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OpenSolaris 2009.06 - man page for mkisofs (opensolaris section 8)

MKISOFS(8)			     System Manager's Manual			       MKISOFS(8)

NAME
       mkisofs	-  create  an  hybrid  ISO9660/JOLIET/HFS  filesystem  with  optional  Rock Ridge
       attributes.

SYNOPSIS
       mkisofs [ options ] [ -o filename ] pathspec [pathspec ...]  mkisofs  [	options  ]  [  -o
       filename ] -find [find expression]

DESCRIPTION
       mkisofs	is  effectively  a pre-mastering program to generate an ISO9660/JOLIET/HFS hybrid
       filesystem.

       mkisofs is capable of generating the System Use Sharing Protocol records (SUSP)	specified
       by the Rock Ridge Interchange Protocol.	This is used to further describe the files in the
       iso9660 filesystem to a unix host, and provides	information  such  as  longer  filenames,
       uid/gid, posix permissions, symbolic links, block and character devices.

       If Joliet or HFS hybrid command line options are specified, mkisofs will create additional
       filesystem meta data for Joliet or HFS.	The file content in this case refers to the  same
       data blocks on the media.  It will generate a pure ISO9660 filesystem unless the Joliet or
       HFS hybrid command line options are given.

       mkisofs can generate a true (or shared) HFS hybrid filesystem. The same files are seen  as
       HFS  files  when  accessed  from a Macintosh and as ISO9660 files when accessed from other
       machines. HFS stands for Hierarchical File System and is the native file  system  used  on
       Macintosh computers.

       As  an  alternative,  mkisofs  can generate the Apple Extensions to ISO9660 for each file.
       These extensions provide each file with	CREATOR,  TYPE	and  certain  Finder  Flags  when
       accessed from a Macintosh. See the HFS MACINTOSH FILE FORMATS section below.

       mkisofs	takes  a  snapshot  of a given directory tree, and generates a binary image which
       will correspond to an ISO9660 or HFS filesystem when written to a block device.

       Each file written to the iso9660 filesystem must have a filename  in  the  8.3  format  (8
       characters,  period,  3	characters,  all upper case), even if Rock Ridge is in use.  This
       filename is used on systems that are not able to make use of  the  Rock	Ridge  extensions
       (such  as  MS-DOS),  and  each filename in each directory must be different from the other
       filenames in the same directory.  mkisofs generally tries to form correct names by forcing
       the  unix  filename  to upper case and truncating as required, but often times this yields
       unsatisfactory results when there are cases where the truncated names are not all  unique.
       mkisofs	assigns weightings to each filename, and if two names that are otherwise the same
       are found the name with the lower priority is renamed to have  a  3  digit  number  as  an
       extension  (where the number is guaranteed to be unique).  An example of this would be the
       files foo.bar and foo.bar.~1~ - the file foo.bar.~1~ would be written as FOO000.BAR;1  and
       the file foo.bar would be written as FOO.BAR;1

       When  used  with  various HFS options, mkisofs will attempt to recognise files stored in a
       number of Apple/Unix file formats and will copy the data and resource forks as well as any
       relevant  finder  information.  See  the HFS MACINTOSH FILE FORMATS section below for more
       about formats mkisofs supports.

       Note that mkisofs is not designed to communicate with the writer directly.   Most  writers
       have  proprietary command sets which vary from one manufacturer to another, and you need a
       specialized tool to actually burn the disk.

       The cdrecord utility is a utility capable of burning an actual disc.  The  latest  version
       of cdrecord is available from ftp://ftp.berlios.de/pub/cdrecord

       Also  you  should  know	that  most cd writers are very particular about timing.  Once you
       start to burn a disc, you cannot let their buffer empty before you are done, or	you  will
       end  up with a corrupt disc.  Thus it is critical that you be able to maintain an uninter-
       rupted data stream to the writer for the entire time that the disc is being written.

       pathspec is the path of the directory tree to be copied into the iso9660 filesystem.  Mul-
       tiple  paths can be specified, and mkisofs will merge the files found in all of the speci-
       fied path components to form the cdrom image.

       If the option -graft-points has been specified, it is  possible	to  graft  the	paths  at
       points  other  than  the  root directory, and it is possible to graft files or directories
       onto the cdrom image with names different than what they have in  the  source  filesystem.
       This  is easiest to illustrate with a couple of examples.   Let's start by assuming that a
       local file ../old.lis exists, and you wish to include it in the cdrom image.

	    foo/bar/=../old.lis

       will include the file old.lis in the cdrom image at /foo/bar/old.lis, while

	    foo/bar/xxx=../old.lis

       will include the file old.lis in the cdrom image at /foo/bar/xxx.  The same sort of syntax
       can  be	used with directories as well.	mkisofs will create any directories required such
       that the graft points exist on the cdrom image - the directories do not need to appear  in
       one  of the paths.  By default, any directories that are created on the fly like this will
       have permissions 0555 and appear to be owned by the person running mkisofs.  If	you  wish
       other  permissions  or  owners of the intermediate directories, see -uid, -gid, -dir-mode,
       -file-mode and -new-dir-mode.

       mkisofs will also run on Win9X/NT4 machines when compiled with Cygnus'  cygwin  (available
       from  http://sourceware.cygnus.com/cygwin/). Therefore most references in this man page to
       Unix can be replaced with Win32.

OPTIONS
       -abstract FILE
	      Specifies the abstract file name.  There is space on the disc for 37 characters  of
	      information.  This parameter can also be set in the file .mkisofsrc with ABST=file-
	      name.  If specified in both places, the command line version is used.

       -A application_id
	      Specifies a text string that will be written into the volume header.   This  should
	      describe	the application that will be on the disc.  There is space on the disc for
	      128 characters of information.  This parameter can also be set in the file .mkisof-
	      src with APPI=id.  If specified in both places, the command line version is used.

       -allow-leading-dots

       -ldots Allow ISO9660 filenames to begin with a period.  Usually, a leading dot is replaced
	      with an underscore in order to maintain MS-DOS compatibility.
	      This violates the ISO9660 standard, but it happens to work on  many  systems.   Use
	      with caution.

       -allow-lowercase
	      This options allows lower case characters to appear in iso9660 filenames.
	      This  violates  the  ISO9660 standard, but it happens to work on some systems.  Use
	      with caution.

       -allow-multidot
	      This options allows more than one dot to appear in iso9660  filenames.   A  leading
	      dot  is  not  affected  by  this	option,  it  may  be allowed separately using the
	      -allow-leading-dots option.
	      This violates the ISO9660 standard, but it happens to work on  many  systems.   Use
	      with caution.

       -biblio FILE
	      Specifies  the  bibliographic file name.	There is space on the disc for 37 charac-
	      ters of information.  This parameter can also be set in the  file  .mkisofsrc  with
	      BIBLO=filename.  If specified in both places, the command line version is used.

       -cache-inodes
	      Cache  inode  and  device  numbers to find hard links to files.  If mkisofs finds a
	      hard link (a file with multiple names), then the file will only appear once on  the
	      CD.  This  helps	to  save space on the CD.  The option -cache-inodes is default on
	      UNIX like operating systems.  Be careful when using this	option	on  a  filesystem
	      without unique inode numbers as it may result in files containing the wrong content
	      on CD.

	      If inodes are not cached, mkisofs will revert to the  old  Rrip  Version-1.10  (see
	      -rrip110)  and  mkisofs  will  not be able to create correct inode numbers for zero
	      sized files.

       -no-cache-inodes
	      Do not cache inode and device numbers.  This option is needed whenever a filesystem
	      does  not  have unique inode numbers. It is the default on old Cygwin versions.  As
	      the Microsoft operating system that runs below Cygwin uses 64 bit inode numbers for
	      NTFS,  it  does not have unique inode numbers in the 32 bit range.  Old Cygwin ver-
	      sions create fake 32-bit inode numbers from a hash algorithm and thus  create  non-
	      unique  numbers.	 If  mkisofs  would cache inodes on old Cygwin versions, it would
	      believe that some files are identical although they are not.  The  result  in  this
	      case  are files that contain the wrong content if a significant amount of different
	      files (> ~5000) is in inside the tree that is to be archived.  This does not happen
	      when  the  -no-cache-inodes  is  used,  but the disadvantage is that mkisofs cannot
	      detect hardlinks anymore and the resulting CD image may be larger than expected.

	      If inodes are not cached, mkisofs will revert to the  old  Rrip  Version-1.10  (see
	      -rrip110)  and  mkisofs  will  not be able to create correct inode numbers for zero
	      sized files.

       -b eltorito_boot_image
	      Specifies the path and filename of the boot image to be used  when  making  an  "El
	      Torito"  bootable CD. The pathname must be relative to the source path specified to
	      mkisofs.	This option is required to make an "El Torito"	bootable  CD.	The  boot
	      image  must  be  exactly	the size of either a 1200, 1440, or a 2880 kB floppy, and
	      mkisofs will use this size when creating	the  output  iso9660  filesystem.  It  is
	      assumed  that  the  first 512 byte sector should be read from the boot image (it is
	      essentially emulating a normal floppy drive).  This will work, for example, if  the
	      boot image is a LILO based boot floppy.

	      If  the boot image is not an image of a floppy, you need to add one of the options:
	      -hard-disk-boot or -no-emul-boot.  If the system should not boot off  the  emulated
	      disk, use -no-boot.

	      If  the  -sort  option  has not been specified, the boot images are sorted with low
	      priority (+2) to the beginning of the medium.  If you don't like this, you need  to
	      specify a sort weight of 0 for the boot images.

       -eltorito-alt-boot
	      Start with a new set of "El Torito" boot parameters.  This allows to have more than
	      one El Torito boot on a CD.  A maximum of 63 El Torito boot entries may be put on a
	      single CD.

       errctl= name

       errctl= error control spec
	      Add  the	content from file name to the error control definitions or add error con-
	      trol spec to the error control definitions.  More than one error control	file  and
	      more than one error control spec as well as a mixture of both forms is possible.

	      The  reason for using error control is to make mkisofs quiet about error conditions
	      that are known to be irrelevant on the quality of the created filesystem or to tell
	      mkisofs to abort on certain error conditions instead of trying to continue with the
	      filesystem.

	      A typical reason to use error control is to suppress  warnings  about  growing  log
	      files  while  doing  a backup on a live file system.  Another typical reason to use
	      error control is to tell mkisofs to abort if e.g. a  file  could	not  be  archived
	      instead of continuing to archive other files from a list.

	      The  error control file contains a set of lines, each starting with a list of error
	      conditions to be ignored followed by white space followed by a  file  name  pattern
	      (see  match(1)  or  patmatch(3) for more information).  The error control spec uses
	      the same syntax as a single line from the error control file.   If  the  file  name
	      pattern needs to start with white space, use a backslash to escape the start of the
	      file name. It is not possible to have new line characters in the file name pattern.
	      Whenever	an  error situation is encountered, mkisofs checks the lines in the error
	      control file starting from the top.  If the current error condition is listed on	a
	      line in the error control file, then mkisofs checks whether the pattern on the rest
	      of the line matches the current file name.  If this is the case, mkisofs	uses  the
	      current error control specification to control the current error condition.

	      The  list of error conditions to be handled may use one or more (in this case sepa-
	      rated by a '|' character) identifiers from the list below:

	      ABORT	  If this meta condition is  included  in  an  error  condition,  mkisofs
			  aborts  (exits) as soon as possible after this error condition has been
			  seen instead of making mkisofs quiet about the condition.   This  error
			  condition  flag  may only be used together with at another error condi-
			  tion or a list of error conditions (separated by a '|' character).

	      WARN	  If this meta condition is  included  in  an  error  condition,  mkisofs
			  prints  the  warning	about the error condition but the error condition
			  does not affect the exit code  of  mkisofs  and  the	error  statistics
			  (which  is  printed  to  the	end) does not include the related errors.
			  This error condition flag may only be used  together	with  at  another
			  error condition or a list of error conditions (separated by a '|' char-
			  acter).  The WARN meta condition has a lower precedence than ABORT.

	      ALL	  This is a shortcut for all error conditions below.

	      STAT	  Suppress warnings that mkisofs could not stat(2) a file.

	      GETACL	  Suppress warnings about files on which mkisofs had problems to retrieve
			  the ACL information.

	      OPEN	  Suppress warnings about files that could not be opened.

	      READ	  Suppress warnings read errors on files.

