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csh(1) [osf1 man page]

csh(1)							      General Commands Manual							    csh(1)

csh - C shell command interpreter SYNOPSIS
csh [-bcefinstvVxX] [argument...] The csh command invokes the C shell and interprets C shell commands. OPTIONS
Forces a break from option processing, causing any further shell arguments to be treated as nonoption arguments. This can be used to pass options to a shell script without confusion or possible subterfuge. The shell cannot run a set-user-ID script without this option. Reads commands from the following single argument, which must be present. Any remaining arguments are placed in argv. Causes the shell to exit if any invoked command terminates abnormally or yields a nonzero exit status. Causes the shell to start faster, because it neither searches for nor executes the file in the invoker's home directory. Causes the shell to be interactive, even if the input does not come from a terminal. Shells are always interactive when invoked from a terminal. Parses commands, but does not execute them. This aids in syntactic checking of shell scripts. Takes command input from the standard input. Reads and executes a single line of input. You can use a (backslash) to escape the newline character at the end of the current line to continue onto another line. Sets the verbose shell vari- able, with the effect that command input is echoed to the standard output after history substitution. Sets the verbose shell variable, even before is executed. Sets the echo shell variable, so that commands are echoed to the standard error after all substitutions and imme- diately before execution. Sets the echo shell variable, even before is executed. After processing of option arguments, if arguments remain but none of the -c, -i, -s, or -t options was given, the first argument is taken as the name of a file of commands to be executed (that is, a shell script). The shell opens this file, and saves its name for possible resubstitution by $0. If the first characters of the shell script are #!shell_pathname or #csh, csh runs the specified shell to process the script. Otherwise, csh runs. Remaining parameters initialize the argv variable. DESCRIPTION
The C shell is an interactive command interpreter and a command programming language that uses a syntax similar to the C programming lan- guage. The shell carries out commands either from a file (called a shell script or procedure) or interactively from a terminal keyboard. When you run csh, it begins by executing commands from the file in your home directory, if it exists. If the shell is invoked with a name that starts with -, as when started by login, the shell runs as a login shell. If csh runs as a login shell, it executes commands from the system-wide login file /etc/csh.login, if that file exists, and then commands from your $home/.cshrc file and your $home/.login file, in that order. (If argument zero ($0) to the shell is a - (dash), then the shell is a login shell.) Your system administrator can create /etc/csh.login to provide a standardized environment for all users, but you can include commands in $home/.cshrc or $home/.login to over- ride settings and assignments made by /etc/csh.login. At log in, the $home shell variable and the $HOME environment variable both refer to your home directory. If you subsequently change $home to some other value, you will encounter problems because the shell will not be able to find files it uses, such as and In the normal case, the shell begins reading commands from the terminal, prompting with % (percent sign) or # (number sign) for the supe- ruser. Processing of arguments and the use of the shell to process files containing command scripts is described later. The shell then repeatedly performs the following actions: A line of command input is read and broken into words. This sequence of words is placed on the command history list and then parsed. Each command in the current line is executed. When a login shell terminates, it executes commands from the file in your home directory. Shell Features Job control and status reporting File name completion History substitution Command aliasing Variable substitution Command substitution File name substitution Input/output redirection and control flow Built-in commands Lexical Structure A simple command is a sequence of words separated by spaces or tabs. The shell splits input lines into words at spaces and tabs with the following exceptions: The characters &, |, ;, <, >, (, ), and # form separate words. If doubled in &&, ||, <<, or >>, these pairs form sin- gle words. Preceding parser metacharacters with a (backslash) prevents the shell from interpreting them as special characters. A new- line preceded by a (backslash) is equivalent to a space. Strings enclosed in " " (double quotes), ` ` (grave accents), or ' ' (single quotes) form parts of a word; metacharacters in these strings, including spaces and tabs, do not form separate words. For more informa- tion, see the section Quoting with Single and Double Quotes. Within pairs of ' or " characters, you can include the newline character by preceding it with a (backslash). When the shell is not reading input from a terminal, it treats any word that begins with a # (number sign) character as a comment and ignores that word and all characters following up to the next newline character. The # character loses its special meaning when it is quoted (preceded) by a (backslash) or when the string is enclosed in quotes using `, ', or ". When the shell is reading input from a terminal without the c option, the # character is not treated specially. However, when read- ing input from a terminal with the c option, the shell treats a # character as the start of a comment and ignores subsequent text up to the next newline unless the # is quoted with a (backslash) or the string is enclosed in quotes using `, ', or ". Shell Commands A simple command is a sequence of words, the first of which (numbered 0) specifies the command to be executed. Any remaining words, with a few exceptions, are passed to that command. If the command specifies an executable file that is a compiled program, the shell immediately runs that program. If the file is marked executable but is not a compiled program, the shell assumes that it is a shell script. In this case, it starts another shell to read the file and execute the commands included in it. (See the section Nonbuilt-In Command Execution for information about using the $shell variable to determine which shell is executed.) A pipeline is a sequence of one or more commands separated by either the | (vertical bar) or |& (vertical bar and ampersand) characters. With |, the standard output of the preceding command is redirected to the standard input of the command that follows. With |&, both the standard error and the standard output are redirected. Note that you cannot pipe to a built-in command and an attempt to do so generates an error message. A list is a sequence of pipelines separated by a ; (semicolon), & (ampersand), && (two ampersands), or || (two vertical bars) and optionally ended by a ; (semicolon) or an & (ampersand). These separators and terminators have the following effects: Causes sequential execution of the preceding pipeline (the shell waits for the pipeline to finish). Causes asynchronous execution of the preced- ing pipeline (the shell does not wait for the pipeline to finish). Causes the list following it to be executed only if the preceding pipe- line returns a 0 (zero) exit value. Causes the list following it to be executed only if the preceding pipeline returns a nonzero exit value. The ; (semicolon) and & (ampersand) separators have equal precedence, as do && and ||. The single-character separators have lower prece- dence than the double-character separators. A newline character without quotes following a pipeline functions the same as a ; (semicolon). A pipeline or sequence can be enclosed in () (parentheses) to form a simple command. Job Control The shell associates a job with each pipeline. It keeps a table of current jobs and assigns them small integer numbers. When you start a job asynchronously by terminating the command with &, the shell displays a line that looks like this: [1] 1234 This line indicates that the job number is 1 and that the job is composed of one process with the process ID of 1234. Use the built-in jobs command to see the table of current jobs. If you are running a job and want to do something else, you can enter the Suspend key sequence (normally <Ctrl-z>) which sends a stop sig- nal to the current job. The shell then normally indicates that the job has been stopped and it prints another prompt. You can then manip- ulate the state of this job, putting it in the background with the bg command, or run some other commands and then eventually bring the job back into the foreground with the foreground command fg. The job suspension takes effect immediately, and is similar to the Interrupt key sequence in that pending output and unread input are discarded. A special key sequence, <Ctrl-y>, does not generate a stop signal until a program attempts to read it. (See the read() system call for more information.) This key sequence can usefully be typed ahead when you have prepared some commands for a job that you want to stop after it has read them. Multiple interactive loop based commands can be started and suspended. These suspended commands can be restarted in any arbitrary order. When a suspended job is restarted, it must be run in the foreground rather than in the background. If an attempt is made to restart it in the background, the shell restarts only the command that was suspended and terminates once the job completes without continuing with the rest of the loop. A job being run in the background stops if it tries to read from the terminal. Background jobs are normally allowed to produce output, but this can be disabled by entering the stty tostop command. If you set this terminal option, background jobs stop when they try to produce output like they do when they try to read input. There are several ways to refer