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loader(5) [osf1 man page]

loader(5)							File Formats Manual							 loader(5)

NAME
loader - Run-time linker and loader. DESCRIPTION
The loader is the run-time linker and shared object loader. You invoke loader when you run a dynamic executable. The loader maps in the main object and any shared libraries used by it, resolves relocations as ld does at static link time, and allocates common space in memory if required. The loader is also referred to as rld, and some of the internal interfaces currently reflect this naming. The loader constructs an explicit shared object list from the list of objects comprised by the executable. You can override the dynamic executable's list at run time by defining the _RLD_LIST environment variable to be a colon-separated list of objects and libraries. To append new objects to the dynamic executable's list, specify the keyword DEFAULT at the beginning of the new object list; to prepend new objects, specify DEFAULT at the end of the new list. To add new objects to the middle of the dynamic executable's list, you must explic- itly enter the full object list when defining _RLD_LIST. The default shared library search paths include: /usr/shlib /usr/ccs/lib /usr/lib/cmplrs/cc /usr/lib /usr/local/lib /var/shlib You can change and add to the shared library search paths by any of the following mechanisms: Using the -soname option to the ld command when creating a shared object. The ld command records shared library dependencies using shared object names (sonames). By default, an object's soname is its file name (without a prepended path name). The -soname option allows you to specify an alternative soname. If the soname you specify contains a path name, the shared object loader searches for it only in the indicated location, exactly as specified. If the soname contains a file name, the shared object loader constructs a search path for the object from the file name as described at the end of this list. Using the -rpath option to the ld command. The -rpath option causes the linker to associate a list of shared library search directories (separated by colons) with a call shared or shared object. If an item in the path supplied to -rpath is of the form $VARNAME or ${VARNAME}, the loader interprets it as an environment variable. Defining the _RLD_ROOT environment variable. The _RLD_ROOT environment variable defines a list of root directory paths (separated by colons) that are, in turn, prepended to each directory specified in the main executable's rpath and to the default shared library search paths. The _RLD_ROOT environment vari- able does not, by itself, identify a list of directories to be searched. To search the system default library directories when _RLD_ROOT is defined, you must include the true root directory (/) as one of its entries. Defining the LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable. The LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable defines a list of shared library directories that are always searched as specified. The shared object loader does not prepend to these directories the root directory path prefixes defined by the _RLD_ROOT environment variable. If an item in the list defined by the LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable is of the form $VARNAME or ${VARNAME}, the loader interprets it as an environment variable. As mentioned in the preceding list, if the object's soname contains a path name, the shared object loader searches for it only in the indi- cated location, exactly as specified. If the soname contains a file name, the shared object loader constructs its search path for shared objects in the following manner: The list of shared library search directories indicated by the rpath of the main executable, each prepended by any root paths defined by the _RLD_ROOT environment variable Any list of shared library search directories defined by the LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable The default shared library search paths, each prepended by any root paths defined by the _RLD_ROOT environment variable To ensure compatibility, applications may choose to disallow exec-time or run-time library replacement. The ld(1) program supports a flag, -no_library_replacement, to facilitate this feature. Security also dictates that the loader will not allow library replacement for setuid and setgid programs unless the user is root. Loader Entry Points The loader is invoked by the kernel to load a program for execution. The lazy_text_resolve entry point implements lazy binding by resolv- ing text symbols on the fly at run time. The symbol __istart is bound to a handler for sections, and is called by crt0. Before exiting, programs or objects should call _rld_new_interface(_SHUT_DOWN) to ensure that the program executes all of the sections for all of the shared objects. The crt0 and exit(2) library routines call _rld_new_interface(_SHUT_DOWN) to ensure that programs linked using cc(1) will have standard handling of and sections. Programmers are encouraged to use the higher level entry points dlopen(3), dlsym(3), dlclose(3), and dlerror(3) to perform run-time library loading and symbol resolution. The following facilities available through _rld_new_interface are evolving and should not be used by porta- ble programs. #include <rld_interface.h> void *_rld_new_interface(Elf32_Word operation, ...) This function returns different types of objects depending on the operation code, so casting is required as indicated below. The following operation codes implement some basic functionalities that are superseded for the most part by dlopen(3), etc.: /* Run fini routines */ (int)_rld_new_interface(_SHUT_DOWN) /* Return first path name in object list */ (char *)_rld_new_interface(_RLD_FIRST_PATHNAME) /* Return next path name in object list */ (char *)_rld_new_interface(_RLD_NEXT_PATHNAME) /* Modify the object list, see rld_interface.h */ (char *)_rld_new_interface(_RLD_MODIFY_LIST, Elf32_Word operation, char *original_path name, char *name) /* Map a virtual address to a name */ (char *)_rld_new_interface(_RLD_ADDR_TO_NAME, Elf32_Addr address) /* Map a name to a virtual address */ (Elf32_Addr)_rld_new_interface(_RLD_NAME_TO_ADDR, char *name) The following operation codes are used to implement dlopen(3), etc.: /* See dlopen(3) for details */ (void *)_rld_new_interface(_RLD_LDR_DLOPEN, char *libname, int mode) /* See dlsym(3) for details */ (void *)_rld_new_interface(_RLD_LDR_DLSYM, void *handle, char *symname) /* See