	      WRITE	  Suppress warnings write errors on files.

	      READLINK	  Suppress warnings readlink(2) errors on symbolic links.

	      GROW	  Suppress  warnings  about  files  that  did  grow  while they have been
			  archived.

	      SHRINK	  Suppress warnings about files that did  shrink  while  they  have  been
			  archived.

	      MISSLINK	  Suppress  warnings  about files for which mkisofs was unable to archive
			  all hard links.

	      NAMETOOLONG Suppress warnings about files that could not be  archived  because  the
			  name of the file is too long for the archive format.

	      FILETOOBIG  Suppress  warnings  about  files that could not be archived because the
			  size of the file is too big for the archive format.

	      SPECIALFILE Suppress warnings about files that could not be  archived  because  the
			  file type is not supported by the archive format.

	      GETXATTR	  Suppress  warnings  about  files on that mkisofs could not retrieve the
			  extended file attribute information.

	      SETTIME	  Suppress warnings about files on that mkisofs could not  set	the  time
			  information during extraction.

	      SETMODE	  Suppress  warnings about files on that mkisofs could not set the access
			  modes during extraction.

	      SECURITY	  Suppress warnings about files that  have  been  skipped  on  extraction
			  because  they  have  been  considered to be a security risk.	This cur-
			  rently applies to all files that have a '/../' sequence inside when -..
			  has not been specified.

	      LSECURITY   Suppress  warnings  about  links  that  have been skipped on extraction
			  because they have been considered to be a  security  risk.   This  cur-
			  rently  applies  to all link names that start with '/' or have a '/../'
			  sequence inside when -secure-links has been specified.  In  this  case,
			  mkisofs  tries  to match the link name against the pattern in the error
			  control file.

	      SAMEFILE	  Suppress warnings about links that  have  been  skipped  on  extraction
			  because  source  and	target of the link are pointing to the same file.
			  If mkisofs would not skip these files, it would end  up  with  removing
			  the  file  completely.   In  this case, mkisofs tries to match the link
			  name against the pattern in the error control file.

	      BADACL	  Suppress warnings access control list conversion problems.

	      SETACL	  Suppress warnings about files on that mkisofs could  not  set  the  ACL
			  information during extraction.

	      SETXATTR	  Suppress  warnings  about  files  on	that  mkisofs  could  not set the
			  extended file attribute information during extraction.

       If a specific error condition is ignored, then the error condition is not only handled  in
       a  silent  way  but also excluded from the error statistics that are printed at the end of
       the mkisofs run.

       Be very careful when using error control as you may ignore any error  condition.   If  you
       ignore the wrong error conditions, you may not be able to see real problems anymore.

       Note that currently only the tags OPEN, READ, GROW, SHRINK, are checked from mkisofs.

       -B img_sun4,img_sun4c,img_sun4m,img_sun4d,img_sun4e

       -sparc-boot img_sun4,img_sun4c,img_sun4m,img_sun4d,img_sun4e
	      Specifies  a comma separated list of boot images that are needed to make a bootable
	      CD for sparc systems.  Partition 0 is used for the ISO-9660 image, the first  image
	      file  is	mapped	to partition 1.  There may be empty fields in the comma separated
	      list.  The maximum number of possible partitions is 8 so it is impossible to  spec-
	      ify  more  than  7 partition images.  This option is required to make a bootable CD
	      for Sun sparc systems.  If the -B or -sparc-boot option  has  been  specified,  the
	      first  sector of the resulting image will contain a Sun disk label. This disk label
	      specifies slice 0 for the iso9660 image and slice 1 ... slice 7 for the boot images
	      that  have been specified with this option. Byte offset 512 ... 8191 within each of
	      the additional boot images must contain a primary boot that works for the appropri-
	      ate  sparc  architecture.  The  rest  of each of the images usually contains an ufs
	      filesystem that is used primary kernel boot stage.

	      The implemented boot method is the boot method found with SunOS 4.x and SunOS  5.x.
	      However,	it  does not depend on SunOS internals but only on properties of the Open
	      Boot prom. For this reason, it should be usable for any OS that boots off  a  sparc
	      system.

	      For more information also see the NOTES section below.

	      If  the special filename ...  is used, the actual and all following boot partitions
	      are mapped to the previous partition. If mkisofs is called with  -G  image  -B  ...
	      all  boot partitions are mapped to the partition that contains the iso9660 filesys-
	      tem image and the generic boot image that is located in the first 16 sectors of the
	      disk is used for all architectures.

       -G generic_boot_image
	      Specifies  the path and filename of the generic boot image to be used when making a
	      generic bootable CD.  The generic_boot_image will be placed on the first 16 sectors
	      of the CD. The first 16 sectors are the sectors that are located before the iso9660
	      primary volume descriptor.  If this option is used together  with  the  -sparc-boot
	      option,  the  Sun  disk  label will overlay the first 512 bytes of the generic boot
	      image.

       -hard-disk-boot
	      Specifies that the boot image used to create "El Torito" bootable  CDs  is  a  hard
	      disk  image. The hard disk image must begin with a master boot record that contains
	      a single partition.

       -no-emul-boot
	      Specifies that the boot image used to create "El Torito" bootable CDs is a 'no emu-
	      lation'  image.  The system will load and execute this image without performing any
	      disk emulation.

       -no-boot
	      Specifies that the created "El Torito" CD should be marked  as  not  bootable.  The
	      system  will  provide an emulated drive for the image, but will boot off a standard
	      boot device.

       -boot-load-seg segment_address
	      Specifies the load segment address of the boot image for no-emulation  "El  Torito"
	      CDs.

       -boot-load-size load_sectors
	      Specifies  the number of "virtual" (512-byte) sectors to load in no-emulation mode.
	      The default is to load the entire boot file.  Some BIOSes may have problems if this
	      is not a multiple of 4.

       -boot-info-table
	      Specifies  that  a  56-byte  table  with	information  of the CD-ROM layout will be
	      patched in at offset 8 in the boot file.	If this option is given, the boot file is
	      modified	in the source filesystem, so make sure to make a copy if this file cannot
	      be easily regenerated!  See the EL TORITO BOOT INFO TABLE section for a description
	      of this table.

       -C last_sess_start,next_sess_start
	      This  option  is	needed when mkisofs is used to create a CDextra or the image of a
	      second session or a higher level session for a multi session disk.  The  option  -C
	      takes  a	pair  of two numbers separated by a comma. The first number is the sector
	      number of the first sector in the last session of the disk that should be  appended
	      to.   The  second  number  is  the  starting sector number of the new session.  The
	      expected pair of numbers may be retrieved by calling cdrecord -msinfo ...   If  the
	      -C option is used in conjunction with the -M option, mkisofs will create a filesys-
	      tem image that is intended to be a continuation of the previous session.	If the -C
	      option  is  used without the -M option, mkisofs will create a filesystem image that
	      is intended to be used for a second session on a CDextra. This is a  multi  session
	      CD  that holds audio data in the first session and a ISO9660 filesystem in the sec-
	      ond session.

       -c boot_catalog
	      Specifies the path and filename of the boot catalog to be used when making  an  "El
	      Torito"  bootable CD. The pathname must be relative to the source path specified to
	      mkisofs.	This option is required to  make  a  bootable  CD.   This  file  will  be
	      inserted	into the output tree and not created in the source filesystem, so be sure
	      the specified filename does not conflict with an	existing  file,  as  it  will  be
	      excluded. Usually a name like "boot.catalog" is chosen.

	      If the -sort option has not been specified, the boot catalog sorted with low prior-
	      ity (+1) to the beginning of the medium.	If you don't like this, you need to spec-
	      ify a sort weight of 0 for the boot catalog.

       -check-oldnames
	      Check  all  filenames  imported from old session for compliance with actual mkisofs
	      iso9660 file naming rules.  It his option is not present, only names with a  length
	      > 31 are checked as these files are a hard violation of the iso9660 standard.

       -check-session FILE
	      Check  all  old  sessions  for  compliance  with actual mkisofs iso9660 file naming
	      rules.  This is a high level option that is a combination of the options:  -M  FILE
	      -C 0,0 -check-oldnames For the parameter FILE see description of -M option.

       -copyright FILE
	      Specifies the Copyright file name.  There is space on the disc for 37 characters of
	      information.  This parameter can also be set in the file .mkisofsrc with COPY=file-
	      name.  If specified in both places, the command line version is used.

       -d     Omit trailing period from files that do not have a period.
	      This  violates  the  ISO9660 standard, but it happens to work on many systems.  Use
	      with caution.

       -D     Do not use deep directory relocation, and instead just pack them in the way we  see
	      them.
	      If  ISO9660:1999	has not been selected, this violates the ISO9660 standard, but it
	      happens to work on many systems.	Use with caution.

       -dir-mode mode
	      Overrides the mode of directories used to create the  image  to  mode.   Specifying
	      this option automatically enables Rock Ridge extensions.

       -dvd-video
	      Generate	DVD-Video compliant UDF file system. This is done by sorting the order of
	      the content of the appropriate files and by adding padding  between  the	files  if
	      needed.	Note that the sorting only works if the DVD-Video filenames include upper
	      case characters only.
	      Note that in order to get a DVD-Video compliant filesystem image, you need to  pre-
	      pare  a DVD-Video compliant directory tree. This means you need to have a directory
	      VIDEO_TS (all caps) in the root directory of the resulting DVD and you should  have
	      a  directory  AUDIO_TS.  The  directory  VIDEO_TS needs to include all needed files
	      (file names must be all caps) for a compliant DVD-Video filesystem.

       -f     Follow all symbolic links when generating the filesystem.  When this option is  not
	      in  use,	symbolic links will be entered using Rock Ridge if enabled, otherwise the
	      file will be ignored.

	      See also -posix-L option.

       -file-mode mode
	      Overrides the mode of regular files used to create the image to  mode.   Specifying
	      this option automatically enables Rock Ridge extensions.

       -find  This  option  acts  a separator.	If it is used, all mkisofs options must be to the
	      left of the -find option. To the right of the -find  option,  mkisofs  accepts  the
	      find command line syntax only.

	      The  find expression acts as a filter between the source of file names and the con-
	      sumer, which is archiving engine.  If the find expression evaluated as  TRUE,  then
	      the related file is selected for processing, otherwise it is omited.

	      In  order  to  make  the evaluation of the find expression more convenient, mkisofs
	      implements additional find primaries that have side effects on the file meta  data.
	      Mkisofs implements the following additional find primaries:

	      -help  Lists the available find(1) syntax.

	      -chgrp gname
		     The  primary  always  evaluates  as  true;  it sets the group of the file to
		     gname.

	      -chmod mode
		     The primary always evaluates as true; it sets the permissions of the file to
		     mode.   Octal  and  symbolic  permissions	are  accepted  for  mode  as with
		     chmod(1).

	      -chown uname
		     The primary always evaluates as true; it sets  the  owner	of  the  file  to
		     uname.

	      -false The  primary  always evaluates as false; it allows to make the result of the
		     full expression different from the result of a part of the expression.

	      -true  The primary always evaluates as true; it allows to make the  result  of  the
		     full expression different from the result of a part of the expression.

	      The command line:

	      mkisofs -o o.iso -find . ( -type d -ls -o false ) -o ! -type d

	      lists all directories and puts all non-directories to the image o.iso.

	      The command line:

	      mkisofs -o o.iso -find . ( -type d -chown root -o true )

	      archives	all  directories  so  they appear to be owned by root in the archive, all
	      non-directories are archived as they are in the file system.

	      Note that the -ls, -exec and the -ok primary cannot be used if stdin or stdout  has
	      not been redirected.

       -gid gid
	      Overrides  the gid read from the source files to the value of gid.  Specifying this
	      option automatically enables Rock Ridge extensions.

       -gui   Switch the behaviour for a GUI. This currently makes the output  more  verbose  but
	      may have other effects in future.

       -graft-points
	      Allow  to use graft points for filenames. If this option is used, all filenames are
	      checked for graft points. The filename is divided  at  the  first  unescaped  equal
	      sign.  All  occurrences  of  '\\'  and  '=' characters must be escaped with '\\' if
	      -graft-points has been specified.

