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OpenSolaris 2009.06 - man page for cdrecord (opensolaris section 1)

CDRECORD(1)			      Schily's USER COMMANDS			      CDRECORD(1)

NAME
       cdrecord - record audio or data Compact Disks or Digital Versatile Disks from a master

SYNOPSIS
       cdrecord [ general options ][ dev=device ][ track options ] track1...trackn

DESCRIPTION
       Cdrecord  is  used to record data or audio Compact Discs on an Orange Book CD-Recorder, to
       write DVD media on a DVD-Recorder or to write BluRay media on a BluRay-Recorder.

       The device refers to scsibus/target/lun of the  CD/DVD/BluRay-Recorder.	Communication  on
       SunOS  is  done	with  the  SCSI  general driver scg.  Other operating systems are using a
       library simulation of this driver.  Possible syntax is: dev=  scsibus,target,lun  or  dev=
       target,lun.   In  the  latter  case, the CD/DVD/BluRay-Recorder has to be connected to the
       default SCSI bus of the machine.  Scsibus, target and lun are integer numbers.  Some oper-
       ating systems or SCSI transport implementations may require to specify a filename in addi-
       tion.  In this case the correct syntax for the  device  is:  dev=  devicename:scsibus,tar-
       get,lun or dev= devicename:target,lun.  If the name of the device node that has been spec-
       ified on such a system refers to exactly one SCSI device, a shorthand  in  the  form  dev=
       devicename:@  or dev= devicename:@,lun may be used instead of dev= devicename:scsibus,tar-
       get,lun.

       To access remote SCSI devices, you need to prepend the SCSI device name by a remote device
       indicator. The remote device indicator is either REMOTE:user@host: or  REMOTE:host:
       A  valid  remote SCSI device name may be: REMOTE:user@host: to allow remote SCSI bus scan-
       ning or REMOTE:user@host:1,0,0 to access the SCSI device at host connected to SCSI  bus	#
       1,target 0 lun 0.

       Cdrecord  is completely based on SCSI commands but this is no problem as all CD/DVD/BluRay
       writers ever made use SCSI commands for the communication. Even ATAPI drives are just SCSI
       drives  that inherently use the ATA packet interface as SCSI command transport layer build
       into the IDE (ATA) transport.  You may need to specify an alternate transport layer on the
       command	 line  if  your  OS does not implement a fully integrated kernel driver subsystem
       that allows to access any drive using SCSI commands via a single unique user interface.

       To access SCSI devices via alternate transport layers, you need to prepend the SCSI device
       name  by a transport layer indicator.  The transport layer indicator may be something like
       USCSI: or ATAPI:.  To get a list of supported transport layers for your platform, use dev=
       HELP:

       To  make  cdrecord portable to all UNIX platforms, the syntax dev= devicename:scsibus,tar-
       get,lun is preferred as it hides OS specific knowledge about device names from  the  user.
       A  specific  OS may not necessarily support a way to specify a real device file name nor a
       way to specify scsibus,target,lun.

       Scsibus 0 is the default SCSI bus on the machine. Watch the boot messages for more  infor-
       mation or look into /var/adm/messages for more information about the SCSI configuration of
       your machine.  If you have problems to  figure  out  what  values  for  scsibus,target,lun
       should be used, try the -scanbus option of cdrecord described below.

       If  a  file  /etc/default/cdrecord  exists, the parameter to the dev= option may also be a
       drive name label in said file (see FILES section).

       On SVr4 compliant systems, cdrecord uses the real time class to get the highest scheduling
       priority  that is possible (higher than all kernel processes).  On systems with POSIX real
       time scheduling cdrecord uses real time scheduling too, but may not be able to gain a pri-
       ority that is higher than all kernel processes.

       In order to be able to use the SCSI transport subsystem of the OS, run at highest priority
       and lock itself into core cdrecord either needs to be run as root, needs to  be	installed
       suid root or must be called via RBACs pfexec mechanism.

       In  Track At Once mode, each track corresponds to a single file that contains the prepared
       data for that track.  If the argument is `-', standard input is used for that track.  Only
       one  track  may	be  taken from stdin.  In the other write modes, the direct file to track
       relation may not be implemented.  In -clone mode, a single file contains all data for  the
       whole  disk.   To allow DVD writing on platforms that do not implement large file support,
       cdrecord concatenates all file arguments to a single track when writing to DVD media.