to jobs in the shell. Use the % (percent sign) with the fg and bg built-in commands to control the job. This name can be either the job number or a prefix of the string that started the job, if this name is unique. (% can be used to refer to both background and foreground jobs.) For example, if a make process is running as job number 1, you can refer to it as %1. You can also refer to it as %make, if there is only one job with a name that begins with the string make. You can also use the following characters to specify a job whose name contains string, if there is only one such job: %?string Just naming a job brings it to the foreground, so %1 is a synonym for fg %1, bringing job 1 back into the foreground. Similarly, entering %1 & resumes job 1 in the background. Thus, %ex normally restarts a stopped ex job if there was only one stopped job whose name began with the string ex. The shell maintains a notion of the current and previous jobs. In output produced by the built-in command jobs, the current job is marked with a + (plus sign) and the previous job with a - (dash). The abbreviation %+ refers to the current job and %- refers to the previous job. For close analogy with the syntax of the history mechanism (described later), %% is also a synonym for the current job. Status Reporting The shell tracks the state of each job and reports whenever a job finishes or becomes blocked. The shell prints the status information just before it prints the prompt to avoid disturbing the appearance of the terminal screen. If, however, you set the notify shell vari- able, the shell notifies you immediately of changes of status in background jobs. There is also a notify shell command that marks a single process so that its status changes are immediately reported. By default notify marks the current process. Simply enter notify after start- ing a background job to mark the job. When you try to leave the shell while jobs are stopped, you are warned that you have stopped jobs. You can use the built-in jobs command to see what they are. If you then immediately exit the shell, or use jobs and then exit, the shell does not warn you a second time, and the suspended jobs are terminated. File Name Completion The file name completion feature is enabled by setting the shell variable filec. The csh interactively completes file names and user names from unique prefixes when they are input from the terminal followed by the escape character (the <ESC> key or <Ctrl-[>)). For example, assume the current directory looks like this: DSC.OLD bench chaos cmd dev mail xmpl.c xmpl.out DSC.NEW bin class cmtest lib mbox xmpl.o The input is as follows: % vi ch<ESC> The csh completes the prefix ch to the only matching file name chaos: vi chaos However, given the following command line: vi D<ESC> csh only expands the input as follows: vi DSC. The csh sounds the terminal bell to indicate that the expansion is incomplete, because two file names match the prefix D. If a partial file name is followed by the End-of-File character (shown here as <Ctrl-d>), then instead of completing the name, csh lists all file names matching the prefix. For example, the following input causes all files beginning with D to be listed: vi D<Ctrl-d> DSC.NEW DSC.OLD The input line is then echoed again for you to complete. The same system of <ESC> and <EOF> can also be used to expand partial user names, if the word to be completed (or listed) begins with ~ (tilde). For example, entering the following command line: cd ~ro<ESC> can produce the following expansion: cd ~root The use of the terminal bell to signal errors or multiple matches can be inhibited by setting the variable nobeep. Normally, all files in the particular directory are candidates for name completion. Files with certain suffixes can be excluded from con- sideration by setting the variable fignore to the list of suffixes to be ignored. Thus, if fignore is set by the following command: % set fignore = (.o .out) typing % vi x<ESC> results in the completion to % vi xmpl.c ignoring the files xmpl.o and xmpl.out. However, if the only completion possible requires not ignoring these suffixes, then they are not ignored. In addition, fignore does not affect the listing of file names by <Ctrl-d>. All files are listed regardless of their suffixes. History Substitution History substitution places words from previous command input as portions of new commands, making it easy to repeat commands, repeat argu- ments of a previous command in the current command, or fix spelling mistakes in the previous command with little typing. History substitu- tions begin with the ! (exclamation point) character and can begin anywhere on the command line, provided they do not nest (in other words, a history substitution cannot contain another history substitution). You can precede the ! with a (backslash) to prevent the exclamation point's special meaning. In addition, if you place an ! (exclamation point) before a space, tab, newline, = (equal sign), or ( (left parenthesis), the exclamation point is passed to the parser unchanged. (History substitutions also occur when you begin an input line with a ^ (circumflex). This special abbreviation is described later.) The shell echoes any input line containing history substitutions before it executes that command line. Commands input from the terminal that consist of one or more words are saved on the history list. The history substitutions reintroduce sequences of words from these saved commands into the input stream. The history shell variable controls the size of the history list. You must set the history shell variable either in the file or on the command line with the built-in set command. The previous command is always retained, however, regardless of the value of history. Com- mands in the history list are numbered sequentially, starting from 1. The built-in history command produces output of the type: 9 write michael 10 ex write.c 11 cat oldwrite.c 12 diff *write.c The command strings are shown with their event numbers. It is not usually necessary to use event numbers to refer to events, but you can have the current event number displayed as part of your system prompt by placing an ! (exclamation point) in the prompt string assigned to the prompt variable. A full history reference contains an event specification, a word designator, and one or more modifiers in the following general format: event[:]word:modifier[:modifier]... Note that only one word can be modified. A string that contains spaces is not allowed. In the previous sample of history command output, the current event number is 13. Using this example, the following refer to previous events: Refers to event number 10. Refers to event number 11 (the current event minus 2). Refers to a command word beginning with d (in this case, event number 12). Refers to a command word that contains the string mic (in this case, event number 9). These forms, without further modification, simply reintroduce the words of the specified events, each separated by a single space. As a special case, !! refers to the previous command. (The !! command alone on an input line reruns the previous command.) To select words from an event, follow the event specification by a : (colon) and one of the following word designators. The words of an input line are numbered sequentially, starting from 0 (zero), with the first (usually command) word being 0 (zero), the second word (first argument) being 1, and so on. The basic word designators are as follows: First word (command). The nth argument, where n > 0, for exam- ple, !!:3 recalls the third word of the previous command and !:2 recalls to the second word of the current command. !#:n is the same as !:n and recalls the nth word of the current command. First word (word 1). Last word. Word matched by (the immediately preceding) ?string? history search. Range of words from x through y. Words 0-y. The second through the last words, or nothing if only one word in event. Words x- $ Like x*, but omits the last word ($). You can omit the : (colon) separating the event specification from the word designator if the word designator begins with a ^, $, *, -, or %. You can also place a sequence of modifiers, each preceded by a : (colon), after the optional word designator. The following modifiers are defined: Repeats the previous substitution. Removes all but the trailing extension Applies the change globally, prefixing another mod- ifier, for example g&. Removes a trailing path name extension, leaving the head. Prints the new command, but does not execute it. Quotes the substituted words, thus preventing further substitutions. Removes a trailing component, leaving the root name. Substitutes r for l. It is an error for no word to be applicable. Removes all leading path name components, leaving the tail. Like q, but breaks into words at space, tab or newline. Unless the modifier is preceded by a g, the change is applied only to the first modifiable word. The l (left) side of a substitution is not a pattern in the sense of a string recognized by an editor; rather, it is a word, a single unit without spaces. Normally, a / (slash) delimits the word (l) and its replacement (r). However, you can use any character as the delimiter. Thus, in the following example the = character becomes the delimiter, allowing you to include the / in your word: s=/usr/myfile=/usr/your- file= If you include an & (ampersand) in the replacement (r), it is replaced by the text from the left-hand side (l). A null l side is replaced by either the last l string or by the last string used in the contextual scan !?string?. You can omit the trailing delimiter (/) if a new- line character follows immediately. A history reference can be given without an event specification. For example, !$ refers to the last argument of the previous command. If a history reference without an event specification is not the first history reference on the line, it refers to the previous history refer- ence on the line and not to a previous event. For example, in !?foo?^ !$, !?foo?^ gives the first argument of the command matching ?foo?, and the !