       -hide glob
	      Hide glob from being seen on the ISO9660 or Rock Ridge directory.  glob is a  shell
	      wild-card-style pattern that must match any part of the filename or path.  Multiple
	      globs may be hidden.  If glob matches a directory, then the contents of that direc-
	      tory  will  be  hidden.  In order to match a directory name, make sure the pathname
	      does not include a trailing '/' character.  All the  hidden  files  will	still  be
	      written  to the output CD image file.  Should be used with the -hide-joliet option.
	      See README.hide for more details.

       -hide-list file
	      A file containing a list of globs to be hidden as above.

       -hidden glob
	      Add the hidden (existence) ISO9660 directory attribute for  glob.   This	attribute
	      will prevent glob from being listed on DOS based systems if the /A flag is not used
	      for the listing.	glob is a shell wild-card-style pattern that must match any  part
	      of  the  filename or path.  In order to match a directory name, make sure the path-
	      name does not include a trailing '/' character.  Multiple globs may be hidden.

       -hidden-list file
	      A file containing a list of globs to get the hidden attribute as above.

       -hide-joliet glob
	      Hide glob from being seen on the Joliet directory.  glob is a shell wild-card-style
	      pattern  that  must  match any part of the filename or path.  Multiple globs may be
	      hidden.  If glob matches a directory, then the contents of that directory  will  be
	      hidden.	In  order  to  match  a  directory  name, make sure the pathname does not
	      include a trailing '/' character.  All the hidden files will still  be  written  to
	      the  output  CD  image file.  Should be used with the -hide option. See README.hide
	      for more details.

       -hide-joliet-list file
	      A file containing a list of globs to be hidden as above.

       -hide-joliet-trans-tbl
	      Hide the TRANS.TBL files from the Joliet tree.   These  files  usually  don't  make
	      sense in the Joliet World as they list the real name and the ISO9660 name which may
	      both be different from the Joliet name.

       -hide-rr-moved
	      Rename the directory RR_MOVED to .rr_moved in the Rock Ridge tree.  It seems to  be
	      impossible  to  completely  hide	the  RR_MOVED directory from the Rock Ridge tree.
	      This option only makes the visible tree better to understand for people  who  don't
	      know what this directory is for.	If you need to have no RR_MOVED directory at all,
	      you should use the -D option. Note that in case that the -D option has been  speci-
	      fied,  the  resulting  filesystem  is not ISO9660 level-1 compliant and will not be
	      readable on MS-DOS.  See also NOTES section for more information	on  the  RR_MOVED
	      directory.

       -hide-udf glob
	      Hide  glob  from	being seen on the UDF directory.  glob is a shell wild-card-style
	      pattern that must match any part of the filename or path.  Multiple  globs  may  be
	      hidden.	If  glob matches a directory, then the contents of that directory will be
	      hidden.  In order to match a directory  name,  make  sure  the  pathname	does  not
	      include  a  trailing  '/' character.  All the hidden files will still be written to
	      the output CD image file.  Should be used with the -hide	option.  See  README.hide
	      for more details.

       -hide-udf-list file
	      A file containing a list of globs to be hidden as above.

       -input-charset charset
	      Set  up the input charset that defines the characters used in local file names.  To
	      get a list of valid charset names, call mkisofs -input-charset help.  To get a  1:1
	      mapping, you may use default as charset name. If the input charset has not been set
	      up from the locale in the environment, the default initial values are cp437 on  DOS
	      based systems and iso8859-1 on all other systems.  See CHARACTER SETS section below
	      for more details.

	      If -input-charset has not been specified, it will be set up from the locale in  the
	      environment.  If	you like to disable this automatic setup, use the empty string as
	      locale name.

       -output-charset charset
	      Set up the output charset that defines the characters that will  be  used  in  Rock
	      Ridge  file  names. Defaults to the input charset. See CHARACTER SETS section below
	      for more details.

       -iso-level level
	      Set the iso9660 conformance level. Valid numbers are 1..3 and 4.

	      With level 1, files may only consist of one section and filenames are restricted to
	      8.3 characters.

	      With level 2, files may only consist of one section.

	      With  level  3, no restrictions (other than ISO-9660:1988) do apply.  Starting with
	      this level, mkisofs also allows files to	be  larger  than  4  GB  by  implementing
	      ISO-9660 multi-extent files.

	      With  all iso9660 levels from 1..3, all filenames are restricted to upper case let-
	      ters, numbers and the underscore (_). The maximum filename length is restricted  to
	      31  characters, the directory nesting level is restricted to 8 and the maximum path
	      length is limited to 255 characters.

	      Level 4 officially does not exists but mkisofs maps it to  ISO-9660:1999	which  is
	      ISO-9660 version 2.

	      With  level 4, an enhanced volume descriptor with version number and file structure
	      version number set to 2 is emitted.  There may be more than 8 levels  of	directory
	      nesting,	there is no need for a file to contain a dot and the dot has no more spe-
	      cial meaning, file names do not have version numbers, the maximum length for  files
	      and  directory  is raised to 207.  If Rock Ridge is used, the maximum ISO-9660 name
	      length is reduced to 197.

	      When creating Version 2 images, mkisofs emits an enhanced volume	descriptor  which
	      looks  similar to a primary volume descriptor but is slightly different. Be careful
	      not to use broken software to make ISO-9660 images bootable by  assuming	a  second
	      PVD copy and patching this putative PVD copy into an El Torito VD.

       -J     Generate	Joliet directory records in addition to regular iso9660 file names.  This
	      is primarily useful when the discs are to  be  used  on  Windows-NT  or  Windows-95
	      machines.   The  Joliet  filenames are specified in Unicode and each path component
	      can be up to 64 Unicode characters long.	Note that Joliet is no	standard  -  CD's
	      that  use  only Joliet extensions but no standard Rock Ridge extensions may usually
	      only be used on Microsoft Win32 systems. Furthermore, the fact that  the	filenames
	      are  limited  to	64 characters and the fact that Joliet uses the UTF-16 coding for
	      Unicode characters causes interoperability problems.

       -joliet-long
	      Allow Joliet filenames to be up to 103 Unicode characters. This breaks  the  Joliet
	      specification  -	but  appears to work. Use with caution. The number 103 is derived
	      from: the maximum Directory Record Length (254),	minus  the  length  of	Directory
	      Record  (33), minus CD-ROM XA System Use Extension Information (14), divided by the
	      UTF-16 character size (2).

       -jcharset charset
	      Same as using -input-charset charset and -J options.  See  CHARACTER  SETS  section
	      below for more details.

       -l     Allow full 31 character filenames.  Normally the ISO9660 filename will be in an 8.3
	      format which is compatible with MS-DOS, even though  the	ISO9660  standard  allows
	      filenames  of  up to 31 characters.  If you use this option, the disc may be diffi-
	      cult to use on a MS-DOS system, but this comes in handy on some other systems (such
	      as the Amiga).  Use with caution.

       -L     Outdated	option	reserved  by POSIX.1-2001, use -allow-leading-dots instead.  This
	      option will get POSIX.1-2001 semantics with mkisofs-2.02.

       -log-file log_file
	      Redirect all error, warning and informational messages to log_file instead  of  the
	      standard error.

       -m glob
	      Exclude  glob from being written to CDROM.  glob is a shell wild-card-style pattern
	      that must match part of the filename (not the path as with option -x).  Technically
	      glob  is matched against the d->d_name part of the directory entry.  Multiple globs
	      may be excluded.	Example:

	      mkisofs -o rom -m '*.o' -m core -m foobar

	      would exclude all files ending in ".o", called "core" or "foobar" to be  copied  to
	      CDROM.  Note  that if you had a directory called "foobar" it too (and of course all
	      its descendants) would be excluded.

	      NOTE: The -m and -x option description should both  be  updated,	they  are  wrong.
	      Both now work identical and use filename globbing. A file is excluded if either the
	      last component matches or the whole path matches.

       -exclude-list file
	      A file containing a list of globs to be exclude as above.

       -max-iso9660-filenames
	      Allow 37 chars in iso9660 filenames.  This option forces the -N option as the extra
	      name space is taken from the space reserved for ISO-9660 version numbers.
	      This  violates  the  ISO9660  standard,  but  it	happens  to work on many systems.
	      Although a conforming application needs to provide a buffer space of  at	least  37
	      characters, disks created with this option may cause a buffer overflow in the read-
	      ing operating system. Use with extreme care.

       -M path
	      or

       -M device
	      or

       -dev device
	      Specifies path to existing iso9660 image to be merged. The alternate form  takes	a
	      SCSI  device specifier that uses the same syntax as the dev= parameter of cdrecord.
	      The output of mkisofs will be a new session which should get written to the end  of
	      the  image  specified  in -M.  Typically this requires multi-session capability for
	      the recorder and cdrom drive that you are attempting to write this image to.   This
	      option may only be used in conjunction with the -C option.

       -N     Omit version numbers from ISO9660 file names.
	      This violates the ISO9660 standard, but no one really uses the version numbers any-
	      way.  Use with caution.

       -new-dir-mode mode
	      Mode to use when creating new directories in the iso fs image.  The default mode is
	      0555.

       -nobak

       -no-bak
	      Do not include backup files files on the iso9660 filesystem.  If the -no-bak option
	      is specified, files that contain the characters '~' or '#' or end  in  '.bak'  will
	      not be included (these are typically backup files for editors under unix).

       -no-limit-pathtables
	      A ISO9660 filesystem contains path tables that contain a list of directories.  This
	      list may contain many directories but only 65535 of them may be parent directories.
	      When  -no-limit-pathtables  is in use, further parent directories will be folded to
	      the root directory and the resulting filesystem will no longer be usable on DOS.

       -force-rr
	      Do not use the automatic Rock Ridge attributes recognition for  previous	sessions.
	      This helps to show rotten iso9660 extension records as e.g. created by NERO burning
	      ROM.

       -no-rr Do not use the Rock Ridge attributes from previous  sessions.   This  may  help  to
	      avoid  getting  into trouble when mkisofs finds illegal Rock Ridge signatures on an
	      old session.

       -no-split-symlink-components
	      Don't split the SL components, but begin a new Continuation Area (CE) instead. This
	      may  waste  some space, but the SunOS 4.1.4 cdrom driver has a bug in reading split
	      SL components (link_size = component_size instead of link_size += component_size).

	      Note that this option has been introduced by Eric Youngdale in 1997.  It	is  ques-
	      tionable	whether  it makes sense at all.  When it has been introduced, mkisofs did
	      have a serious bug that did create defective CE signatures if a  symlink	contained
	      `/../'.  This CE signature bug in mkisofs has been fixed in May 2003.

       -no-split-symlink-fields
	      Don't split the SL fields, but begin a new Continuation Area (CE) instead. This may
	      waste some space, but the SunOS 4.1.4 and Solaris 2.5.1 cdrom driver have a bug  in
	      reading split SL fields (a `/' can be dropped).

	      Note  that  this option has been introduced by Eric Youngdale in 1997.  It is ques-
	      tionable whether it makes sense at all.  When it has been introduced,  mkisofs  did
	      have  a  serious bug that did create defective CE signatures if a symlink contained
	      `/../'.  This CE signature bug in mkisofs has been fixed in May 2003.

       -o filename
	      is the name of the file to which the iso9660 filesystem image  should  be  written.
	      This  can be a disk file, a tape drive, or it can correspond directly to the device
	      name of the optical disc writer.	If not specified, stdout is used.  Note that  the
	      output  can  also be a block special device for a regular disk drive, in which case
	      the disk partition can be mounted and examined to ensure that the premastering  was
	      done correctly.

       -pad   Pad  the end of the whole image by 150 sectors (300 kB).	If the option -B is used,
	      then there is a padding at the end of the iso9660 partition and before  the  begin-
	      ning  of the boot partitions.  The size of this padding is chosen to make the first
	      boot partition start on a sector number that is a multiple of 16.

	      The padding is needed as many operating systems (e.g. Linux) implement  read  ahead
	      bugs in their filesystem I/O. These bugs result in read errors on one or more files
	      that are located at the end of a track. They are usually present	when  the  CD  is
	      written in Track at Once mode or when the disk is written as mixed mode CD where an
	      audio track follows the data track.

	      To avoid problems with I/O error on the last  file  on  the  filesystem,	the  -pad
	      option has been made the default.

       -no-pad
	      Do  not Pad the end by 150 sectors (300 kB) and do not make the the boot partitions
	      start on a multiple of 16 sectors.

       -path-list file
	      A file containing a list of pathspec directories and filenames to be added  to  the
	      ISO9660  filesystem.  This list of pathspecs are processed after any that appear on
	      the command line. If the argument is -, then the list is	read  from  the  standard
	      input.

