
	      colorize the image with the pen color

       -colors <value>
	      preferred number of colors in the image

       -colorspace <value>
	      the type of colorspace

       -comment <string>
	      annotate an image with a comment

       -compose <operator>
	      the type of image composition

       -compress <type>
	      the type of image compression

	      enhance or reduce the image contrast

       -crop <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}
	      preferred size and location of the cropped image

       -cycle <amount>
	      displace image colormap by amount

       -debug enable debug printout

	      break down an image sequence into constituent parts

       -delay <1/100ths of a second>
	      display the next image after pausing

       -density <width>x<height>
	      vertical and horizontal resolution in pixels of the image

       -depth <value>
	      depth of the image

	      reduce the speckles within an image

       -display <host:display[.screen]>
	      specifies the X server to contact

       -dispose <method>
	      GIF disposal method

	      apply Floyd/Steinberg error diffusion to the image

       -draw <string>
	      annotate an image with one or more graphic primitives

       -edge <radius>
	      detect edges within an image

	      emboss an image

       -encoding <type>
	      specify the font encoding

       -endian <type>
	      specify endianness (MSB or LSB) of output image

	      apply a digital filter to enhance a noisy image

	      perform histogram equalization to the image

       -fill <color>
	      color to use when filling a graphic primitive

       -filter <type>
	      use this type of filter when resizing an image

	      flatten a sequence of images

       -flip  create a "mirror image"

       -flop  create a "mirror image"

       -font <name>
	      use this font when annotating the image with text

       -frame <width>x<height>+<outer bevel width>+<inner bevel width>
	      surround the image with an ornamental border

       -fuzz <distance>{%}
	      colors within this distance are considered equal

       -gamma <value>
	      level of gamma correction

       -gaussian <radius>x<sigma>
	      blur the image with a gaussian operator

       -geometry <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}{@} {!}{<}{>}
	      preferred size and location of the Image window.

       -gravity <type>
	      direction primitive  gravitates to when annotating the image.

       -help  print usage instructions

       -implode <factor>
	      implode image pixels about the center

       -intent <type>
	      use this type of rendering intent when managing the image color

       -interlace <type>
	      the type of interlacing scheme

       -label <name>
	      assign a label to an image

       -level <value>
	      adjust the level of image contrast

       -list <type>
	      the type of list

       -loop <iterations>
	      add Netscape loop extension to your GIF animation

       -map <filename>
	      choose a particular set of colors from this image

       -mask <filename>
	      Specify a clipping mask

       -matte store matte channel if the image has one

       -median <radius>
	      apply a median filter to the image

       -modulate <value>
	      vary the brightness, saturation, and hue of an image

	      transform the image to black and white

       -morph <frames>
	      morphs an image sequence

	      create a mosaic from an image sequence

	      replace every pixel with its complementary color

       -noise <radius|type>
	      add or reduce noise in an image

       -noop  NOOP (no option)

	      transform image to span the full range of color values

       -opaque <color>
	      change this color to the pen color within the image

       -page <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}{!}{<}{>}
	      size and location of an image canvas

       -paint <radius>
	      simulate an oil painting

       -pen <color>
	      specify the pen color for drawing operations

       -ping  efficiently determine image characteristics

       -pointsize <value>
	      pointsize of the Postscript, OPTION1, or TrueType font

       -preview <type>
	      image preview type

       -process <command>
	      process a sequence of images

       -profile <filename>
	      add ICM, IPTC, or generic profile  to image

       -quality <value>
	      JPEG/MIFF/PNG compression level

       -raise <width>x<height>
	      lighten or darken image edges

       -region <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>
	      apply options to a portion of the image

       -resize <width>x<height>{%}{@}{!}{<}{>}
	      resize an image

       -roll {+-}<x>{+-}<y>
	      roll an image vertically or horizontally

       -rotate <degrees>{<}{>}
	      apply Paeth image rotation to the image

       -sample <geometry>
	      scale image with pixel sampling

       -sampling_factor <horizontal_factor>x<vertical_factor>
	      sampling factors used by JPEG or MPEG-2 encoder and YUV decoder/encoder.

       -scale <geometry>
	      scale the image.