GENERAL OPTIONS
       General options must be before any track file name or track option.

       -version
	      Print version information and exit.

       -v     Increment the level of general verbosity by one.	This is used e.g. to display  the
	      progress of the writing process.

       -V     Increment  the  verbose  level  in  respect of SCSI command transport by one.  This
	      helps to debug problems during the writing process, that occur in  the  CD/DVD/Blu-
	      Ray-Recorder.   If you get incomprehensible error messages you should use this flag
	      to get more detailed output.  -VV will show data buffer content in addition.  Using
	      -V or -VV slows down the process and may be the reason for a buffer underrun.

       debug=#, -d
	      Set  the	misc debug value to # (with debug=#) or increment the misc debug level by
	      one (with -d). If you specify -dd, this equals to debug=2.  This may help  to  find
	      problems	while opening a driver for libscg as well as with sector sizes and sector
	      types.  Using -debug slows down the process and may be  the  reason  for	a  buffer
	      underrun.

       kdebug=#, kd=#
	      Tell  the  scg-driver to modify the kernel debug value while SCSI commands are run-
	      ning.

       -silent, -s
	      Do not print out a status report for failed SCSI commands.

       -force Force to continue on some errors. Be careful  when  using  this  option.	 Cdrecord
	      implements several checks that prevent you from doing unwanted things like damaging
	      CD-RW media by improper drives. Many of the sanity checks  are  disabled	when  the
	      -force option is used.

	      This  option  also  implements  some  tricks that will allow you to blank bad CD-RW
	      disks.

       -immed Tell   cdrecord	to   set   the	 SCSI	IMMED	flag	in    certain	 commands
	      (load/eject/blank/close_track/close_session).  This can be useful on broken systems
	      with ATAPI hard-disk and CD/DVD/BluRay writer on the same bus or with SCSI  systems
	      that  don't  use disconnect/reconnect.  These systems will freeze while blanking or
	      fixating a CD/DVD/BluRay or while a DVD writer is filling up a session to the mini-
	      mum  amount  (approx. 800 MB).  Setting the -immed flag will request the command to
	      return immediately while the operation  proceeds	in  background,  making  the  bus
	      usable for the other devices and avoiding the system freeze.  This is an experimen-
	      tal feature which may work or not, depending on  the  model  of  the  CD/DVD/BluRay
	      writer.	A correct solution would be to set up a correct cabling but there seem to
	      be notebooks around that have been set up the wrong way by the manufacturer.  As it
	      is impossible to fix this problem in notebooks, the -immed option has been added.

	      A second experimental feature of the -immed flag is to tell cdrecord to try to wait
	      short times while writing to the media. This is expected to free the IDE bus if the
	      CD/DVD/BluRay  writer  and  the data source are connected to the same IDE cable. In
	      this case, the CD/DVD/BluRay writer would otherwise usually block the IDE  bus  for
	      nearly  all  the time making it impossible to fetch data from the source drive. See
	      also minbuf= and -v option.

	      Use both features at your own risk.  If it turns out that it would  make	sense  to
	      have a separate option for the wait feature, write to the author and convince him.

       minbuf=value
	      The  #  minbuf= option allows to define the minimum drive buffer fill ratio for the
	      experimental ATAPI wait mode that is intended to free the IDE  bus  to  allow  hard
	      disk  and  CD/DVD/BluRay writer to be on the same IDE cable.  As the wait mode cur-
	      rently only works when the verbose option -v has been specified,	cdrecord  implies
	      the verbose option in case the -immed or minbuf= option have been specified.  Valid
	      values for minbuf= are between 25 and 95 for 25%...95% minimum  drive  buffer  fill
	      ratio.

       -dummy The  CD/DVD/BluRay-Recorder will go through all steps of the recording process, but
	      the laser is turned off during this procedure.  It is recommended  to  run  several
	      tests  before  actually writing to a Compact Disk or Digital Versatile Disk, if the
	      timing and load response of the system is not known.

       -clone Tells cdrecord to handle images created by readcd -clone.  The -clone may  only  be
	      used  in conjunction with with the -raw96r or with the -raw16 option.  Using -clone
	      together with -raw96r is preferred as it allows to write all subchannel data.   The
	      option  -raw16  should  only  be	used  with drives that do not support to write in
	      -raw96r mode.