       -P     Outdated option reserved by POSIX.1-2001, use -publisher instead.  This option will
	      get POSIX.1-2001 semantics with mkisofs-2.02.

       -publisher publisher_id
	      Specifies a text string that will be written into the volume header.   This  should
	      describe	the publisher of the CDROM, usually with a mailing address and phone num-
	      ber.  There is space on the disc for 128 characters of information.  This parameter
	      can  also  be  set in the file .mkisofsrc with PUBL=.  If specified in both places,
	      the command line version is used.

       -p preparer_id
	      Specifies a text string that will be written into the volume header.   This  should
	      describe	the  preparer of the CDROM, usually with a mailing address and phone num-
	      ber.  There is space on the disc for 128 characters of information.  This parameter
	      can  also  be  set in the file .mkisofsrc with PREP=.  If specified in both places,
	      the command line version is used.

       -posix-H
	      Follow all symbolic links encountered on command line when generating the  filesys-
	      tem.

       -posix-L
	      Follow  all symbolic links when generating the filesystem.  When this option is not
	      in use, symbolic links will be entered using Rock Ridge if enabled,  otherwise  the
	      file will be ignored.

       -posix-P
	      Do  not follow symbolic links when generating the filesystem (this is the default).
	      If -posix-P is specified after -posix-H or -posix-L, the effect  of  these  options
	      will be reset.

       -print-size
	      Print  estimated	filesystem  size in multiples of the sector size (2048 bytes) and
	      exit. This option is needed for Disk At Once mode and with some  CD-R  drives  when
	      piping  directly	into cdrecord.	In this case it is needed to know the size of the
	      filesystem before the actual CD-creation is done.  The option -print-size allows to
	      get  this size from a "dry-run" before the CD is actually written.  Old versions of
	      mkisofs did write this information (among other information) to  stderr.	 As  this
	      turns  out  to  be  hard	to parse, the number without any other information is now
	      printed on stdout too.  If you like to write a simple shell script, redirect stderr
	      and catch the number from stdout.  This may be done with:

	      cdblocks=` mkisofs -print-size -quiet ... `

	      mkisofs ... | cdrecord ... tsize=${cdblocks}s -

       -quiet This makes mkisofs even less verbose.  No progress output will be provided.

       -R     Generate	SUSP and RR records using the Rock Ridge protocol to further describe the
	      files on the iso9660 filesystem.	The Rock Ridge protocol is needed in order to add
	      POSIX  like file meta data like permissions, extended time stamps, user/group is'd,
	      link counts, inode numbers and symbolic links. The Rock Ridge  protocol  allows  to
	      archive hierarchy trees with unlimited depth.

       -r     This  is	like  the  -R option, but file ownership and modes are set to more useful
	      values.  The uid and gid are set to zero, because they are usually only  useful  on
	      the  author's system, and not useful to the client.  All the file read bits are set
	      true, so that files and directories are globally readable on the	client.   If  any
	      execute bit is set for a file, set all of the execute bits, so that executables are
	      globally executable on the client.  If any search bit is set for a  directory,  set
	      all  of the search bits, so that directories are globally searchable on the client.
	      All write bits are cleared, because the CD-Rom will be  mounted  read-only  in  any
	      case.   If any of the special mode bits are set, clear them, because file locks are
	      not useful on a read-only file system, and set-id bits are not desirable for uid	0
	      or  gid  0.   When  used	on  Win32, the execute bit is set on all files. This is a
	      result of the lack of file permissions on Win32  and  the  Cygwin  POSIX	emulation
	      layer.  See also -uid -gid, -dir-mode, -file-mode and -new-dir-mode.

       -relaxed-filenames
	      The  option  -relaxed-filenames  allows  ISO9660 filenames to include digits, upper
	      case characters and all other 7 bit ASCII characters (resp. anything except  lower-
	      case characters).
	      This  violates  the  ISO9660 standard, but it happens to work on many systems.  Use
	      with caution.

       -root dir
	      Moves all files and directories into dir in the image. This is essentially the same
	      as  using -graft-points and adding dir in front of every pathspec, but is easier to
	      use.

	      dir may actually be several levels deep. It is created with the same permissions as
	      other graft points.

       -rrip110
	      Create  ISO9660  file  system images that follow the old Rrip Version-1.10 standard
	      from 1993. This option may be needed if you know of systems that do  not	implement
	      the  Rrip  protocol correctly and like the file system to be read by such a system.
	      Currently no such system is known.

	      If a file system has been created with -rrip110, the Rock Ridge attributes  do  not
	      include inode number information.

       -rrip112
	      Create  ISO9660  file  system images that follow the new Rrip Version-1.12 standard
	      from 1994, this is the default.

       -old-root dir
	      This option is necessary when writing a multisession image  and  the  previous  (or
	      even  older)  session was written with -root dir.  Using a directory name not found
	      in the previous session causes mkisofs to abort with an error.

	      Without this option, mkisofs would not be able to find unmodified files  and  would
	      be forced to write their data into the image once more.

	      -root  and  -old-root are meant to be used together to do incremental backups.  The
	      initial session would e.g. use: mkisofs -root backup_1 dirs.  The next  incremental
	      backup  with  mkisofs  -root  backup_2 -old-root backup_1 dirs.  would take another
	      snapshot of these directories. The first snapshot would be found in  backup_1,  the
	      second  one in backup_2, but only modified or new files need to be written into the
	      second session.

	      Without these options, new files would be added and old ones  would  be  preserved.
	      But old ones would be overwritten if the file was modified. Recovering the files by
	      copying the whole directory back from CD would also restore files that were deleted
	      intentionally.  Accessing  several older versions of a file requires support by the
	      operating system to choose which sessions are to be mounted.

       -sort sort file
	      Sort file locations on the media. Sorting is controlled by  a  file  that  contains
	      pairs  of  filenames and sorting offset weighting.  If the weighting is higher, the
	      file will be located closer to the beginning of the  media,  if  the  weighting  is
	      lower,  the file will be located closer to the end of the media. There must be only
	      one space or tabs character between the filename and the weight and the weight must
	      be  the last characters on a line. The filename is taken to include all the charac-
	      ters up to, but not including the last space or tab character on a line. This is to
	      allow for space characters to be in, or at the end of a filename.  This option does
	      not sort the order of the file names that appear in the ISO9660 directory. It sorts
	      the  order  in which the file data is written to the CD image - which may be useful
	      in order to optimize the data layout on a CD. See README.sort for more details.

       -sparc-boot img_sun4,img_sun4c,img_sun4m,img_sun4d,img_sun4e
	      See -B option above.

       -sparc-label label
	      Set the Sun disk label name for the Sun disk label that is created with the -sparc-
	      boot option.

       -split-output
	      Split  the  output  image  into several files of approximately 1 GB.  This helps to
	      create DVD sized iso9660 images on operating systems without  large  file  support.
	      Cdrecord	will  concatenate  more than one file into a single track if writing to a
	      DVD.  To make -split-output work, the -o filename option	must  be  specified.  The
	      resulting output images will be named: filename_00,filename_01,filename_02...

       -stream-media-size #
	      Select streaming operation and set the media size to # sectors.  This allows you to
	      pipe the output of the tar program into mkisofs and to create a iso9660  filesystem
	      without  the  need  of  an  intermediate tar archive file.  If this option has been
	      specified, mkisofs reads from stdin and creates a file with  the	name  STREAM.IMG.
	      The  maximum size of the file (with padding) is 200 sectors less than the specified
	      media size. If -no-pad has been specified, the file size is 50  sectors  less  than
	      the specified media size.  If the file is smaller, then mkisofs will write padding.
	      This may take a while.

	      The option -stream-media-size creates simple iso9660 filesystems only and  may  not
	      used together with multi-session or hybrid filesystem options.

       -stream-file-name name
	      Set  the	file  name  used  with	-stream-media-size  #  to  a value different from
	      STREAM.IMG.  If this option is used, the filesystem is created as if  -iso-level	4
	      has been specified.

       -sunx86-boot UFS-img,,,AUX1-img
	      Specifies  a  comma  separated  list of filesystem images that are needed to make a
	      bootable CD for Solaris x86 systems.

	      Note that partition 1 is used for the ISO-9660 image and that partition  2  is  the
	      whole  disk,  so partition 1 and 2 may not be used by external partition data.  The
	      first image file is mapped to partition 0.  There may be empty fields in the  comma
	      separated  list, and list entries for partition 1 and 2 must be empty.  The maximum
	      number of supported partitions is 8 (although the Solaris x86 partition table could
	      support  up to 16 partitions), so it is impossible to specify more than 6 partition
	      images.  This option is required to make a bootable CD for Solaris x86 systems.

	      If the -sunx86-boot option has been specified, the first sector  of  the	resulting
	      image  will  contain a PC fdisk label with a Solaris type 0x82 fdisk partition that
	      starts at offset 512 and spans the whole CD.  In addition,  for  the  Solaris  type
	      0x82 fdisk partition, there is a SVr4 disk label at offset 1024 in the first sector
	      of the CD.  This disk label specifies slice 0 for  the  first  (usually  UFS  type)
	      filesystem  image  that  is  used to boot the PC and slice 1 for the iso9660 image.
	      Slice 2 spans the whole CD slice 3 ... slice 7 may be used for additional  filesys-
	      tem images that have been specified with this option.

	      A  Solaris  x86 boot CD uses a 1024 byte sized primary boot that uses the El-Torito
	      no-emulation boot mode and a secondary generic boot that is in  CD  sectors  1..15.
	      For this reason, both -b bootimage -no-emul-boot and -G genboot must be specified.

       -sunx86-label label
	      Set  the	SVr4  disk  label  name  for the SVr4 disk label that is created with the
	      -sunx86-boot option.

       -sysid ID
	      Specifies the system ID.	There is space on the disc for 32 characters of  informa-
	      tion.   This  parameter can also be set in the file .mkisofsrc with SYSI=system_id.
	      If specified in both places, the command line version is used.

       -T     Generate a file TRANS.TBL in each directory on the CDROM, which can be used on non-
	      Rock Ridge capable systems to help establish the correct file names.  There is also
	      information present in the file that indicates the  major  and  minor  numbers  for
	      block and character devices, and each symlink has the name of the link file given.

       -table-name TABLE_NAME
	      Alternative translation table file name (see above). Implies the -T option.  If you
	      are creating a multi-session image you must use the same name as	in  the  previous
	      session.

       -ucs-level level
	      Set Unicode conformance level in the Joliet SVD. The default level is 3.	It may be
	      set to 1..3 using this option.

       -UDF   Include UDF support in the generated filesystem image.  UDF support is currently in
	      alpha  status  and  for  this reason, it is not possible to create UDF only images.
	      UDF data structures are currently coupled to the Joliet structures,  so  there  are
	      many pitfalls with the current implementation.  Note that UDF wastes the space from
	      sector ~20 to sector 256 at the beginning of the disk  in  addition  to  the  spcae
	      needed for real UDF data structures.

       -udf   Rationalized UDF with user and group set to 0 and with simplified permissions.  See
	      -r option for more information.

       -udf-symlinks
	      Support symlinks in UDF filesystems. This is the default.

       -no-udf-symlinks
	      Do not support symlinks in UDF filesystems.

       -uid uid
	      Overrides the uid read from the source files to the value of uid.  Specifying  this
	      option automatically enables Rock Ridge extensions.

       -use-fileversion
	      The  option  -use-fileversion  allows  mkisofs to use file version numbers from the
	      filesystem.  If the option is not specified, mkisofs creates a version number of	1
	      for  all files.  File versions are strings in the range ;1 to ;32767 This option is
	      the default on VMS.

       -U     Allows  "Untranslated"  filenames,  completely  violating  the  iso9660	standards
	      described above. Forces on the -d, -l, -N, -allow-leading-dots, -relaxed-filenames,
	      -allow-lowercase, -allow-multidot and -no-iso-translate flags. It allows more  than
	      one '.' character in the filename, as well as mixed case filenames.  This is useful
	      on HP-UX system, where the built-in CDFS filesystem does not recognize  ANY  exten-
	      sions. Use with extreme caution.

       -no-iso-translate
	      Do  not  translate  the  characters '#' and '~' which are invalid for iso9660 file-
	      names.  These characters are though invalid often used by Microsoft systems.
	      This violates the ISO9660 standard, but it happens to work on  many  systems.   Use
	      with caution.