dlerror(3) for details */ (char *)_rld_new_interface(_RLD_LDR_DLERROR) /* See dlclose(3) for details */ (int)_rld_new_interface(_RLD_LDR_DLCLOSE, void *handle) The following operation codes are used internally by libc and dbx: /* Old support for sbrk(2) */ (int)_rld_new_interface(_RLD_LDR_SBRK, int incr, char **p_oldbrk) /* Old support for brk(2) */ (int)_rld_new_interface(_RLD_LDR_BRK, char *addr) /* Run fini routines (the same as _RLD_SHUTDOWN) */ (int)_rld_new_interface(_RLD_LDR_CONTEXT_ATEXIT, ldr_context_t ctxt) /* See ldr_inq_region(3) */ (int)_rld_new_interface(_RLD_LDR_CONTEXT_INQ_REGION, ldr_context_t ctxt, ldr_mod- ule_t mod_id, ldr_region_t region_no, ldr_region_info_t *infop, size_t sizeasked, size_t *sizegot) /* See ldr_inq_module(3) */ (int)_rld_new_interface(_RLD_LDR_CONTEXT_INQ_MODULE, ldr_context_t ctxt, ldr_mod- ule_t mod_id, ldr_module_info_t *infop, size_t sizeasked, size_t *sizegot) /* See ldr_next_module(3) */ (int)_rld_new_interface(_RLD_LDR_CONTEXT_NEXT_MODULE, ldr_context_t ctxt, ldr_module_t *mod_id_ptr) In the preceding entry points, ctxt is a loader context, allowing the possibility of querying and manipulating various environments. Cur- rently, ctxt must be set to ldr_process_context, which is a symbol resolved by the loader to an internal data structure. This allows oper- ations on the current process. LOADER OPTIONS
Users can specify loader options by setting the _RLD_ARGS environment variable to a space separated list of any of the following options: For programs that assume local variable to be initialized to zero upon entry, this option forces the loader to zero any stack it uses before returning to user code. Ignore interface versions on all objects. Ignore the interface version checking on the object specified. Does not complain or abort when the loader cannot resolve unresolved data symbols. The loader interactively prompts the user on stdin to fix problems in the link. (The loader will ask the user to provide a full path name for a missing shared object.) Prints all messages to a log file instead of /dev/tty. Prints all messages to stderr instead of /dev/tty. Prints all messages to stdout instead of /dev/tty. Changes the amount of space the loader reserves for the heap when loading a taso application. Normally, the loader reserves approximately 256MB immediately after the main object's bss segment for use as the heap. The size is specified as a hexadecimal number of bytes, without a leading "0X". For example, the following environment variable assignment will double the size of the heap to approximately 512MB: setenv _RLD_ARGS "-reserve_taso_heap 20000000" Determines how many shared libraries should be opened simultaneously before the loader begins using a text-segment mapping technique that conserves virtual address space. The default setting for number_of_dlopens is 100. Setting this value lower increases the chances that a process that dynamically loads a small number of shared libraries will use more wired pages. Raising this value may reduce the number of shared libraries that can be dynamically loaded by a process. Prints loader statistics to /dev/tty. Prints general actions. Forces the loader to handle all objects as "truncated address space option" objects. These are objects whose dependencies must be loaded in the lower 31-bit-addressable virtual address range. Shared libraries that have been linked outside this range will be relocated by the loader. Forces the loader to use a depth_first, ring search method for resolving symbol references between shared objects. For setuid programs not run by the superuser, _RLD_ARGS is ignored. SYMBOL BINDING
The loader can resolve symbols using either deferred or immediate binding. Immediate binding requires that all symbols be resolved when an executable program or shared library is loaded. Deferred ("lazy") binding allows text symbols to be resolved at run time by the loader's lazy_text_resolve entrypoint (described previously). By default, programs are loaded with deferred binding. If the LD_BIND_NOW environment variable is set to a non-null value, programs will be loaded with immediate binding. SYMBOL RESOLUTION
The loader's default symbol resolution policy uses a breadth-first search of the entire dependence graph to resolve symbol references between shared objects. The search starts from the call_shared executable, traverses dependencies left-to-right, and ignores cycles or duplicates. The depth ring search method is an alternative symbol resolution policy that can be selected for an individual executable at link time, or for all executables at run time. See ld(1) for link time options. At run time, the loader switch -depth_ring_search is used to enable this symbol resolution policy. The depth ring search order is a depth-first search starting from the referencing object, followed by a depth-first search starting from the root. As with the default search policy, the traversal of dependencies is performed left-to-right; cycles and duplicates are ignored. To illustrate these differences, consider the following dependence graph: a.out /| / | / | / | / | libA libB | | | | | libD libE | | | | |_____|______libC The default symbol resolution policy uses a single breadth-first search order to resolve symbol references for each of the objects in the preceding dependence graph. The search order for the graph is: Referencing Search Object Order All a.out libA libB libC libD libE The depth ring search order depends on which object a symbol reference is being resolved for. The search orders for resolving references from each object in the sample dependence graph are as follows: Referencing Search Object Order a.out a.out libA libD libC libB LibE libA libA libD libC a.out libB LibE libD libD libC a.out libA libB libE libB libB libE libC a.out libA libD libE libE libC a.out libA libD libB The default symbol resolution policy ensures that the same symbol is resolved for any object that references it. With depth ring search, you can have multiple instances of a symbol, referenced from different objects. This could introduce synchronization problems in execution, particularly if I/O buffers are duplicated across multiple shared libraries. Depth ring search order should be used with caution. Setting depth ring search on an application may cause an undefined change of behavior for the Tru64 UNIX system libraries used by the application. SEE ALSO
ld(1), dlopen(3), dlsym(3), dlclose(3), dlerror(3), ldd(1). loader(5)

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