$ gives the last argument of that same command, not the last argument of the previous command (as it would if it were on a line by itself). A special abbreviation of a history reference occurs when the first nonspace character of an input line is a ^ (circumflex). This is equivalent to !:s^, providing a convenient shorthand for substitutions on the text of the previous line. Thus, ^lb^lib corrects the spell- ing of lib in the previous command. Finally, a history substitution can be enclosed in { } (braces) to insulate it from the characters that follow. Thus, after ls -ld ~paul you might specify !{l}a to do ls -ld ~paula, or !la to rerun a command starting with la. Command Line Editing (cmdedit) If you are using a video display terminal or a workstation terminal emulator, csh allows you to recall and edit commands as if you were using an editor; this capability is in addition to the history mechanism. This version of the C shell provides intra-command line editing that includes features such as a kill buffer, multiline named keyboard macros which can be automatically saved and restored, convenient access to the history list, and user settable key bindings. A summary of the currently available functions is provided below. In most cases, the functionality is apparent from the names of the routines in the list. The shell's editing mode is determined by the value of the shell editmode variable which users should set to emacs or vi in their files. If editmode is not set, then the shell will run in "dumb" mode. It is possible to set the mode after the shell starts up; so if you find your- self in "dumb" mode, you can alter the situation without having to log out and log in again. Setting the editmode variable has two impor- tant side effects:(1) it causes the key bindings to be reevaluated, and(2) it sets the EDITMODE environment variable. The latter has no effect within the shell; so users should not set the environment variable directly in hopes of altering the editing mode. Terminal control capabilities are extracted from the user's termcap file (usually /etc/termcap), using the value of the shell variable term, not the environment variable TERM, as the terminal type. If term is undefined, unknown, or if the associated termcap definition is inadequate, a warning will be displayed and most, or all, of the editing features of the shell will be disabled. It is the user's respon- sibility to make sure that term is set to an appropriate value before the shell editor is initialized. Usually this should be done in the file. If editing is disabled because term is not properly set when the shell starts up, simply setting term to the proper value will nor- mally cause the shell editor to be reenabled. NB: Setting the shell variable term causes the environment variable TERM to be set to the same value. For information on controlling the bell, see the ERRORS section. There is a bind-to-key command in this shell, which allows the functions listed in the table on bindings below, and also user defined key- board macros, to be bound to keys. The form of the command is bind-to-key function key ... where function is one of the function names from the list or else the single character name of a keyboard macro and where key is a quoted string designating a key sequence. Control characters in the key designation should not be entered literally, but should be indicated by the prefix "^", e.g. "^X". Similarly, escape is indicated by "e". A literal backslash is "\". Escape and control-X are the only legitimate "prefix" characters. For vi mode, bindings prefixed with control-X are for insert mode. Otherwise, the bindings are in effect only in command mode. The following mnemonics should be used: ^? delete (rubout) ^c control character line feed (new line)  back space horizontal tab v vertical tab f form feed carriage return e escape nn character code in octal Since the shell converts returns to newlines it is probably unwise to alter which would be accomplished using the following command: bind- to-key KillRegion "^U" During editor initialization the shell will read a file named in the user's home directory. If you regularly want certain non-default key bindings to be effective, put the appropriate bind-to-key commands in your ~/.bindings file. NB: Do not place the bind-to-key commands in your ~/.cshrc or ~/.login file; they must be in the ~/.bindings file. Invocation of the history mechanism with "!" either causes the matched command to be inserted on the command line for editing before execu- tion or immediately executes the command. This is controlled by the shell variable edithist, which is automatically set, when the shell variable editmode is set, thereby allowing editing of previous commands invoked by the history mechanism. This feature may be turned off with the command "unset edithist", which may be placed in the user's file. The following table shows the current functions and default key bindings: Emacs Function Name Remark ^B Backspace ESC-b BackwardWord ^A BeginningOfLine ^L ClearScreen DefaultBinding ESC-n DefineNamedMacro name macro ^D DeleteCurrentChar ^H DeletePreviousChar ESC-d DeleteWord after cursor EndOfFile exit shell ^E EndOfLine EraseLine kills whole line ESC-h EraseWord before cursor ExecuteMacro ESC-e ExecuteNamedMacro ESC-x ExecuteNamedMacro ^X-e ExecuteUnNamedMacro ESC-ESC FilenameExpansion ESC-l FilenameList ^F ForwardChar ESC-f ForwardWord GnuTransposeChars like gnu-emacs IncrementalSearchForward IncrementalSearchReverse InsertChar self insert ^V InsertLiteralChar ^W KillRegion to kill buffer ^K KillToEOL to kill buffer ^X^R LoadMacroFile ^N NextHistEntry wraps around ^P PreviousHistEntry wraps around ^R Redisplay redraws line ^U Repetition greater than 0 ^M,^J Return ^X^S SaveMacroFile ^@ SetMark default mark at BOL SearchReverse look for next char SearchForward look for next char ^Q StartFlow (see FLOW CONTROL) ^X-( StartRemembering begin a macro ^S StopFlow (see FLOW CONTROL) ^X-) StopRemembering end a macro ^I Tab inserts 8 spaces ^T TransposeChars before cursor WipeLine kill line without saving ^Y YankKillBuffer no kill ring Vi Function Name Remark A AppendToEOL can't use with bind-to-key ^H BackSpace h BackSpace B BackwardWord b BackwardWord 0 BeginningOfLine ^ BeginningOfLine s ChangeChar can't use with bind-to-key c ChangeFollowingObject can't use with bind-to-key C ChangeToEOL can't use with bind-to-key S ChangeWholeLine can't use with bind-to-key x DeleteCurrentChar d DeleteFollowingObject can't use with bind-to-key X DeletePreviousChar can't use with bind-to-key $ EndOfLine ESC FilenameExpansion ^D FilenameListOrEof l ForwardChar SPACE ForwardChar w ForwardWord W ForwardWord e ForwardWord I InsertAtBOL can't use with bind-to-key D KillToEOL @ ExecuteNamedMacro + NextHistEntry j NextHistEntry ^N NextHistEntry - PreviousHistEntry k PreviousHistEntry ^P PreviousHistEntry ^L Redisplay ^R Redisplay z Redisplay 1-9 Repetition r ReplaceChar can't use with bind-to-key LINEFEED Return RETURN Return / IncrementalSearchForward ? IncrementalSearchReverse f SearchForward F SearchReverse m SetMark a EnterViAppend can't use with bind-to-key i EnterViInsert can't use with bind-to-key p ViYankKillBuffer can't use with bind-to-key P ViYankKillBuffer can't use with bind-to-key Vi insert mode ^H DeletePreviousChar EraseChar DeletePreviousChar ^W EraseWord ESC ExitViInsert can't use with bind-to-key ^D FilenameListOrEof ^Q InsertLiteralChar ^V InsertLiteralChar ^U KillRegion ^N NextHistEntry ^P PreviousHistEntry ^L Redisplay ^R Redisplay LINEFEED Return RETURN Return TAB Tab Users may change the bindings of functions to keys by means of the shell bind-to-key command. These commands may be stored in a file named in the user's home directory and will then be read by the shell when the editor is initialized. Flow control is handled by the terminal driver, not by the shell. The terminal driver normally interprets ^S and ^Q as a signal to respec- tively stop and restart output to the terminal. By default, the shell does not override these "bindings", but the user may override them by rebinding ^S or ^Q to functions other than StopFlow and StartFlow. The functions StopFlow and StartFlow can only be usefully bound to the keys that the terminal driver interprets as performing the corre- sponding flow control functions. In other words, you cannot simply bind these functions to other keys in order to have them perform the flow control operations normally provided by ^S and ^Q. Keyboard macros can be used to simplify repetitive operations and reduce typing lengthy commands. For example, the following lines illus- trate how to create a macro to startup Emacs and have it run the shell inside a buffer: % ^X(emacs -eshell % ^X) Notice that this is a multiline macro, since it contains an embedded newline. The user can give this macro a single character name, e.g. "e", as follows: % ene (escape-n-e). The macro may then be executed by typing "exe". It can also be bound to a key using the bind-to-key command. Macros can be saved in files and can be reloaded automatically when the shell starts up. To create a new unnamed macro, use the StartRemembering function which is bound by default to ^X(. Subsequent keystrokes, until the StopRemembering, ^X ), function is executed, are remembered as an "unnamed" key- board macro. It can contain at most 1024 characters. You are not allowed to begin creating another macro during macro creation, but it is okay to execute other macros, provided loops are not created. The unnamed macro can be executed using the ExecuteUnNamedMacro function, bound to ^Xe. There is only one unnamed macro. Users can have up to 128 named macros. To define such a macro, first create an unnamed macro as above and then give it a name by executing the DefineNamedMacro function, bound to en (escape-n). The function takes a single character argument which will be the name of the macro. Any previous macro with that same name will be destroyed. To execute a named macro simply use the ExecuteNamedMacro function, bound to ex, and give it the name of the macro to be executed. Named macros can also be bound to keys using the built-in C shell command