       -V volid
	      Specifies the volume ID (volume name or label) to be written into the master block.
	      There is space on the disc for 32 characters of information.   This  parameter  can
	      also  be set in the file .mkisofsrc with VOLI=id.  If specified in both places, the
	      command line version is used.  Note that if you assign a volume  ID,  this  is  the
	      name  that  will	be  used as the mount point used by the Solaris volume management
	      system and the name that is assigned to the disc on a Microsoft Win32 or Apple  Mac
	      platform.

       -volset ID
	      Specifies the volset ID.	There is space on the disc for 128 characters of informa-
	      tion.  This parameter can also be set in the file .mkisofsrc  with  VOLS=volset_id.
	      If specified in both places, the command line version is used.

       -volset-size #
	      Sets  the volume set size to #.  The volume set size is the number of CD's that are
	      in a CD volume set.  A volume set is a collection of one or more volumes, on  which
	      a set of files is recorded.

	      Volume Sets are not intended to be used to create a set numbered CD's that are part
	      of e.g. a Operation System installation set of CD's.  Volume Sets are  rather  used
	      to  record a big directory tree that would not fit on a single volume.  Each volume
	      of a Volume Set contains a description of all the directories and  files	that  are
	      recorded	on the volumes where the sequence numbers are less than, or equal to, the
	      assigned Volume Set Size of the current volume.

	      Mkisofs currently does not support a -volset-size that is larger than 1.

	      The option -volset-size must be specified  before  -volset-seqno	on  each  command
	      line.

       -volset-seqno #
	      Sets  the  volume  set sequence number to #.  The volume set sequence number is the
	      index number of the current CD in a CD set.  The option -volset-size must be speci-
	      fied before -volset-seqno on each command line.

       -v     Verbose execution. If given twice on the command line, extra debug information will
	      be printed.

       -x path
	      Exclude path from being written to CDROM.  path must be the complete pathname  that
	      results from concatenating the pathname given as command line argument and the path
	      relative to this directory.  Multiple paths may be excluded.  Example:

	      mkisofs -o cd -x /local/dir1 -x /local/dir2 /local

	      NOTE: The -m and -x option description should both  be  updated,	they  are  wrong.
	      Both now work identical and use filename globbing. A file is excluded if either the
	      last component matches or the whole path matches.

       -z     Generate special RRIP records for transparently compressed files.  This is only  of
	      use  and	interest  for hosts that support transparent decompression, such as Linux
	      2.4.14 or later.	You must specify the -R or -r options to  enable  RockRidge,  and
	      generate	compressed files using the mkzftree utility before running mkisofs.  Note
	      that transparent compression is a nonstandard Rock Ridge extension.  The	resulting
	      disks are only transparently readable if used on Linux.  On other operating systems
	      you will need to call mkzftree by hand to decompress the files.

HFS OPTIONS
       -hfs   Create an ISO9660/HFS hybrid CD. This option should be used in conjunction with the
	      -map, -magic and/or the various double dash options given below.

       -no-hfs
	      Do  not  create  an ISO9660/HFS hybrid CD even though other options may imply to do
	      so.

       -apple Create an ISO9660 CD with Apple's extensions. Similar to the  -hfs  option,  except
	      that  the  Apple	Extensions to ISO9660 are added instead of creating an HFS hybrid
	      volume.  Former mkisofs versions did include Rock Ridge attributes  by  default  if
	      -apple  was  specified.  This  versions of mkisofs does not do this anymore. If you
	      like to have Rock Ridge attributes, you need to specify this separately.

       -map mapping_file
	      Use the mapping_file to set the CREATOR and TYPE information for a  file	based  on
	      the  filename's  extension.  A filename is mapped only if it is not one of the know
	      Apple/Unix file formats. See the HFS CREATOR/TYPE section below.

       -magic magic_file
	      The CREATOR and TYPE information is set by using a file's magic number (usually the
	      first few bytes of a file). The magic_file is only used if a file is not one of the
	      known Apple/Unix file formats, or the filename extension has not been mapped  using
	      the -map option. See the HFS CREATOR/TYPE section below for more details.

       -hfs-creator CREATOR
	      Set  the	default  CREATOR for all files. Must be exactly 4 characters. See the HFS
	      CREATOR/TYPE section below for more details.

       -hfs-type TYPE
	      Set the default TYPE for all files. Must be exactly 4 characters. See the HFS  CRE-
	      ATOR/TYPE section below for more details.

       -probe Search  the  contents  of files for all the known Apple/Unix file formats.  See the
	      HFS MACINTOSH FILE FORMATS section below for more about  these  formats.	 However,
	      the only way to check for MacBinary and AppleSingle files is to open and read them.
	      Therefore this option may increase processing time. It is better to use one or more
	      double dash options given below if the Apple/Unix formats in use are known.

       -no-desktop
	      Do not create (empty) Desktop files. New HFS Desktop files will be created when the
	      CD is used on a Macintosh (and stored in the System  Folder).   By  default,  empty
	      Desktop files are added to the HFS volume.

       -mac-name
	      Use  the	HFS filename as the starting point for the ISO9660, Joliet and Rock Ridge
	      file names. See the HFS MACINTOSH FILE NAMES section below for more information.

       -boot-hfs-file driver_file
	      Installs the driver_file that may make the CD bootable on a Macintosh. See the  HFS
	      BOOT DRIVER section below. (Alpha).

       -part  Generate	an  HFS partition table. By default, no partition table is generated, but
	      some older Macintosh CDROM drivers need an HFS partition table on the CDROM  to  be
	      able to recognize a hybrid CDROM.

       -auto AutoStart_file
	      Make the HFS CD use the QuickTime 2.0 Autostart feature to launch an application or
	      document. The given filename must be the name of a document or application  located
	      at the top level of the CD. The filename must be less than 12 characters. (Alpha).

       -cluster-size size
	      Set  the	size  in  bytes  of the cluster or allocation units of PC Exchange files.
	      Implies the --exchange option. See the HFS MACINTOSH FILE FORMATS section below.

       -hide-hfs glob
	      Hide glob from the HFS volume. The file  or  directory  will  still  exist  in  the
	      ISO9660 and/or Joliet directory.	glob is a shell wild-card-style pattern that must
	      match any part of the filename Multiple globs may be excluded.  Example:

	      mkisofs -o rom -hfs -hide-hfs '*.o' -hide-hfs foobar

	      would exclude all files ending in ".o" or called "foobar" from the HFS volume. Note
	      that  if	you had a directory called "foobar" it too (and of course all its descen-
	      dants) would be excluded.  The glob can also be a path name relative to the  source
	      directories given on the command line. Example:

	      mkisofs -o rom -hfs -hide-hfs src/html src

	      would  exclude  just  the file or directory called "html" from the "src" directory.
	      Any other file or directory called "html" in the tree will not be excluded.  Should
	      be  used with the -hide and/or -hide-joliet options.  In order to match a directory
	      name, make sure the pathname  does  not  include	a  trailing  '/'  character.  See
	      README.hide for more details.

       -hide-hfs-list file
	      A file containing a list of globs to be hidden as above.

       -hfs-volid hfs_volid
	      Volume name for the HFS partition. This is the name that is assigned to the disc on
	      a Macintosh and replaces the volid used with the -V option

       -icon-position
	      Use the icon position information, if it exists, from  the  Apple/Unix  file.   The
	      icons will appear in the same position as they would on a Macintosh desktop. Folder
	      location and size on screen, its scroll positions,  folder  View	(view  as  Icons,
	      Small  Icons,  etc.)  are also preserved.  This option may become set by default in
	      the future.  (Alpha).

       -root-info file
	      Set the location, size on screen, scroll positions, folder View etc. for	the  root
	      folder of an HFS volume. See README.rootinfo for more information.  (Alpha)

       -prep-boot FILE
	      PReP boot image file. Up to 4 are allowed. See README.prep_boot (Alpha)

       -chrp-t
	      Create a CHRP boot in boot partition 1.  See -prep-boot for further information.

       -input-hfs-charset charset
	      Input charset that defines the characters used in HFS file names when used with the
	      -mac-name option.  The default charset is cp10000 (Mac Roman) cp10000  (Mac  Roman)
	      See CHARACTER SETS and HFS MACINTOSH FILE NAMES sections below for more details.

       -output-hfs-charset charset
	      Output charset that defines the characters that will be used in the HFS file names.
	      Defaults to the input charset. See CHARACTER SETS section below for more details.

       -hfs-unlock
	      By default, mkisofs will create an HFS volume that is locked.  This  option  leaves
	      the volume unlocked so that other applications (e.g.  hfsutils) can modify the vol-
	      ume. See the HFS PROBLEMS/LIMITATIONS section below for warnings about  using  this
	      option.

       -hfs-bless folder_name
	      "Bless" the given directory (folder). This is usually the System Folder and is used
	      in creating HFS bootable CDs. The name of the directory must be the whole path name
	      as  mkisofs sees it. e.g. if the given pathspec is ./cddata and the required folder
	      is called System Folder, then the  whole	path  name  is	"./cddata/System  Folder"
	      (remember to use quotes if the name contains spaces).

       -hfs-parms PARAMETERS
	      Override certain parameters used to create the HFS file system. Unlikely to be used
	      in normal circumstances. See the libhfs_iso/hybrid.h source file for details.

       --cap  Look for AUFS CAP Macintosh files. Search for CAP  Apple/Unix  file  formats  only.
	      Searching  for the other possible Apple/Unix file formats is disabled, unless other
	      double dash options are given.

       --netatalk
	      Look for NETATALK Macintosh files

       --double
	      Look for AppleDouble Macintosh files

       --ethershare
	      Look for Helios EtherShare Macintosh files

       --ushare
	      Look for IPT UShare Macintosh files

       --exchange
	      Look for PC Exchange Macintosh files

       --sgi  Look for SGI Macintosh files

       --xinet
	      Look for XINET Macintosh files

       --macbin
	      Look for MacBinary Macintosh files

       --single
	      Look for AppleSingle Macintosh files

       --dave Look for Thursby Software Systems DAVE Macintosh files

       --sfm  Look for Microsoft's Services for Macintosh files (NT only) (Alpha)

       --osx-double
	      Look for MacOS X AppleDouble Macintosh files

       --osx-hfs
	      Look for MacOS X HFS Macintosh files

CHARACTER SETS
       mkisofs processes file names in a POSIX compliant way as strings of 8-bit characters.   To
       represent  all  codings for all languages, 8-bit characters are not sufficient. Unicode or
       ISO-10646 define character codings that need at least 21 bits to represent all known  lan-
       guages.	They may be represented with UTF-32, UTF-16 or UTF-8 coding.  UTF-32 uses a plain
       32-bit coding but seems to be uncommon.	UCS-2 is used by Microsoft with Win32.	This cod-
       ing  is	similar  to UTF-16 with the disadvantage that it only supports a 16 bit subset of
       all codes and that 16-bit characters are not compliant with the	POSIX  filesystem  inter-
       face.

       Modern  UNIX  operating	systems may use UTF-8 coding for filenames. This coding allows to
       use the complete Unicode code set.  Each 32-bit character is represented by  one  or  more
       8-bit characters.  If a character is coded in ISO-8859-1 (used in Central Europe and North
       America) is maps 1:1 to a UTF-32 or UTF-16 coded Unicode character.   If  a  character  is
       coded  in 7-Bit ASCII (used in USA and other countries with limited character set) is maps
       1:1 to a UTF-32, UTF-16 or UTF-8 coded Unicode character.  Character codes that cannot  be
       represented  as	a  single  byte  in  UTF-8  (typically if the value is > 0x7F) use escape
       sequences that map to more than one 8-bit character.

       If all operating systems would use UTF-8 coding, mkisofs would not need to recode  charac-
       ters  in  file names.  Unfortunately, Apple uses completely nonstandard codings and Micro-
       soft uses a Unicode coding that is not compatible with the POSIX filename interface.

       For all non UTF-8 coded operating systems, the actual character that each byte  represents
       depends on the character set or codepage (which is the name used by Microsoft) used by the
       local operating system in use - the characters in a character set will reflect the  region
       or natural language used by the user.

       Usually	character  codes  0x00-0x1f are control characters, codes 0x20-0x7f are the 7 bit
       ASCII characters and (on PC's and Mac's) 0x80-0xff are used for other characters.   Unfor-
       tunately even this does not follow ISO standards that reserve the range 0x80-0x9f for con-
       trol characters and only allow 0xa0-0xff for other characters.