       -dao

       -sao   Set SAO (Session At Once) mode which is usually called Disk  At  Once  mode.   This
	      currently  only works with MMC drives that support Session At Once mode.	Note that
	      cdrecord needs to know the size of each track in advance for  this  mode	(see  the
	      mkisofs -print-size option and the EXAMPLES section for more information).

       -tao   Set  TAO	(Track At Once) writing mode.  This is the default write mode in previous
	      cdrecord versions.  With most drives, this write mode is required for multi session
	      recording.

       -raw   Set  RAW	writing mode.  Using this option defaults to -raw96r.  Note that cdrecord
	      needs to know the size of each track in advance for  this  mode  (see  the  mkisofs
	      -print-size option and the EXAMPLES section for more information).

       -raw96r
	      Select  Set  RAW	writing mode with 2352 byte sectors plus 96 bytes of raw P-W sub-
	      channel data resulting in a sector size of 2448 bytes.  This is the  preferred  raw
	      writing mode as it gives best control over the CD writing process.  If you find any
	      problems with the layout of a disk or with sub channel content (e.g. wrong times on
	      the  display  when  playing  the CD) and your drive supports to write in -raw96r or
	      -raw16 mode, you should give it a try.  There  are  several  CD  writers	with  bad
	      firmware that result in broken disks when writing in TAO or SAO mode.  Writing data
	      disks in raw mode needs significantly more CPU time than other write modes. If your
	      CPU  is too slow, this may result in buffer underruns.  Note that cdrecord needs to
	      know the size of each track in advance for this mode (see the  mkisofs  -print-size
	      option and the EXAMPLES section for more information).

       -raw96p
	      Select Set RAW writing mode with 2352 byte sectors plus 96 bytes of packed P-W sub-
	      channel data resulting in a sector size of 2448 bytes.  This is the less	preferred
	      raw  writing  mode  as  only a few recorders support it and some of these recorders
	      have bugs in the firmware implementation.  Don't use this  mode  if  your  recorder
	      supports	-raw96r  or  -raw16.   Writing data disks in raw mode needs significantly
	      more CPU time than other write modes. If your CPU is too slow, this may  result  in
	      buffer  underruns.   Note  that  cdrecord  needs	to know the size of each track in
	      advance for this mode (see the mkisofs -print-size option and the EXAMPLES  section
	      for more information).

       -raw16 Select  Set RAW writing mode with 2352 byte sectors plus 16 bytes of P-Q subchannel
	      data resulting in a sector size of 2368 bytes.  If  a  recorder  does  not  support
	      -raw96r,	this  is  the preferred raw writing mode.  It does not allow to write CD-
	      Text or CD+Graphics but it is the only raw writing mode in cheap	CD  writers.   As
	      these cheap writers in most cases do not support -dao mode.  Don't use this mode if
	      your recorder supports -raw96r.  Writing data disks in raw mode needs significantly
	      more  CPU  time than other write modes. If your CPU is too slow, this may result in
	      buffer underruns.  Note that cdrecord needs to know  the	size  of  each	track  in
	      advance  for this mode (see the mkisofs -print-size option and the EXAMPLES section
	      for more information).

       -multi Allow multi session CDs or multi border DVDs to be made.	This  flag  needs  to  be
	      present on all sessions of a multi session or multi border disk, except you want to
	      create a session on a CD that will be the last session on the CD media.

	      For CD media, the fixation will be done in a way	that  allows  the  CD/DVD/BluRay-
	      Recorder to append additional sessions later. This is done by generation a TOC with
	      a link to the next program area. The so generated media is not 100%  compatible  to
	      manufactured CDs (except for CDplus).  Use only for recording of multi session CDs.
	      If this option is present, the default track type is CD-ROM XA mode 2  form  1  and
	      the  sector  size  is  2048 bytes.  The XA sector subheaders will be created by the
	      drive.  The Sony drives have no hardware support for CD-ROM XA mode 2 form 1.   You
	      have  to	specify  the -data option in order to create multi session disks on these
	      drives.  If you like to record a multisession disk in SAO mode, you need	to  force
	      CD-ROM  sectors  by  including the -data option.	Not all drives allow multisession
	      CDs in SAO mode.

	      For DVD media, -multi switches the write	mode  to  incremental  packet  recording.
	      There  is  currently  no	way to prevent the ability to append further sessions and
	      there is currently only support for DVD-R/DVD-RW media.  To reuse a DVD-RW that has
	      previously  been	written  in incremental packet recording mode for different write
	      modes, you need to blank the entire media before.