bind-to-key. Named keyboard macros can be saved in files and loaded from files. To save the named macros in a file simply type the file name on the command line (by itself) and then execute the SaveMacroFile function bound to ^X^S. To read a file of previously saved macros type the file name on the command line and execute the LoadMacroFile function bound to ^X^R. Success in each case is indicated by the erasure of the file name. It is okay to store macros in several different macro files. NB: It is not advisable to try to edit saved macros! If the shell variable macrofiles is assigned (in the user's file) the names of one or more files of saved keyboard macros, then those macro files will be automatically loaded when the shell starts up. Similarly, the variable savemacros can be assigned the name of a (single) file in which all named macros will be saved when the user logs out. NB: The names of the incremental search functions have changed since earlier releases of this shell. Four search functions are available to the user, but are not bound (by default) to keys. If you want to use them, use the C shell bind-to- key command to bind them to keys. When the user executes this function he is placed in a read/search loop in which the string to be found is built up character by character. As each new character is added to the search string the cursor is placed at the end of the first match on the command line following the position of the cursor when the function was executed. You can reexecute the search function while in the loop to cause the cursor to move to subsequent matches. Type ESC to exit the loop. This function is similar to IncrementalSearchFor- ward except that the cursor is placed at the beginning of the first match on the command line preceding the position of the cursor when the function was executed. This function grabs the next character you type and searches for that character from the position of the cursor to the end of the command line, leaving the cursor following the first instance of the character if one is found. This function is like SearchForward except that it searches from where the cursor is to the beginning of the command line. If the shell variable breakchars is assigned a string, then the characters in that string are used to determine word boundaries. The default break characters are " ", ",", ^I, /, , (, ), [, ], {, }, ., ;, >, <, !, ^, &, and |. The user defined break characters are used instead of, not in addition to, the default list. The display update functions take no advantage of the capabilities of smart terminals. This will be fixed in the future. The command line cannot exceed 1024 characters if characters are being inserted in the middle of the line; it can be longer if characters are being inserted at the end, but once the 1K boundary is passed the previous characters can no longer be edited or redisplayed. The interactive input routine performs some initialization the first time it is called. As a result some things are not interactively alterable. It is also not possible for the user to turn off echoing of regular characters or to take the terminal out of CBREAK mode by means of the stty command, for example, and have it affect the function of the shell. Error conditions within the editor functions are usually indicated by an audible bell. If you prefer a visual signal and your terminal has a visible bell capability, then you should set the variable visiblebell in your file. If you want an audible bell also, then set both vis- iblebell and audiblebell. If you don't want to be told about your mistakes, you can set the nobell variable. Quoting with Single and Double Quotes Enclose strings in single and double quotes to prevent all or some of the substitutions that remain. Enclosing strings in ' ' (single quotes) prevents any further interpretation except history substitution. Enclosing strings in " " (double quotes) allows further variable and command expansion. In both cases, the text that results becomes (all or part of) a single word. Only in one special case does a string quoted by " " yield parts of more than one word; strings quoted by ' ' never do (see Command Substitution). Alias Substitution The shell maintains a list of aliases that the alias and unalias built-in commands can establish, display, and modify. After the shell scans a command line, it divides the line into distinct commands and checks the first word of each command, left to right, to see if it has an alias. If an alias exists, the text defined as the alias for that command is reread with the history mechanism, as if the alias were the previous input line. The words that result replace the command and argument list. If no reference is made to the history list, the argument list is left unchanged. Thus, if the alias for ls is ls -l, the shell replaces the command ls /usr with ls -l /usr. The argument list is left unchanged because there is no reference to the history list in the command with an alias. Similarly, if the alias for lookup is grep !^ /etc/passwd, then lookup bill maps to grep bill /etc/passwd. Here !^ refers to the history list and the shell replaces it with the first argument in the input line, in this case bill. Note that you can use special pattern-matching characters in an alias. Thus, the line: alias lprint 'pr !* | lpr' makes a command that formats its arguments to the line printer. The ! (exclamation point) is protected from the shell in the alias so that it is not expanded until pr runs. If an alias is found, the word transformation of the input text is performed and the aliasing process begins again on the reformed input line. If the first word of the new text is the same as the old, looping is prevented by flagging it to terminate the alias process. Other loops are detected and cause an error. Variable Substitution The shell maintains a set of variables, each of which has as its value a list of zero or more words. Some of these variables are set by the shell or referred to by it. For instance, the argv variable is an image of the shell variable list, and words that comprise the value of this variable are referred to in special ways. You can display and change the values of variables by using the set and unset commands. Of the variables referred to by the shell, a number are toggles (variables that turn on and off); the shell does not care what their value is, only whether they are set or unset. For instance, the verbose variable is a toggle that causes the words of each command to be echoed. The setting of this variable results from the -v option on the command line. Other operations treat variables numerically. The @ command performs numeric calculations and the result is assigned to a variable. Vari- able values are, however, always represented as (zero or more) strings. For the purposes of numeric operations, the null string is consid- ered to be 0 (zero), and the second and subsequent words of multiword values are ignored. After the input line is parsed and alias substitution is performed, and before each command is executed, variable substitution is per- formed, keyed by $ (dollar sign) characters. You can prevent this expansion by preceding the $ with a (backslash) except within " " (dou- ble quotes), where it always occurs, or by using ' ' (single quotes), where it never occurs. Strings quoted by ` ` (grave accents) are interpreted later (see Command Substitution), so variable substitution does not occur there until later, if at all. A $ is passed unchanged if followed by a space, tab, or newline. Input/output redirection is recognized and expanded before variable expansion occurs. Otherwise, the command name and complete argument list are expanded together. Therefore, it is possible for the first (command) word to this point to generate more than one word, the first of which becomes the command name, and the rest of which become arguments. Unless enclosed in " " or given the :q modifier, the results of variable substitution can themselves eventually be command and file name substituted. Within pairs of double quotes, a variable whose value consists of multiple words expands to a (portion of a) single word, with the words of the variable's value separated by spaces. When you apply the :q modifier to a substitution, the variable expands to mul- tiple words. The individual words are separated by spaces and quoted to prevent later command or file name substitution. The following notation allows you to introduce variable values into the shell input. Except as noted, it is an error to reference a vari- able that is not set. Are replaced by the words assigned to the variable name, each separated by a space. Braces insulate name from fol- lowing characters that would otherwise be part of it. Shell variable names begin with a letter and consist of up to 20 letters and digits, including the underscore character. If name is not a shell variable but is set in the environment, then that value is returned. Be aware that the : (colon) modifiers and the other forms given below are not available in this case. Can be used to select only some of the words from the value of name. The selector is subjected to variable substitution and can consist of a single number or two numbers separated by a - (dash). The first word of a variable's string value is numbered 1. If the first number of a range is omitted, it defaults to 1. If the last member of a range is omitted, it defaults to $#name (the total number of words in the variable). The * (asterisk) selects all words. It is not an error for a range to be empty if the second argument is omitted or in range. Gives the number of words in the variable. This can be used as a [selector] (see previous notation). Substitutes the name of the file from which command input is being read. An error occurs if the name is not known. Equivalent to $argv[number]. Equivalent to $argv[*]. You can apply the modifiers :gh, :gt, :gr, :h, :t, :r, :q and :x to the preceding substitutions. If { } (braces) appear in the command form, the modifiers must appear within the braces. Note that the current implementation allows only one : (colon) modifier on each $ vari- able expansion. The following substitutions cannot be changed with : modifiers. Substitutes the string 1 if name is set, 0 if it is not. Substitutes 1 if the current input file name is known, 0 (zero) if it is not. Substitutes the (decimal) process number of the (parent) shell. Substitutes a line from the standard input, with no further interpretation. Use it to read from the keyboard in a shell script. Command and File name Substitution The shell performs command and file name substitution selectively on the arguments of built-in commands. This means that it does not expand those parts of expressions that are not evaluated. For commands that are not internal (that is, built in) to the shell, the shell substi- tutes the command name separately from the argument list. This occurs very late, after the shell performs input/output redirection, and in a child of the main shell. Command Substitution The shell performs command substitution on a command string enclosed in ` ` (grave accents). The shell normally breaks the output from such a command into separate words at spaces, tabs and newline characters, with null words being discarded; this text then replaces the original command string. Within strings surrounded by " " (double quotes), the shell treats only the newline character as a word separator, thus preserving spaces and tabs. In any case, the single final newline character does not force a new word. Note that it is therefore possible for a command substitution to yield only part of a word, even if the command outputs a complete line. File Name Substitution If a word contains any of the characters *, ?, [, or { or begins with a ~ (tilde), then that word is a candidate for file name substitu- tion, also known as globbing. This word is then regarded as a pattern, and replaced with a sorted list of file names that match the pat- tern. In a list of words specifying file name substitution, it is an error for no pattern to match an existing file name, but it is not required that each pattern match. Only the character-matching symbols (metacharacters) *, ? and [ imply pattern matching; the characters ~ and { are more like abbreviations. In matching file names, the (dot) character at the beginning of a file name or immediately following a / (slash), as well as the / charac- ter, must be matched explicitly. The * (asterisk) character matches any string of characters, including the null string. The ? (question mark) character matches any single character. The sequence [abcd] matches any one of the enclosed characters. Within [ ], a lexical range of characters can be indicated by two characters separated by a - (dash), as in [a-z]. The characters that match this pattern are defined by the current collating sequence. The collating sequence is determined by the value of the LC_COLLATE or LANG environment variable. The ~ (tilde) character at the beginning of a file name is used to refer to home directories. Standing alone, the ~ expands to your home directory as reflected in the value of the home shell variable. When followed by a name that consists of letters, digits, and - (dash) characters, the shell searches for a user with that name and substitutes that user's home directory. Thus, ~ken might expand to /users/ken and ~ken/chmach to /users/ken/chmach. If the ~ (tilde) character is followed by a character other than a letter or / (slash) or does not appear at the beginning of a word, it is left undisturbed. The pattern a{b,c,d}e is a shorthand for abe ace ade. Left-to-right order is preserved, with the results of the matches being sorted sepa- rately at a low level to preserve this order. This construct can be nested. Thus, the shell expands: ~source/s1/{oldls,ls}.c to the file names: /usr/source/s1/oldls.c /usr/source/s1/ls.c The preceding example assumes the home directory for source is /usr/source. (Note that these files may or may not exist.) Similarly, the shell expands: ../{memo,*box} to the paths: ../memo ../box ../mbox (Note that memo was not sorted with the results of matching *box.) As a special case, {, }, and {} are passed undisturbed. Redirecting Input and Output You can redirect the standard input and standard output of a command with the following syntax: Opens file (which is first variable, com- mand and file name expanded) as the standard input. Reads the shell input up to a line that is identical to word. The word is not sub- jected to variable, file name or command substitution; each input line is compared to word before any substitutions are done on this input line. Unless a quoting character (, ", `, or ') appears in word, the shell performs variable and command substitution on the intervening lines, allowing to quote $, , and `. Commands that are substituted have all spaces, tabs, and newline characters preserved, except for the final newline character, which is dropped. The resulting text is placed in an anonymous temporary file and given to the command as standard input. Uses file as standard output. If the file does not exist, it is created; if the file exists, it is truncated, and its pre- vious contents are lost. If the noclobber shell variable is set, then the file must not exist or be a character special file (for example, a terminal or /dev/null) or an error results. This helps prevent the accidental destruction of files. In this case, use the ! (exclamation point) forms to suppress this check. The forms involving & (ampersand) route the diagnostic output into the specified file as well as the standard output. file is expanded in the same way as < input file names. Uses file as standard output like > but places output at the end of the file. If the noclobber shell variable is set, it is an error for the file not to exist unless one of the ! forms is given. Otherwise, it is similar to >. A command receives the environment in which the shell was invoked, as changed by the input/output parameters and the presence of the com- mand in a pipeline. Thus, unlike some previous shells, commands run from a shell script have no access to the text of the commands by default; rather they receive the original standard input of the shell. Use the << mechanism to present inline data. This lets shell scripts function as components of pipelines and lets the shell read its input in blocks. To redirect diagnostic output through a pipe with the standard output, use the form |& (vertical bar, ampersand) rather than | (vertical bar) alone. Control Flow The shell contains a number of commands that can be used to regulate the flow of control in command files (shell scripts) and (in limited but useful ways) from terminal input. These commands all operate by forcing the shell to reread or skip in its input and, because of the implementation, restrict the placement of some of the commands. The foreach, switch, and while statements, and the if-then-else form of the if statement, require that the major keywords appear in a sin- gle simple command on an input line. If the shell input is not seekable, the shell buffers input whenever a loop is being read and performs seeks in the internal buffer to do the rereading implied by the loop. (To the extent that this allows, backward gotos succeed on non-seekable inputs.) Built-In Commands Built-in commands are executed within the shell. If a built-in command occurs as any component of a pipeline except the last, it is exe- cuted in a subshell. The csh searches for a csh built-in command first. If a built-in does not exist, the csh searches through the direc- tories specified by the environment variable path for a system-level command to execute. If no arguments are specified, displays all aliases. If name is specified, displays the alias for name. If a word_list is also specified, alias assigns the specified word_list as the alias of name. Command and file name substitution are performed on word_list. Puts the current (if %job is not specified) or specified jobs into the background, continuing them if they were stopped. Causes execution to resume after the end of the nearest enclosing foreach or while. The remaining commands on the current line are executed. Multilevel breaks are therefore possible by writing them all on one line. Causes a break from a switch; resumes after the endsw. Defines a label in a switch statement. (See switch.) Changes the shell's working directory to directory. If no argument is given, it changes to your home directory. If directory is not found as a subdirectory of the current directory (and does not begin with /, or cdpath shell variable is checked to see if it has a subdirectory directory. Finally, if all else fails, but directory is a shell variable whose value begins with /, this is tried to see if it is a directory. Continues execution of the nearest enclosing while or foreach. The rest of the commands on the current line are executed. Labels the default case in a switch statement. The default should come after all case labels. Displays the directory stack; the top of the stack is at the left, the first directory in the stack being the current directory. Writes the specified words to the shell's standard output, separated by spaces, and terminated with a newline character, unless the -n option is specified. See the description of foreach, if, switch, and while below. Reads arguments as input to the shell and executes the resulting commands. This is usually used to execute commands generated as the result of command or variable substitu- tion, since parsing occurs before these substitutions. Executes the specified command in place of the current shell. Exits the shell with either the value of the status shell variable, if no expression is specified, or with the value of the specified expres- sion. Brings the current (if %job is not specified) or specified job into the foreground, continuing them if they were stopped. Sets the variable name to each member of word_list successively and executes the sequence of commands between the foreach command and the matching end. (foreach and end commands must appear alone on separate lines.) Use the built-in continue command to continue the loop and the built-in break command to terminate it