       As there is a lot more than 256 characters/symbols in use, only a small subset are  repre-
       sented  in  a  character  set. Therefore the same character code may represent a different
       character in different character sets. So a file name generated, say  in  central  Europe,
       may not display the same character when viewed on a machine in, say eastern Europe.

       To make matters more complicated, different operating systems use different character sets
       for the region or language. For example the character code for "small e with acute accent"
       may  be character code 0x82 on a PC, code 0x8e on a Macintosh and code 0xe9 on a UNIX sys-
       tem.  Note while the codings used on a PC or Mac are nonstandard, Unicode codes this char-
       acter  as  0x00000000e9	which  is basically the same value as the value used by most UNIX
       systems.

       As long as not all operating systems and applications will use the Unicode  character  set
       as  the basis for file names in a unique way, it may be necessary to specify which charac-
       ter set your file names use in and which character set the file names should appear on the
       CD.

       There are four options to specify the character sets you want to use:

       -input-charset
	      Defines  the local character set you are using on your host machine.  Any character
	      set conversions that take place will use this character set as the  staring  point.
	      The  default  input  character sets are cp437 on DOS based systems and iso8859-1 on
	      all other systems.

	      If the -J option is given, then the Unicode equivalents of the input character  set
	      will  be	used  in  the Joliet directory. Using the -jcharset option is the same as
	      using the -input-charset and -J options.

       -output-charset
	      Defines the character set that will be used with for the Rock Ridge  names  on  the
	      CD. Defaults to the input character set. Only likely to be useful if used on a non-
	      Unix platform. e.g. using mkisofs on a Microsoft Win32 machine to create Rock Ridge
	      CDs. If you are using mkisofs on a Unix machine, it is likely that the output char-
	      acter set will be the same as the input character set.

       -input-hfs-charset
	      Defines the HFS character set used for HFS file names decoded from any of the vari-
	      ous  Apple/Unix  file formats. Only useful when used with -mac-name option. See the
	      HFS MACINTOSH FILE NAMES for more information. Defaults to cp10000 (Mac Roman).

       -output-hfs-charset
	      Defines the HFS character set used to create HFS file names from the input  charac-
	      ter  set	in  use. In most cases this will be from the character set given with the
	      -input-charset option. Defaults to the input HFS character set.

       There are a number of character sets built in to mkisofs.  To get a listing,  use  mkisofs
       -input-charset help.

       Additional character sets from iconv(1) may be used on systems, that support iconv(1).  In
       this case, call iconv -l to get a list of valid character sets from  this  coding  method.
       To force an iconv(1) based coding, use iconv:name instead of name for the character set.

       If  using  non  iconv(1)  based character sets, additional character sets can be read from
       file for any of the character set options by giving a filename  as  the	argument  to  the
       options.  The  given file will only be read if its name does not match one of the built in
       character sets.

       The format of the character set files is the same as  the  mapping  files  available  from
       http://www.unicode.org/Public/MAPPINGS The format of these files is:

	    Column #1 is the input byte code (in hex as 0xXX)
	    Column #2 is the Unicode (in hex as 0xXXXX)
	    Rest of the line is ignored.

       Any  blank  line, line without two (or more) columns in the above format or comments lines
       (starting with the # character) are ignored without any warnings. Any missing  input  code
       is mapped to Unicode character 0x0000.

       Note  that there is no support for 16 bit UNICODE (UTF-16) or 32 bit UNICODE (UTF-32) cod-
       ing because this coding is not POSIX compliant. There should be support for UTF-8  UNICODE
       coding  which is compatible to POSIX filenames and supported by moder UNIX implementations
       such as Solaris.

       A 1:1 character set mapping can be defined by using the keyword default as the argument to
       any  of	the  character	set  options.  This is the behaviour of older (v1.12) versions of
       mkisofs.

       The ISO9660 file names generated from the input filenames are not converted from the input
       character set. The ISO9660 character set is a very limited subset of the ASCII characters,
       so any conversion would be pointless.

       Any character that mkisofs can not convert will be replaced with a '_' character.

HFS CREATOR/TYPE
       A Macintosh file has two properties associated with it which define which application cre-
       ated  the file, the CREATOR and what data the file contains, the TYPE.  Both are (exactly)
       4 letter strings. Usually this allows a Macintosh user  to  double-click  on  a	file  and
       launch the correct application etc. The CREATOR and TYPE of a particular file can be found
       by using something like ResEdit (or similar) on a Macintosh.

       The CREATOR and TYPE information is stored in all the various  Apple/Unix  encoded  files.
       For  other  files  it is possible to base the CREATOR and TYPE on the filename's extension
       using a mapping file (the -map option) and/or using the magic number (usually a	signature
       in  the	first  few bytes) of a file (the -magic option). If both these options are given,
       then their order on the command line is important. If the -map option is given first, then
       a  filename  extension  match  is  attempted  before a magic number match. However, if the
       -magic option is given first, then a magic number match is  attempted  before  a  filename
       extension match.

       If  a mapping or magic file is not used, or no match is found then the default CREATOR and
       TYPE for all regular files can be set by using entries in the .mkisofsrc file or using the
       -hfs-creator  and/or  -hfs-type options, otherwise the default CREATOR and TYPE are 'unix'
       and 'TEXT'.

       The format of the mapping file is the same afpfile format as used by aufs.  This file  has
       five columns for the extension, file translation, CREATOR, TYPE and Comment.  Lines start-
       ing with the '#' character are comment lines and are ignored. An  example  file	would  be
       like:

       # Example filename mapping file
       #
       # EXTN	XLate	CREATOR   TYPE	   Comment
       .tif	Raw	'8BIM'	  'TIFF'   "Photoshop TIFF image"
       .hqx	Ascii	'BnHq'	  'TEXT'   "BinHex file"
       .doc	Raw	'MSWD'	  'WDBN'   "Word file"
       .mov	Raw	'TVOD'	  'MooV'   "QuickTime Movie"
       *	Ascii	'ttxt'	  'TEXT'   "Text file"

       Where:

	      The first column EXTN defines the Unix filename extension to be mapped. The default
	      mapping for any filename extension that doesn't match is defined with the "*" char-
	      acter.

	      The  Xlate  column defines the type of text translation between the Unix and Macin-
	      tosh file it is ignored by mkisofs, but is kept  to  be  compatible  with  aufs(1).
	      Although	mkisofs  does  not alter the contents of a file, if a binary file has its
	      TYPE set as 'TEXT', it may be read incorrectly on a Macintosh. Therefore	a  better
	      choice for the default TYPE may be '????'

	      The  CREATOR  and  TYPE  keywords  must be 4 characters long and enclosed in single
	      quotes.

	      The comment field is enclosed in double quotes - it is ignored by mkisofs,  but  is
	      kept to be compatible with aufs.

       The  format  of	the magic file is almost identical to the magic(4) file used by the Linux
       file(1) command - the routines for reading and decoding the magic file are  based  on  the
       Linux file(1) command.

       This  file  has	four  tab  separated columns for the byte offset, type, test and message.
       Lines starting with the '#' character are comment lines and are ignored. An  example  file
       would be like:

       # Example magic file
       #
       # off   type	 test	    message
       0       string	 GIF8	    8BIM GIFf  GIF image
       0       beshort	 0xffd8     8BIM JPEG  image data
       0       string	 SIT!	    SIT! SIT!  StuffIt Archive
       0       string	 \037\235   LZIV ZIVU  standard unix compress
       0       string	 \037\213   GNUz ZIVU  gzip compressed data
       0       string	 %!	    ASPS TEXT  Postscript
       0       string	 \004%!     ASPS TEXT  PC Postscript with a ^D to start
       4       string	 moov	    txtt MooV  QuickTime movie file (moov)
       4       string	 mdat	    txtt MooV  QuickTime movie file (mdat)

       The  format of the file is described in the magic(4) man page. The only difference here is
       that for each entry in the magic file, the message for the initial offset must be 4  char-
       acters  for  the  CREATOR  followed by 4 characters for the TYPE - white space is optional
       between them. Any other characters on this line are ignored.  Continuation lines (starting
       with a '>') are also ignored i.e. only the initial offset lines are used.

       Using  the  -magic  option  may significantly increase processing time as each file has to
       opened and read to find its magic number.

       In summary, for all files, the default CREATOR is 'unix' and the default TYPE  is  'TEXT'.
       These  can be changed by using entries in the .mkisofsrc file or by using the -hfs-creator
       and/or -hfs-type options.

       If the a file is in one	of  the  known	Apple/Unix  formats  (and  the	format	has  been
       selected),  then  the  CREATOR and TYPE are taken from the values stored in the Apple/Unix
       file.

       Other files can have their CREATOR and TYPE set from their file name extension  (the  -map
       option),  or  their  magic number (the -magic option). If the default match is used in the
       mapping file, then these values override the default CREATOR and TYPE.

       A       full	  CREATOR/TYPE	     database	     can	be	  found        at
       http://www.angelfire.com/il/szekely/index.html

HFS MACINTOSH FILE FORMATS
       Macintosh  files  have  two  parts called the Data and Resource fork. Either may be empty.
       Unix (and many other OSs) can only cope with files having one part (or fork).  To  add  to
       this, Macintosh files have a number of attributes associated with them - probably the most
       important are the TYPE  and  CREATOR.  Again  Unix  has	no  concept  of  these	types  of
       attributes.

       e.g. a Macintosh file may be a JPEG image where the image is stored in the Data fork and a
       desktop thumbnail stored in the Resource fork. It is usually the information in	the  data
       fork that is useful across platforms.

       Therefore  to  store  a Macintosh file on a Unix filesystem, a way has to be found to cope
       with the two forks and the extra attributes (which are referred to as  the  finder  info).
       Unfortunately,  it  seems  that every software package that stores Macintosh files on Unix
       has chosen a completely different storage method.

       The Apple/Unix formats that mkisofs (partially) supports are:

       CAP AUFS format
	      Data fork stored in a file. Resource fork in subdirectory .resource with same file-
	      name as data fork. Finder info in .finderinfo subdirectory with same filename.

       AppleDouble/Netatalk
	      Data  fork stored in a file. Resource fork stored in a file with same name prefixed
	      with "%". Finder info also stored in same "%" file. Netatalk uses the same  format,
	      but the resource fork/finderinfo stored in subdirectory .AppleDouble with same name
	      as data fork.

       AppleSingle
	      Data structures similar to above, except both forks and finder info are  stored  in
	      one file.

       Helios EtherShare
	      Data  fork stored in a file. Resource fork and finder info together in subdirectory
	      .rsrc with same filename as data fork.

       IPT UShare
	      Very similar to the EtherShare format, but the finder info is stored slightly  dif-
	      ferently.

       MacBinary
	      Both forks and finder info stored in one file.

       Apple PC Exchange
	      Used by Macintoshes to store Apple files on DOS (FAT) disks.  Data fork stored in a
	      file. Resource fork in subdirectory resource.frk (or RESOURCE.FRK). Finder info  as
	      one  record  in  file finder.dat (or FINDER.DAT). Separate finder.dat for each data
	      fork directory.

	      Note: mkisofs needs to know the native FAT cluster size of the  disk  that  the  PC
	      Exchange	files are on (or have been copied from). This size is given by the -clus-
	      ter-size option.	The cluster or allocation size can be  found  by  using  the  DOS
	      utility CHKDSK.

	      May not work with PC Exchange v2.2 or higher files (available with MacOS 8.1).  DOS
	      media containing PC Exchange files should be mounted as type msdos (not vfat)  when
	      using Linux.

       SGI/XINET
	      Used  by	SGI  machines  when  they  mount  HFS  disks. Data fork stored in a file.
	      Resource fork in subdirectory .HSResource with same name. Finder info as one record
	      in file .HSancillary. Separate .HSancillary for each data fork directory.

       Thursby Software Systems DAVE
	      Allows  Macintoshes  to  store  Apple  files on SMB servers.  Data fork stored in a
	      file. Resource fork in subdirectory resource.frk. Uses the  AppleDouble  format  to
	      store resource fork.

       Services for Macintosh
	      Format  of  files  stored by NT Servers on NTFS filesystems. Data fork is stored as
	      "filename". Resource fork stored as a NTFS stream  called  "filename:AFP_Resource".
	      The  finder  info  is  stored as a NTFS stream called "filename:Afp_AfpInfo". These
	      streams are normally invisible to the user.