       -media-info

       -minfo Retrieve and print information about the state of the  medium.   This  option  cur-
	      rently only works for MMC compliant drives.

       -msinfo
	      Retrieve multi session info in a form suitable for mkisofs-1.10 or later.

	      This  option  makes  only sense with a CD that contains at least one closed session
	      and is appendable (not finally closed yet).  Some drives create error  messages  if
	      you  try	to  get  the  multi session info for a disk that is not suitable for this
	      operation.

       -toc   Retrieve and print out the table of content or PMA of  a	CD.   With  this  option,
	      cdrecord will work with CD-R drives and with CD-ROM drives.

       -atip  Retrieve and print out the ATIP (absolute Time in Pre-groove) info of a CD/DVD/Blu-
	      Ray recordable or CD/DVD/BluRay re-writable media.  With this option, cdrecord will
	      try  to  retrieve  the  ATIP info. If the actual drive does not support to read the
	      ATIP info, it may be that only a reduced set of information records or even nothing
	      is  displayed.  Only  a  limited number of MMC compliant drives support to read the
	      ATIP info.

	      If cdrecord is able to retrieve the lead-in start time for the  first  session,  it
	      will  try to decode and print the manufacturer info from the media.  DVD media does
	      not have ATIP information but there is equivalent prerecorded information  that  is
	      read out and printed.

       -fix   The  disk  will only be fixated (i.e. a TOC for a CD-Reader will be written).  This
	      may be used, if for some reason the disk has been written  but  not  fixated.  This
	      option currently does not work with old TEAC drives (CD-R50S and CD-R55S).

       -nofix Do  not  fixate  the  disk  after writing the tracks. This may be used to create an
	      audio disk in steps. An un-fixated disk can usually not be used on a non	CD-writer
	      type drive but there are audio CD players that will be able to play such a disk.

       -waiti Wait for input to become available on standard input before trying to open the SCSI
	      driver. This allows cdrecord to read its input from a pipe even when writing  addi-
	      tional  sessions	to a multi session disk.  When writing another session to a multi
	      session disk, mkisofs needs to read the old session from the device before  writing
	      output.  This cannot be done if cdrecord opens the SCSI driver at the same time.

       -load  Load the media and exit. This only works with a tray loading mechanism but seems to
	      be useful when using the Kodak disk transporter.

       -lock  Load the media, lock the door and exit. This only works with a tray loading  mecha-
	      nism but seems to be useful when using the Kodak disk transporter.

       -eject Eject  disk  after  doing  the work.  Some devices (e.g. Philips) need to eject the
	      medium before creating a new disk. Doing a -dummy test and immediately  creating	a
	      real disk would not work on these devices.

       speed=#
	      Set  the speed factor of the writing process to #.  # is an integer, representing a
	      multiple of what has been defined as single speed for the medium.

	      For CD media, single speed is the audio playback speed.  This is about 150 KB/s for
	      CD-ROM  and  about  172 KB/s for CD-Audio.  Single speed is about 1385 kB/s for DVD
	      media and about 4496 kB/s for BluRay media.

	      If no speed option is present, cdrecord will try to  get	a  drive  specific  speed
	      value from the file /etc/default/cdrecord and if it cannot find one, it will try to
	      get the speed value from the CDR_SPEED environment and later  from  the  CDR_SPEED=
	      entry  in /etc/default/cdrecord.	If no speed value could be found, cdrecord uses a
	      drive specific default speed.  The default for all new (MMC compliant) drives is to
	      use  the	maximum  supported by the drive.  If you use speed=0 with a MMC compliant
	      drive, cdrecord will switch to the lowest possible speed for drive and medium.   If
	      you are using an old (non MMC) drive that has problems with speed=2 or speed=4, you
	      should try speed=0.

       blank=type
	      Blank a CD-RW and exit or blank a CD-RW before writing. The blanking  type  may  be
	      one of:

	      help	  Display a list of possible blanking types.

	      all	  Blank the entire disk. This may take a long time.

	      fast	  Minimally  blank the disk. This results in erasing the PMA, the TOC and
			  the pregap.

	      track	  Blank a track.

	      unreserve   Unreserve a reserved track.

	      trtail	  Blank the tail of a track.

	      unclose	  Unclose last session.

	      session	  Blank the last session.
       Not all drives support all blanking types. It may be necessary to use blank=all if a drive
       reports a specified command as being invalid.  If used together with the -force flag, this
       option may be used to blank CD-RW disks that otherwise cannot be blanked.  Note	that  you
       may  need to specify blank=all because some drives will not continue with certain types of
       bad CD-RW disks. Note also that cdrecord does its best if the -force flag is used  but  it
       finally	depends  on  the  drive's firmware whether the blanking operation will succeed or
       not.