prematurely. When this com- mand is read from the terminal, the loop is read once, prompting with ? before any statement in the loop is executed. If you make a mistake in entering a loop at the terminal, it can be corrected before you run the loop. Commands within loops prompted for by ? are not placed in the history list. Functions like echo, but does not recognize (backslash) escapes and delimits words by null characters in the output. Useful if you want to use the shell to perform file name substitution to expand a list of words. Performs file name and command expansion on the specified word to yield a string of the form label:. The shell rewinds its input as much as possible and searches for a line of the form label:, possibly preceded by spaces or tabs. Execution continues after the line speci- fied by word. Displays the history event list; by default, the oldest events are displayed first. If you specify a number, only the number most recent events are displayed. The -r option reverses the display order to the most recent first, rather than the oldest first. The -h option displays the history list without leading numbers. Use this to produce files suitable for sourcing using the source command. Executes the single command (including its arguments) if the specified expression evaluates TRUE. Variable substi- tution on command happens early, at the same time it does for the rest of the if command. The command argument must be a simple command (rather than a pipeline, command list, alias, or parenthesized command list). Note that input/output redirection occurs even if expression is FALSE and command is not executed. If expression is TRUE, executes the commands following the first then up to the first else; otherwise, if expression2 is TRUE, executes the commands following the second then up to the second else. Any number of else-if pairs are possible; only one endif is needed. The else part is optional. (The words else and endif must appear at the beginning of input lines. The if command must appear alone on its input line or after an else.) This command is no longer sup- ported. See the loader(5) reference page for information on using shared libraries. Lists the active jobs; with the -l option, lists process IDs in addition to job numbers, status, and the command. Sends either the TERM (terminate) signal or the specified signal to the jobs or processes that you specify. Signals are either given by number or by name (as given in /usr/include/sys/sig- nal.h, stripped of the prefix SIG). The signal names are listed by kill -l. There is no default job; specifying kill with no job or PID does not send a signal to the current job. If the signal being sent is SIGTERM (terminate) or SIGHUP (hangup), then the job or process is sent a SIGCONT (continue) signal as well. Limits the usage by the current process and each process it creates not to (individually) exceed maximum_use on the specified resource. If no maximum_use is given, then the current limit is displayed; if no resource is given, then all limitations are given. If the -h option is given, the hard limits are used instead of the current limits. The hard limits impose a ceiling on the values of the current limits. Only the superuser can raise the hard limits, but a user can lower or raise the current limits within the legal range. Controllable resources currently include addresspace (the maximum address space in bytes for a process), coredumpsize (the size of the largest core dump that is created), cputime (the maximum number of CPU seconds to be used by each process), datasize (the maxi- mum growth of the data region allowed beyond the end of the program text), descriptors (the maximum number of open files for each process), filesize (the largest single file that can be created), memoryuse (the maximum size to which a process's resident set size can grow), and stacksize (the maximum size of the automatically extended stack region). The maximum_use can be specified as a floating-point or integer number followed by a scale factor: k or kbytes (1024 bytes), m or megabytes, or b or blocks. For both resource names and scale factors, unambiguous prefixes of the names suffice. The scale factor optionally can be separated from the numeric value by a space; 1024k is exactly equivalent to 1024 k. The filesize can be lowered by an instance of csh, but can only be raised by an instance whose effective user ID is root. For more information, refer to the docu- mentation for the ulimit system call. Terminates a login shell and replaces it with an instance of /usr/bin/login. This is one way to log out (included for compatibility with sh). Terminates a login shell. Especially useful if ignoreeof is set. Changes the primary group identification of the current shell process to group. If you specify a - (dash), newgrp changes the login environment to the login environment of the new group. If you do not specify a group, newgrp changes the group identification to that specified for the current user in the /etc/passwd file. The newgrp command recognizes group names only; it does not recognize group ID num- bers. Only a user who is root can change the primary group of the shell to one in which the user does not have membership. Any active user-generated shell is terminated when the newgrp command is used. Without arguments, nice sets the priority of commands run in this shell to 4. The +number arguments sets the priority to the specified number. The command argument causes command to run at priority 4 (without the +number argument) or at priority number (if +number is specified). The greater the number, the less CPU the process gets. The superuser can raise the priority by using nice with a negative number. The command is always executed in a sub- shell, and the restrictions placed on commands in simple if statements apply. The first form causes hangups to be ignored for the remainder of the shell script. The second form causes the specified command to be run with hangups ignored. To run a pipeline or list of commands with this form, put the pipeline or list in a shell script, give the script execute permission, and use the shell script as the command. All processes run in the background with & are effectively protected from being sent a hangup signal when you log out, but are still subject to explicitly sent hangups unless nohup is used. Causes the shell to notify you asynchronously when the status of the current (if %job is not specified) or specified jobs changes. Normally, notification is presented immediately before the shell prompt. This is automatic if the notify shell variable is set. Controls the action of the shell on interrupts. The first form restores the default action of the shell on interrupts, which is to terminate shell scripts or to return to the ter- minal command input level. The second form causes all interrupts to be ignored. The third form causes the shell to execute a goto label when it receives an interrupt or when a child process terminates due to an interruption. In any case, if the shell is running in the background and interrupts are being ignored, all forms of onintr have no meaning and interrupts continue to be ignored by the shell and all invoked commands. Pops the directory stack (removes the top entry), changing directories to the new top directory. With a +number argument, popd discards the number entry in the stack. The elements of the directory stack are numbered from the top, starting at 0 (zero). Changes to the directory that comes to the top of the stack. With no arguments, pushd exchanges the top two elements of the directory stack. With a name argument, pushd changes to the new directory (that is, cd) and pushes the old current working directory (given in the cwd shell variable) onto the directory stack. With a numeric argument, pushd rotates the number argument of the directory stack around to be the top element and changes directory to it. The members of the directory stack are numbered from the top, starting at 0 (zero). Causes the internal hash table of the contents of the directories in the path shell variable to be recomputed. This is needed if new commands are added to directories in path while you are logged in. This should be necessary only if commands are added to one of your own directories, or if someone changes the contents of one of the system directories. Executes the specified command, which is subject to the same restrictions as in the simple if statement, count times. Note that input/output redirections occur exactly once, even if count is 0 (zero). This command is no longer supported. See the loader(5) reference page for information on using shared libraries. The first form of the command displays the value of all shell variables. Variables that have values other than a single word are displayed as a parenthesized word list. The second form sets name to the null string. The third form sets name to the single word. The fourth form sets the indexth component of name to word; this component must already exist. The final form sets name to the list of words in word_list. In all cases, the value is command and file name expanded. These arguments can be repeated to set multiple values in a single set command. Note however, that variable expansion happens for all arguments before any setting occurs. Sets the value of the environment vari- able name to be value, a single string. The most commonly used environment variables USER, TERM, HOME, and PATH are automatically imported to and exported from the csh variables user, term, home, and path, so there is no need to use setenv for these common envi- ronment variables. If you modify the LC_COLLATE or LANG environment variables, the current international character support environment and collating sequence are changed as specified for subsequent commands executed from the shell. Shifts to the left the members of argv (discard- ing argv[1]) or the specified variable. An error occurs if argv is not set or has fewer than two strings assigned to it. Causes the shell to read commands from name. You can nest source commands. However, if they are nested too deeply, the shell