	      Warning: mkisofs only partially supports the SFM format. If an HFS file  or  folder
	      stored  on the NT server contains an illegal NT character in its name, then NT con-
	      verts these characters to Private Use Unicode characters. The characters are: " * /
	      < > ?  | also a space or period if it is the last character of the file name, char-
	      acter codes 0x01 to 0x1f (control characters) and Apple' apple logo.

	      Unfortunately, these private Unicode characters are not readable by the mkisofs  NT
	      executable.  Therefore  any file or directory name containing these characters will
	      be ignored - including the contents of any such directory.

       MacOS X AppleDouble
	      When HFS/HFS+ files are copied or saved by MacOS X on  to  a  non-HFS  file  system
	      (e.g. UFS, NFS etc.), the files are stored in AppleDouble format.  Data fork stored
	      in a file. Resource fork stored in a file with same name prefixed with "._". Finder
	      info also stored in same "._" file.

       MacOS X HFS (Alpha)
	      Not  really  an Apple/Unix encoding, but actual HFS/HFS+ files on a MacOS X system.
	      Data fork stored in a file. Resource fork stored in a pseudo  file  with	the  same
	      name  with  the  suffix  '/rsrc'.  The  finderinfo  is only available via a MacOS X
	      library call.

	      Notes: (also see README.macosx)

	      Only works when used on MacOS X.

	      If a file is found with a zero length resource fork and  empty  finderinfo,  it  is
	      assumed  not  to have any Apple/Unix encoding - therefore a TYPE and CREATOR can be
	      set using other methods.

       mkisofs will attempt to set the CREATOR, TYPE, date and	possibly  other  flags	from  the
       finder  info.  Additionally,  if  it exists, the Macintosh filename is set from the finder
       info, otherwise the Macintosh name is based on the Unix filename - see the  HFS	MACINTOSH
       FILE NAMES section below.

       When  using  the -apple option, the TYPE and CREATOR are stored in the optional System Use
       or SUSP field in the ISO9660 Directory Record - in much the same way  as  the  Rock  Ridge
       attributes are. In fact to make life easy, the Apple extensions are added at the beginning
       of the existing Rock Ridge attributes (i.e. to get the Apple extensions you get	the  Rock
       Ridge extensions as well).

       The Apple extensions require the resource fork to be stored as an ISO9660 associated file.
       This is just like any normal file stored in the ISO9660 filesystem except that the associ-
       ated  file flag is set in the Directory Record (bit 2). This file has the same name as the
       data fork (the file seen by non-Apple machines). Associated files are normally ignored  by
       other OSs

       When  using  the -hfs option, the TYPE and CREATOR plus other finder info, are stored in a
       separate HFS directory, not visible on the ISO9660 volume. The  HFS  directory  references
       the same data and resource fork files described above.

       In  most  cases,  it is better to use the -hfs option instead of the -apple option, as the
       latter imposes the limited ISO9660 characters allowed in  filenames.  However,  the  Apple
       extensions  do  give  the advantage that the files are packed on the disk more efficiently
       and it may be possible to fit more files on a CD - important when the total  size  of  the
       source files is approaching 650MB.

HFS MACINTOSH FILE NAMES
       Where  possible,  the  HFS filename that is stored with an Apple/Unix file is used for the
       HFS part of the CD. However, not all the Apple/Unix encodings store the HFS filename  with
       the  finderinfo.  In these cases, the Unix filename is used - with escaped special charac-
       ters. Special characters include '/' and characters with codes over 127.

       Aufs escapes these characters by using ":" followed by the character code as two hex  dig-
       its. Netatalk and EtherShare have a similar scheme, but uses "%" instead of a ":".

       If  mkisofs  can't  find  an HFS filename, then it uses the Unix name, with any %xx or :xx
       characters (xx == two hex digits) converted to a single character code. If  "xx"  are  not
       hex  digits  ([0-9a-fA-F]),  then they are left alone - although any remaining ":" is con-
       verted to "%" as colon is the HFS directory separator. Care must be taken, as an  ordinary
       Unix file with %xx or :xx will also be converted. e.g.

       This:2fFile   converted to This/File

       This:File     converted to This%File

       This:t7File   converted to This%t7File

       Although  HFS  filenames appear to support upper and lower case letters, the filesystem is
       case insensitive. i.e. the filenames "aBc" and "AbC" are the same. If a file is found in a
       directory  with	the  same  HFS name, then mkisofs will attempt, where possible, to make a
       unique name by adding '_' characters to one of the filenames.

       If an HFS filename exists for a file, then mkisofs can use this name as the starting point
       for  the  ISO9660, Joliet and Rock Ridge filenames using the -mac-name option. Normal Unix
       files without an HFS name will still use their Unix name.  e.g.

       If a MacBinary (or PC Exchange) file is stored as someimage.gif.bin on the  Unix  filesys-
       tem, but contains a HFS file called someimage.gif, then this is the name that would appear
       on the HFS part of the CD. However, as mkisofs uses the Unix name as  the  starting  point
       for the other names, then the ISO9660 name generated will probably be SOMEIMAG.BIN and the
       Joliet/Rock Ridge would be someimage.gif.bin.  Although the actual data (in this case)  is
       a  GIF  image. This option will use the HFS filename as the starting point and the ISO9660
       name will probably be SOMEIMAG.GIF and the Joliet/Rock Ridge would be someimage.gif.

       Using the -mac-name option will not currently work with the -T option - the Unix name will
       be used in the TRANS.TBL file, not the Macintosh name.

       The  character  set  used  to  convert  any HFS file name to a Joliet/Rock Ridge file name
       defaults to cp10000 (Mac Roman).  The character	set  used  can	be  specified  using  the
       -input-hfs-charset  option.  Other  built  in  HFS character sets are: cp10006 (MacGreek),
       cp10007 (MacCyrillic), cp10029 (MacLatin2), cp10079 (MacIcelandandic)  and  cp10081  (Mac-
       Turkish).

       Note: the character codes used by HFS file names taken from the various Apple/Unix formats
       will not be converted as they are assumed to be in the correct Apple character  set.  Only
       the Joliet/Rock Ridge names derived from the HFS file names will be converted.

       The  existing  mkisofs  code  will  filter  out any illegal characters for the ISO9660 and
       Joliet filenames, but as mkisofs expects to be dealing directly with Unix names, it leaves
       the  Rock  Ridge names as is.  But as '/' is a legal HFS filename character, the -mac-name
       option converts '/' to a '_' in Rock Ridge filenames.

       If the Apple extensions are used, then only the ISO9660 filenames will appear on the  Mac-
       intosh.	However, as the Macintosh ISO9660 drivers can use Level 2 filenames, then you can
       use options like -allow-multidot without problems on a Macintosh - still  take  care  over
       the  names,  for  example this.file.name will be converted to THIS.FILE i.e. only have one
       '.', also filename abcdefgh will be seen as ABCDEFGH but abcdefghi will be seen as  ABCDE-
       FGHI.   i.e.  with  a  '.'  at  the  end  -  don't  know if this is a Macintosh problem or
       mkisofs/mkhybrid problem. All filenames will be in upper case when viewed on a  Macintosh.
       Of course, DOS/Win3.X machines will not be able to see Level 2 filenames...

HFS CUSTOM VOLUME/FOLDER ICONS
       To  give a HFS CD a custom icon, make sure the root (top level) folder includes a standard
       Macintosh volume icon file. To give a volume a custom icon on a Macintosh, an icon has  to
       be  pasted  over  the  volume's	icon in the "Get Info" box of the volume. This creates an
       invisible file called 'Icon\r' ('\r' is the  'carriage  return'	character)  in	the  root
       folder.

       A  custom  folder  icon	is  very similar - an invisible file called 'Icon\r' exits in the
       folder itself.

       Probably the easiest way to create a custom icon that mkisofs can  use,	is  to	format	a
       blank  HFS  floppy disk on a Mac, paste an icon to its "Get Info" box. If using Linux with
       the HFS module installed, mount the floppy using something like:

		  mount -t hfs /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy

       The floppy will be mounted as a CAP file system by default. Then run mkisofs  using  some-
       thing like:

		  mkisofs --cap -o output source_dir /mnt/floppy

       If  you	are not using Linux, then you can use the hfsutils to copy the icon file from the
       floppy. However, care has to be taken, as the icon file contains a control character. e.g.

		  hmount /dev/fd0
		  hdir -a
		  hcopy -m Icon^V^M icon_dir/icon

       Where '^V^M' is control-V followed by control-M. Then run mkisofs by using something like:

		  mkisofs --macbin -o output source_dir icon_dir

       The procedure for creating/using custom folder icons is very similar - paste  an  icon  to
       folder's "Get Info" box and transfer the resulting 'Icon\r' file to the relevant directory
       in the mkisofs source tree.

       You may want to hide the icon files from the ISO9660 and Joliet trees.

       To give a custom icon to a Joliet CD, follow the instructions  found  at:  http://www.fad-
       den.com/cdrfaq/faq03.html#[3-21]

HFS BOOT DRIVER
       It may be possible to make the hybrid CD bootable on a Macintosh.

       A  bootable  HFS CD requires an Apple CD-ROM (or compatible) driver, a bootable HFS parti-
       tion and the necessary System, Finder, etc. files.

       A driver can be obtained from any other Macintosh bootable CD-ROM using	the  apple_driver
       utility. This file can then be used with the -boot-hfs-file option.

       The  HFS  partition  (i.e.  the	hybrid	disk  in our case) must contain a suitable System
       Folder, again from another CD-ROM or disk.

       For a partition to be bootable, it must have its boot block set. The boot block is in  the
       first  two  blocks  of a partition. For a non-bootable partition the boot block is full of
       zeros. Normally, when a System file is copied to partition on a Macintosh disk,	the  boot
       block  is  filled with a number of required settings - unfortunately I don't know the full
       spec for the boot block, so I'm guessing that the following will work OK.

       Therefore, the utility apple_driver also extracts the boot block from the first HFS parti-
       tion  it  finds	on  the  given	CD-ROM	and this is used for the HFS partition created by
       mkisofs.

       PLEASE NOTE
	      By using a driver from an Apple CD and copying  Apple  software  to  your  CD,  you
	      become liable to obey Apple Computer, Inc. Software License Agreements.

EL TORITO BOOT INFORMATION TABLE
       When  the -boot-info-table option is given, mkisofs will modify the boot file specified by
       the -b option by inserting a 56-byte "boot information table" at offset	8  in  the  file.
       This  modification  is  done in the source filesystem, so make sure you use a copy if this
       file is not easily recreated!  This file contains pointers which  may  not  be  easily  or
       reliably obtained at boot time.

       The  format  of	this  table  is  as  follows;  all integers are in section 7.3.1 ("little
       endian") format.

	 Offset    Name 	  Size	    Meaning
	  8	   bi_pvd	  4 bytes   LBA of primary volume descriptor
	 12	   bi_file	  4 bytes   LBA of boot file
	 16	   bi_length	  4 bytes   Boot file length in bytes
	 20	   bi_csum	  4 bytes   32-bit checksum
	 24	   bi_reserved	  40 bytes  Reserved

       The 32-bit checksum is the sum of all the 32-bit words in the boot file starting  at  byte
       offset  64.   All  linear  block  addresses  (LBAs) are given in CD sectors (normally 2048
       bytes).

CONFIGURATION
       mkisofs looks for the .mkisofsrc file, first in the current working directory, then in the
       user's  home  directory,  and then in the directory in which the mkisofs binary is stored.
       This file is assumed to contain a series of lines of the form TAG=value , and in this  way
       you  can specify certain options.  The case of the tag is not significant.  Some fields in
       the volume header are not settable on the command line, but can be  altered  through  this
       facility.   Comments  may  be placed in this file, using lines which start with a hash (#)
       character.

       APPI   The application identifier should describe the application  that	will  be  on  the
	      disc.   There is space on the disc for 128 characters of information.  May be over-
	      ridden using the -A command line option.

       COPY   The copyright information, often the name of a file  on  the  disc  containing  the
	      copyright  notice.   There  is  space in the disc for 37 characters of information.
	      May be overridden using the -copyright command line option.

       ABST   The abstract information, often the name of  a  file  on	the  disc  containing  an
	      abstract.   There  is  space  in the disc for 37 characters of information.  May be
	      overridden using the -abstract command line option.