       -scene <value>
	      set scene number

       -seed <value>
	      pseudo-random number generator seed value

       -segment <cluster threshold>x<smoothing threshold>
	      segment an image

       -shade <azimuth>x<elevation>
	      shade the image using a distant light source

       -sharpen <radius>x<sigma>
	      sharpen the image

       -shave <width>x<height>
	      shave pixels from the image edges

       -shear <x degrees>x<y degrees>
	      shear the image along the X or Y axis

       -size <width>x<height>{+offset}
	      width and height of the image

       -solarize <factor>
	      negate all pixels above the threshold level

       -spread <amount>
	      displace image pixels by a random amount

       -stroke <color>
	      color to use when stroking a graphic primitive

       -strokewidth <value>
	      set the stroke width

       -swirl <degrees>
	      swirl image pixels about the center

       -texture <filename>
	      name of texture to tile onto the image background

       -threshold <value>
	      threshold the image

       -tile <filename>
	      tile image when filling a graphic primitive

	      transform the image

       -transparent <color>
	      make this color transparent within the image

       -treedepth <value>
	      tree depth for the color reduction algorithm

       -trim  trim an image

       -type <type>
	      the image type

       -units <type>
	      the type of image resolution

       -unsharp <radius>x<sigma>
	      sharpen the image with an unsharp mask operator

	      use the pixmap

	      print detailed information about the image

       -view <string>
	      FlashPix viewing parameters

       -wave <amplitude>x<wavelength>
	      alter an image along a sine wave

       -write <filename>
	      write  an image sequence [convert, composite]

	      For a more detailed description of each option, see ImageMagick(1).

       Use  -segment  to segment an image by analyzing the histograms of the color components and
       identifying units that are homogeneous with the fuzzy c-means technique.  The  scale-space
       filter analyzes the histograms of the three color components of the image and identifies a
       set of classes.	The extents of each class is used to  coarsely	segment  the  image  with
       thresholding.  The color associated with each class is determined by the mean color of all
       pixels within the extents of a particular class.  Finally,  any	unclassified  pixels  are
       assigned to the closest class with the fuzzy c-means technique.

       The fuzzy c-Means algorithm can be summarized as follows:

       Build a histogram, one for each color component of the image.

       For  each  histogram, successively apply the scale-space filter and build an interval tree
       of zero crossings in the second derivative at each scale.  Analyze this scale-space  "fin-
       gerprint" to determine which peaks or valleys in the histogram are most predominant.

       The  fingerprint  defines  intervals  on the axis of the histogram. Each interval contains
       either a minima or a maxima in the original signal. If each color  component  lies  within
       the maxima interval, that pixel is considered "classified" and is assigned an unique class

       Any pixel that fails to be classified in the above thresholding pass is	classified  using
       the  fuzzy  c-Means technique. It is assigned to one of the classes discovered in the his-
       togram analysis phase.

       The fuzzy c-Means technique attempts to cluster a pixel by finding the local minima of the
       generalized  within  group sum of squared error objective function. A pixel is assigned to
       the closest class of which the fuzzy membership has a maximum value.

       For additional information see: <bq>Young Won Lim, Sang Uk Lee, ``On The Color Image  Seg-
       mentation  Algorithm Based on the Thresholding and the Fuzzy c-Means Techniques'', Pattern
       Recognition, Volume 23, Number 9, pages 935-952, 1990.</bq>

	      To get the default host, display number, and screen.

       display(1), animate(1), identify(1), ImageMagick(1), montage(1), mogrify(1), composite(1)

       Copyright (C) 2002 ImageMagick Studio

       Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this soft-
       ware  and  associated  documentation files ("ImageMagick"), to deal in ImageMagick without
       restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish,
       distribute,  sublicense,  and/or sell copies of ImageMagick, and to permit persons to whom
       the ImageMagick is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:

       The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all  copies  or
       substantial portions of ImageMagick.

       The  software  is  provided  "as  is",  without	warranty of any kind, express or implied,
       including but not limited to the warranties of merchantability, fitness for  a  particular
       purpose	and noninfringement.In no event shall ImageMagick Studio be liable for any claim,
       damages or other liability, whether in an action of contract, tort or  otherwise,  arising
       from,  out  of or in connection with ImageMagick or the use or other dealings in ImageMag-

       Except as contained in this notice, the name of the ImageMagick Studio LLC  shall  not  be
       used in advertising or otherwise to promote the sale, use or other dealings in ImageMagick
       without prior written authorization from the ImageMagick Studio.

	John Cristy, ImageMagick Studio LLC,
       Glenn Randers-Pehrson, ImageMagick Studio LLC.

ImageMagick			    Date: 2002/02/15 01:00:00			       convert(1)
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