can run out of file descriptors. An error in a source at any level terminates all nested source commands. Normally, input during source commands is not placed on the history list. The -h option causes the commands to be placed in the history list without being executed. Stops the current (if %job is not specified) or specified job that is executing in the background. Causes the shell to suspend execution by sending itself a stop signal. This command gives an error message if attempted from a login shell. Since csh normally ignores the stop signal, this is the only way of suspending the shell. Successively matches each case label (string1) against string, which is first command and file name expanded. Use the pattern-matching characters *, ?, and [...] in the case labels, which are variable expanded. If none of the labels match before a default label is found, then execution begins after the default label. Each case label and the default label must appear at the beginning of a line. The breaksw command causes execution to continue after the endsw command. Otherwise, control can fall through case labels and the default labels, as in C. If no label matches and there is no default, execution continues after the endsw command. With no argument, displays a summary of time used by this shell and its children. If arguments are given, the specified command is timed and a time summary (as described under the time shell variable) is displayed. If necessary, an extra shell is created to display the time when the command completes. Displays the file creation mask (first form) or sets it to the specified value (second form). The mask is given as an octal value. Common values for the mask are 002, giving all access to the owner and group, and assigning read and execute access to others, or 022, giving all access to the owner, and assigning read and execute access to users in the group and others. Discards all aliases with names that match pattern. Thus, all aliases are removed by unalias *. The absence of aliases that match pattern does not cause an error. Disables the use of the internal hash table to speed location of executed programs. Removes the limitation on resource. If no resource is specified, then all resource limitations are removed. If -h is given, the corresponding hard limits are removed. Only the superuser can do this. Removes all variables with names that match pattern. Use unset * to remove all variables. The absence of variables that match pattern is not an error. Removes all vari- ables with names that match pattern from the environment. See also the setenv command (discussed earlier in this list). Waits for all background jobs to terminate. If the shell is interactive, an interrupt can disrupt the wait, at which time the shell displays the names and job numbers of all jobs known to be outstanding. Takes a list of names and looks for the files which would be exe- cuted had these names been given as commands. This built-in command works like /usr/bin/which if the -U option is given; without the option, the built-in command provides more useful information by identifying shell built-ins and aliases. See which(1) for more information. While expression evaluates as nonzero, executes the commands between the while and the matching end. You can use the break command to terminate the loop prematurely and the continue command to continue the loop. (The while and end must appear alone on their input lines.) If the input is a terminal, prompting occurs the first time through the loop, as for the foreach statement. Brings the specified job into the foreground. Continues the specified job in the background. The first form displays the values of all the shell variables. The second form sets the specified name to the value of expression. If the expression contains <, >, &, or |, at least this part of the expression must be placed within ( ) (parentheses). The third form assigns the value of expression to the indexth argument of name. Both name and its indexth component must already exist. C operators, such as *= and +=, are available. White space separating the name from the assignment operator is optional. Spaces are, however, mandatory in separating components of expression, which would otherwise be single words. Special postfix ++ and - - operators increment and decrement name, respectively, for example @ i++. Expressions The built-in commands @, exit, if, and while accept expressions that include operators similar to those of C, but with a precedence from right to left instead of from left to right. The following operators are available: ( ) ~ ! * / % + - << >> <= >= < > == != =~ !~ & ^ | && || In the preceding list, operators of equal precedence appear on the same line, below those lines containing operators (if any) that have greater precedence, and above those lines containing operators having lesser precedence. The ==, !=, =~, and !~ operators compare their arguments as strings; all others operate on numbers. The =~ and !~ operators are similar to != and ==, except that the rightmost side is a pattern against which the left-hand operand is matched. This reduces the need for use of the switch statement in shell scripts when all that is really needed is pattern matching. Null or missing arguments are considered 0 (zero). The result of all expressions are strings, which represent decimal numbers. It is impor- tant to note that no two components of an expression can appear in the same word. Except when next to components of expressions that are syntactically significant to the parser (&, |, <, >, -, (, and ) ) expression components should be surrounded with spaces. Also available in expressions as primitive operands are command executions enclosed in { and } and file inquiries of the form -l name where l is one of the following: Read access Write access Execute access Existence Ownership Zero size Plain file Directory Symbolic link The specified file is command and file name expanded and then tested to see if it has the specified relationship to the real user. If the file does not exist or is inaccessible, then all inquiries return FALSE, that is, 0 (zero). Command executions succeed, returning TRUE(1), if the command exits with status 0 (zero); otherwise, they fail, returning FALSE(0). If more detailed status information is required, execute the command outside of an expression and examine the status shell variable. Predefined and Environment Variables The following variables have special meaning to the shell. Of these, argv, cwd, home, path, prompt, shell, and status are always set by the shell. Except for cwd and status, this setting occurs only at initialization; the remaining variables maintain their settings unless you explicitly reset them. The csh command copies the USER environment variable into the variable user, TERM into term, and HOME into home, and copies these back into the environment whenever the normal shell variables are reset. The PATH environment variable is handled similarly; it is not necessary to worry about their settings other than in the file. Each csh subprocess imports the definition of path from the environment, and exports it again if you then change it. Is set to the arguments to the shell. It is from this variable that positional parameters are substituted, for example, $1 is replaced by $argv[1], and so on. If autologout is set to a value greater than 0 (zero), the shell terminates if a com- mand is not entered within the prescribed number of minutes after issuing the shell prompt. Auto-logout is enabled by default if the shell runs as a login shell and if the standard input stream is not a pseudo tty and the DISPLAY environment variable is not set. Auto-logout can be disabled by adding the following line to your or file: set autologout = 0 Gives a list of alternate directories to be searched to find subdirectories in chdir commands. Is set to the full path name of the current directory. Causes each command and its arguments to be echoed to standard output just before it is executed. It is set when the -x command line option is specified. For nonbuilt-in commands, all expansions occur before echoing. Built-in commands are echoed before command and file name substitution, since these substitutions are then done selectively. Enables file name completion. Changes the characters used in history substitution when given a string value. The first character of its value is used as the history substitution character, replacing the default character ! (exclamation point). The second charac- ter of its value replaces the character ^ (circumflex) in quick substitutions. Controls the existence and size of the history buf- fer. All commands (executable or not) are saved in the history buffer. Values of history that are too large can run the shell out of memory. The last executed command is always saved on the history list even if history is left unset. Contains the absolute path name to the home directory of the user, initialized from the environment. The file name expansion of ~ (tilde) refers to this vari- able. Causes the shell to ignore End-of-File characters from input devices that are terminals. This prevents shells from acciden- tally being killed when they read an End-of-File character. Specifies the locale of your system, which is comprised of three parts: language, territory, and codeset. The default locale is the C locale, which specifies the value English for language, U.S. for territory, and ASCII for codeset. The locale specified for the LANG variable controls the language applied to messages. Unless set explicitly, the LC_COLLATE, LC_CTYPE, LC_MESSAGES, LC_MONETARY, LC_NUMERIC, and LC_TIME variables also derive their settings from the locale set for LANG. Specifies the collating sequence to use when sorting names and when character ranges occur in patterns. The default value is the collating sequence for American English. Specifies the character classification information to use on your system. The default value is American English. Specifies the language that the system expects for user input of yes and no strings. The default value is American English. Specifies the