       BIBL   The bibliographic information, often the name of a file on the  disc  containing	a
	      bibliography.  There is space in the disc for 37 characters of information.  May be
	      overridden using the -bilio command line option.

       PREP   This should describe the preparer of the CDROM, usually with a mailing address  and
	      phone  number.   There is space on the disc for 128 characters of information.  May
	      be overridden using the -p command line option.

       PUBL   This should describe the publisher of the CDROM, usually with a mailing address and
	      phone  number.   There is space on the disc for 128 characters of information.  May
	      be overridden using the -publisher command line option.

       SYSI   The System Identifier.  There is space on the disc for 32  characters  of  informa-
	      tion.  May be overridden using the -sysid command line option.

       VOLI   The  Volume  Identifier.	 There is space on the disc for 32 characters of informa-
	      tion.  May be overridden using the -V command line option.

       VOLS   The Volume Set Name.  There is space on the disc for 128 characters of information.
	      May be overridden using the -volset command line option.

       HFS_TYPE
	      The  default  TYPE for Macintosh files. Must be exactly 4 characters.  May be over-
	      ridden using the -hfs-type command line option.

       HFS_CREATOR
	      The default CREATOR for Macintosh files. Must be	exactly  4  characters.   May  be
	      overridden using the -hfs-creator command line option.

       mkisofs	can  also  be  configured at compile time with defaults for many of these fields.
       See the file defaults.h.

EXAMPLES
       To create a vanilla ISO-9660 filesystem image in the  file  cd.iso,  where  the	directory
       cd_dir will become the root directory if the CD, call:

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso cd_dir

       To create a CD with Rock Ridge extensions of the source directory cd_dir:

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso -R cd_dir

       To  create  a CD with Rock Ridge extensions of the source directory cd_dir where all files
       have at least read permission and all files are owned by root, call:

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso -r cd_dir

       To write a tar archive directly to a CD that will later contain a simple iso9660  filesys-
       tem with the tar archive call:

       % star -c . | mkisofs -stream-media-size 333000 | \
       cdrecord dev=b,t,l -dao tsize=333000s -

       To  create  a HFS hybrid CD with the Joliet and Rock Ridge extensions of the source direc-
       tory cd_dir:

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso -R -J -hfs cd_dir

       To create a HFS hybrid  CD  from  the  source  directory  cd_dir  that  contains  Netatalk
       Apple/Unix files:

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso --netatalk cd_dir

       To  create  a HFS hybrid CD from the source directory cd_dir, giving all files CREATOR and
       TYPES based on just their filename extensions listed in the file "mapping".:

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso -map mapping cd_dir

       To create a CD with the 'Apple Extensions to ISO9660', from the source directories  cd_dir
       and another_dir.  Files in all the known Apple/Unix format are decoded and any other files
       are given CREATOR and TYPE based on their magic number given in the file "magic":

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso -apple -magic magic -probe \
	       cd_dir another_dir

       The following example puts different files on the CD that all have the  name  README,  but
       have different contents when seen as a ISO9660/RockRidge, Joliet or HFS CD.

       Current directory contains:

       % ls -F
       README.hfs     README.joliet  README.unix    cd_dir/

       The  following  command puts the contents of the directory cd_dir on the CD along with the
       three README files - but only one will be seen from each of the three filesystems:

       % mkisofs -o cd.iso -hfs -J -r -graft-points \
	       -hide README.hfs -hide README.joliet \
	       -hide-joliet README.hfs -hide-joliet README.unix \
	       -hide-hfs README.joliet -hide-hfs README.unix \
	       README=README.hfs README=README.joliet \
	       README=README.unix cd_dir

       i.e. the file README.hfs will be seen as README on the HFS CD and  the  other  two  README
       files will be hidden. Similarly for the Joliet and ISO9660/RockRidge CD.

       There  are  probably  all  sorts of strange results possible with combinations of the hide
       options ...

AUTHOR
       mkisofs is not based on the standard mk*fs tools for unix, because we must generate a com-
       plete   copy  of  an  existing  filesystem on a disk in the  iso9660 filesystem.  The name
       mkisofs is probably a bit of a misnomer, since it not only creates the filesystem, but  it
       also  populates	it as well.  However, the appropriate tool name for a UNIX tool that cre-
       ates populated filesystems - mkproto - is not well known.

       Eric Youngdale <ericy@gnu.ai.mit.edu> or <eric@andante.org> wrote the first versions (1993
       ...  1998)  of the mkisofs utility.  The copyright for old versions of the mkisofs utility
       is held by Yggdrasil Computing, Incorporated.  Joerg Schilling wrote  the  SCSI	transport
       library	and  its  adaptation layer to mkisofs and newer parts (starting from 1999) of the
       utility, this makes mkisofs Copyright (C) 1999, 2000, 2001 Joerg Schilling.

       HFS hybrid code Copyright (C) James Pearson 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001
       libhfs code Copyright (C) 1996, 1997 Robert Leslie
       libfile code Copyright (C) Ian F. Darwin 1986, 1987, 1989, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1994, 1995.

NOTES
       Mkisofs may safely be installed suid root. This may be needed to allow mkisofs to read the
       previous session when creating a multi session image.

       If  mkisofs  is	creating  a filesystem image with Rock Ridge attributes and the directory
       nesting level of the source directory tree is too much for ISO-9660, mkisofs will do  deep
       directory  relocation.	This results in a directory called RR_MOVED in the root directory
       of the CD. You cannot avoid this directory.

       The sparc boot support that is implemented with the -sparc-boot options completely follows
       the  official  Sparc  CD  boot  requirements from the Boot prom in Sun Sparc systems. Some
       Linux distributions for Sparc systems use a boot loader called SILO that unfortunately  is
       not  Sparc  CD boot compliant.  It is annoyingly to see that the Authors of SILO don't fix
       SILO but instead provide a completely unneeded "patch" to mkisofs  that	incorporates  far
       more source than the fix for SILO would need.

BUGS
       o      Any files that have hard links to files not in the tree being copied to the iso9660
	      filesystem will have an incorrect file reference count.

       o      Does not check for SUSP record(s) in "." entry of the root directory to verify  the
	      existence of Rock Ridge enhancements.

	      This  problem  is present when reading old sessions while adding data in multi-ses-
	      sion mode.

       o      Does not properly read relocated directories  in	multi-session  mode  when  adding
	      data.

	      Any  relocated  deep directory is lost if the new session does not include the deep
	      directory.

	      Repeat by: create first session with deep directory relocation then add new session
	      with a single dir that differs from the old deep path.

       o      Does not re-use RR_MOVED when doing multi-session from TRANS.TBL

       o      Does not create whole_name entry for RR_MOVED in multi-session mode.

       There may be some other ones.  Please, report them to the author.

HFS PROBLEMS/LIMITATIONS
       I  have	had  to  make several assumptions on how I expect the modified libhfs routines to
       work, however there may be situations that either I haven't thought  of,  or  come  across
       when  these  assumptions  fail.	 Therefore  I  can't  guarantee that mkisofs will work as
       expected (although I haven't had a major problem yet). Most of the HFS features work fine,
       however, some are not fully tested. These are marked as Alpha above.

       Although  HFS  filenames appear to support upper and lower case letters, the filesystem is
       case insensitive. i.e. the filenames "aBc" and "AbC" are the same. If a file is found in a
       directory  with	the  same  HFS name, then mkisofs will attempt, where possible, to make a
       unique name by adding '_' characters to one of the filenames.

       HFS file/directory names that share the first 31 characters have _N' (N == decimal number)
       substituted for the last few characters to generate unique names.

       Care  must  be  taken  when  "grafting" Apple/Unix files or directories (see above for the
       method and syntax involved). It is not possible to  use	a  new	name  for  an  Apple/Unix
       encoded	file/directory. e.g. If a Apple/Unix encoded file called "oldname" is to added to
       the CD, then you can not use the command line:

	      mkisofs -o output.raw -hfs -graft-points newname=oldname cd_dir

       mkisofs will be unable to decode "oldname". However,  you  can  graft  Apple/Unix  encoded
       files or directories as long as you do not attempt to give them new names as above.

       When  creating  an  HFS volume with the multisession options, -M and -C, only files in the
       last session will be in the HFS volume. i.e. mkisofs can not add existing files from  pre-
       vious sessions to the HFS volume.

       However,  if  each session is created with the -part option, then each session will appear
       as separate volumes when mounted on a Mac. In this case, it  is	worth  using  the  -V  or
       -hfs-volid  option to give each session a unique volume name, otherwise each "volume" will
       appear on the Desktop with the same name.

       Symbolic links (as with all other non-regular files) are not added to the HFS directory.

       Hybrid volumes may be larger than pure ISO9660 volumes containing the same data.  In  some
       cases  (e.g.  DVD  sized volumes) the hybrid volume may be significantly larger. As an HFS
       volume gets bigger, so does the allocation block size (the smallest amount of space a file
       can  occupy).   For  a  650Mb CD, the allocation block is 10Kb, for a 4.7Gb DVD it will be
       about 70Kb.

       The maximum number of files in an HFS volume is about 65500 - although the real limit will
       be somewhat less than this.

       The  resulting  hybrid volume can be accessed on a Unix machine by using the hfsutils rou-
       tines. However, no changes can be made to the volume as it is set as locked.   The  option
       -hfs-unlock  will  create  an output image that is unlocked - however no changes should be
       made to the contents of the volume (unless you really know what you are doing) as it's not
       a "real" HFS volume.

       Using the -mac-name option will not currently work with the -T option - the Unix name will
       be used in the TRANS.TBL file, not the Macintosh name.

       Although mkisofs does not alter the contents of a file, if a binary file has its TYPE  set
       as  'TEXT',  it	may be read incorrectly on a Macintosh. Therefore a better choice for the
       default TYPE may be '????'

       The -mac-boot-file option may not work at all...

       May not work with PC Exchange v2.2 or higher files (available with MacOS 8.1).  DOS  media
       containing PC Exchange files should be mounted as type msdos (not vfat) when using Linux.

       The SFM format is only partially supported - see HFS MACINTOSH FILE FORMATS section above.

       It  is  not  possible  to  use  the  the  -sparc-boot  or  -generic-boot  options with the
       -boot-hfs-file the -prep-boot or -chrp-boot options.

       mkisofs should be able to create HFS hybrid images over 4Gb, although this  has	not  been
       fully tested.

SEE ALSO
       cdrecord(1), mkzftree(1), magic(5), apple_driver(8).

FUTURE IMPROVEMENTS
       Some sort of gui interface.

AVAILABILITY
       mkisofs	   is	  available	as     part	of     the    cdrecord	  package    from
       ftp://ftp.berlios.de/pub/cdrecord/

       hfsutils from ftp://ftp.mars.org/pub/hfs

       mkzftree  is  available	as  part  of  the  zisofs-tools   package   from   ftp://ftp.ker-
       nel.org/pub/linux/utils/fs/zisofs/

MAILING LISTS
       If  you want to actively take part on the development of mkisofs, and/or mkhybrid, you may
       join the cdwriting mailing list by sending mail to:

		 other-cdwrite-request@lists.debian.org

       and include the word subscribe in the body.  The mail address of the list is:

		 cdwrite@lists.debian.org

MAINTAINER
       Joerg Schilling
       Seestr. 110
       D-13353 Berlin
       Germany

HFS MKHYBRID MAINTAINER
       James Pearson

       j.pearson@ge.ucl.ac.uk

       If you have support questions, send them to:

       cdrecord-support@berlios.de
       or other-cdwrite@lists.debian.org

       If you definitly found a bug, send a mail to:

       cdrecord-developers@berlios.de
       or joerg.schilling@fokus.fraunhofer.de

       To subscribe, use:

       http://lists.berlios.de/mailman/listinfo/cdrecord-developers
       or http://lists.berlios.de/mailman/listinfo/cdrecord-support

ATTRIBUTES
       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:

       +--------------------+-----------------+
       |  ATTRIBUTE TYPE    | ATTRIBUTE VALUE |
       +--------------------+-----------------+
       |Availability	    | SUNWmkcd	      |
       +--------------------+-----------------+
       |Interface Stability | Unstable	      |
       +--------------------+-----------------+
NOTES
       This utility is part of cdrtools.  The source for cdrtools is available on  http://openso-
       laris.org.

Version 2.01				   14 Feb 2003				       MKISOFS(8)


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