monetary format for your system. The default value is the monetary format for American English. Specifies the numeric format for your system. The default value is the numeric format for American English. Specifies the date and time format for your system. The default value is the date and time format for American English. Specifies the files where the shell checks for mail. This is done after each command completion that results in a prompt, if a spec- ified interval has elapsed. The shell displays the message You have new mail if the file has been modified since the last check. If the first word of the value of mail is numeric, it specifies a different mail checking interval (in seconds) than the default (10 minutes). If you specify multiple mail files, the shell displays the message New mail in file when there is mail in file. Specifies a list of directories to search to find message catalogs. If set, places restrictions on output redirection to ensure that files are not accidentally destroyed, and that >> redirections refer to existing files. (See also Redirecting Input and Output.) If set, inhibits file name expansion. This is most useful in shell scripts that do not deal with file names, or after a list of file names is obtained and further expansions are not desirable. If set, does not return an error for a file name expansion that does not match any existing files; rather, the primitive pattern is returned. It is still an error for the primitive pattern to be malformed, for example, echo [ still gives an error. If set, causes the shell to notify you asynchronously of background job completion. The default is to present job status changes immediately before printing a prompt. Each word of the path variable specifies a directory in which commands are to be sought for execution. A null word specifies the current directory. If no path variable is set, then only full path names are executed. The usual search path is the current directory and /usr/bin, but this can vary from system to system. A shell that is given neither the -c nor the -t option normally hashes the contents of the directories in the path variable after reading and each time the path variable is reset. If new commands are added to these directories while the shell is active, it is necessary to execute the rehash command in order to access the new commands. The string that is printed before each command is read from an interactive terminal input. If a ! (exclamation point) appears in the string, it is replaced by the current event number, unless it is preceded by a (backslash). The default prompt is %, # for the superuser. When given a numeric value, con- trols the number of entries of the history list that are saved in ~/.history when you log out. All commands (executable or not) that are in the history list are saved. During startup, the shell sources ~/.history into the history list, enabling history to be saved across logins. Very large values of savehist slow down the shell during startup. The file in which the shell resides. This is used in forking shells to interpret files that have execute bits set, but that are not executable by the system. (See Nonbuilt-In Command Execution.) This is initialized to the (system-dependent) location of the shell. The status returned by the last command. If it terminated abnormally, then 0200 is added to the status. Built-in commands that fail return exit status 1; all other built-in com- mands set status 0 (zero). Controls automatic timing of commands, and the line displayed by a built-in time command. The value can consist of zero, one, or two words. The first word is the threshold for automatic timing, measured in CPU seconds; for any command that takes at least that many CPU seconds, the shell displays a line showing the timing information when that command finishes. The second word is a string, enclosed in ' ' (single quotes) or " " (double quotes), specifying the timing line to be displayed; it controls both the automatic display and the output of the time command. The string can contain any combination of text as well as the following specifiers, which must be uppercase characters and preceded by a % (percent sign) as shown. Sequences such as are not treated as special characters in the string. Kilobytes of data space. Elapsed time, measured in seconds. Number of page faults. Number of blocks read during I/O operations. Kilobytes of stack space. Total kilobytes of memory. Number of blocks writ- ten during I/O operations. CPU time (both system and user) as a percentage of elapsed time. System time: CPU seconds used by sys- tem calls. User time: CPU seconds used by the process outside of system calls. Number of times the process was swapped. Kilobytes of text space. If the first word is zero or if the time variable is set with no value, every command is timed. The default string displayed, when the second word is not supplied, is as follows: %Uu %Ss %E %P% %X+%Dk %I+%Oio %Fpf+%Ww Causes the words of each command to be displayed on the standard output after history substi- tution. Set by the -v command line option. Nonbuilt-In Command Execution When a command to be executed is found not to be a built-in command, the shell attempts to execute the command with the execv() system call. Each word in the path shell variable names a directory from which the shell attempts to execute the command (if the command does not begin with a / (slash)). If it is given neither a -c nor a -t option, the shell hashes the names in these directories into an internal table so that it only tries an execv in a directory if there is a possibility that the command resides there. This greatly speeds command location when a large number of directories are present in the search path. If this mechanism was turned off (with unhash), or if the shell was given a -c or -t argument (and in any case, for each directory component of path that does not begin with a /), the shell concatenates the directory name with the given command name to form a path name of a file, which it then attempts to execute. Commands in parentheses are always executed in a subshell. Thus, (cd ; pwd) ; pwd displays the home directory and then the current direc- tory, without changing the current directory location; whereas, cd ; pwd changes the current directory location to the home directory, and prints the home directory. Commands in parentheses are most often used to prevent chdir from affecting the current shell. If the file has execute permissions but is not an executable binary to the system, then it is assumed to be a file containing shell com- mands and a new shell is created to read it. If there is an alias for shell, then the words of the alias are prefixed to the argument list to form the shell command. The first word of the alias should be the full path name of the shell (for example, $shell). Note that this is a special, late-occurring case of alias sub- stitution and only allows words to be prefixed to the argument list without modification. Signal Handling The shell normally ignores SIGQUIT signals. Jobs running in the background (either by & or the bg or %...& commands) are immune to signals generated from the keyboard (SIGINT, SIGQUIT, and SIGHUP). Other signals have the values the shell inherited from its parent. You can con- trol the shell's handling of interrupts and terminate signals in shell scripts with onintr. Login shells catch the SIGTERM (terminate) sig- nal; otherwise, this signal is passed on to children from the state in the shell's parent. In no case are interrupts allowed when a login shell is reading the file. Limitations The following are csh limitations: Words can be no longer than 1024 bytes. Argument lists are limited to 38912 bytes. However, the argu- ment list space is shared with the space for environment variables; having a large list of environment variables can severely limit the allowable argument list length. The number of arguments to a command that involves file name expansion is limited to 1/6th the number of characters allowed in an argument list. Command substitutions can substitute no more characters than are allowed in an argument list. To detect looping, the shell restricts the number of alias substitutions on a single line to 20. Words can also be separated by double spa- ces. Character Classes You can use the following notation to match file names within a range indication: [:charclass:] This format instructs the system to match any single character belonging to charclass; the defined classes correspond to ctype() subrou- tines as follows: alnum alpha cntrl digit graph lower print punct space upper xdigit Your locale might define additional character properties, such as the following: [:vowel:] The preceding character class could be TRUE for a, e, i, o, u, or y. You could then use [:vowel] inside a set construction to match any vowel. Refer to The LC_CTYPE Category section of the locale file format reference page for more information. RESTRICTIONS
Due to problems with the getrusage system call, csh incorrectly returns a value of 0 for each of the following fields when the built-in time(3) function or the time shell variable is used: %D Kilobytes of data space %F Number of page faults %K Kilobytes of stack space %W Number of times the process was swapped %X Kilobytes of text space RETURN VALUES
For information about return values, see the following sections: sallyShell Commands, Expressions, Predefined and Environment Variables, and OPTIONS. FILES
C shell startup file; read at beginning of execution by each C shell. Read by login shell (after Read by login shell at logout. The path to the default shell. Temporary file for <<. Contains user information. SEE ALSO
Commands: alias(1), bg(1), cd(1), echo(1), fg(1), hash(1), jobs(1), kill(1), ksh(1), newgrp(1), nice(1), nohup(1), sh(1), Bourne shell sh(1b), POSIX shell sh(1p), time(1), ulimit(1), umask(1), unalias(1), wait(1) Functions: access(2), chdir(2), exec(2), fork(2), getrlimit(2), pipe(2), umask(2), wait(2) Files: locale(4), null(7) Miscellaneous: loader(5) Command and Shell User's Guide csh(1)

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