       -format
	      Format a CD-RW/DVD-RW/DVD+RW/BD-RE disc.	Formatting is currently only  implemented
	      for  DVD+RW and for BD-RE media.	A 'maiden' DVD+RW or BD-RE media needs to be for-
	      matted before you may write to it.  However, as cdrecord autodetects the	need  for
	      formatting  in  this case and auto formats the medium before it starts writing, the
	      -format option is only needed if you like  to  forcibly  reformat  a  DVD+RW  BD-RE
	      medium.

       fs=#   Set  the	FIFO  (ring  buffer) size to #.  You may use the same syntax as in dd(1),
	      sdd(1) or star(1).  The number representing the size is taken in bytes unless  oth-
	      erwise  specified.   If  a number is followed directly by the letter `b', `k', `m',
	      `s' or `f', the size is multiplied by 512, 1024, 1024*1024, 2048 or 2352.   If  the
	      size consists of numbers separated by `x' or `*', multiplication of the two numbers
	      is performed.  Thus fs=10x63k will specify a FIFO size of 630 kBytes.

	      The size specified by the fs= argument includes the shared memory  that  is  needed
	      for  administration.  This  is  at  least  one page of memory.  If no fs= option is
	      present, cdrecord will try to get the FIFO size value from the  CDR_FIFOSIZE  envi-
	      ronment.	The default FIFO size is currently 4 MB.

	      The  FIFO  is  used  to  increase  buffering for the real time writing process.  It
	      allows to run a pipe from mkisofs directly into cdrecord.  If the  FIFO  is  active
	      and  a  pipe from mkisofs into cdrecord is used to create a CD, cdrecord will abort
	      prior to do any modifications on the disk if mkisofs dies before it starts writing.
	      The  recommended	FIFO  size  is between 4 and 128 MBytes.  As a rule of thumb, the
	      FIFO size should be at least equal to the  size  of  the	internal  buffer  of  the
	      CD/DVD/BluRay-Recorder  and  no more than half of the physical amount of RAM avail-
	      able in the machine.  If the FIFO size is big  enough,  the  FIFO  statistics  will
	      print a FIFO empty count of zero and the FIFO min fill is not below 20%.	It is not
	      wise to use too much space for the FIFO. If you need more than 8 MB to write  a  CD
	      at  a  speed less than 20x from an image on a local file system on an idle machine,
	      your machine is either underpowered, has hardware problems  or  is  mis-configured.
	      If you like to write DVDs or to write CDs at higher speed, it makes sense to use at
	      least 16 MB for the FIFO.

	      On old and small machines, you need to be more careful with the FIFO size.  If your
	      machine  has  less  than	256 MB of physical RAM, you should not set up a FIFO size
	      that is more than 32 MB.	The sun4c architecture (e.g. a Sparcstation-2)	has  only
	      MMU page table entries for 16 MBytes per process. Using more than 14 MBytes for the
	      FIFO may cause the operating system in this case to spend much time  to  constantly
	      reload  the MMU tables. Newer machines from Sun do not have this MMU hardware prob-
	      lem. I have no information on PC-hardware reflecting this problem.

	      Old Linux systems for non x86 platforms have broken definitions for the shared mem-
	      ory  size. You need to fix them and rebuild the kernel or manually tell cdrecord to
	      use a smaller FIFO.

	      If you have buffer underruns or similar problems (like  a  constantly  empty  drive
	      buffer)  and  observe a zero fifo empty count, you have hardware problems that pre-
	      vents the data from flowing fast enough from the kernel memory to  the  drive.  The
	      FIFO size in this case is sufficient, but you should check for a working DMA setup.

       ts=#   Set  the	maximum transfer size for a single SCSI command to #.  The syntax for the
	      ts= option is the same as for cdrecord fs=# or sdd bs=#.

	      If no ts= option has been specified, cdrecord defaults to a transfer size of 63 kB.
	      If  libscg gets lower values from the operating system, the value is reduced to the
	      maximum value that is possible with the current operating  system.   Sometimes,  it
	      may help to further reduce the transfer size or to enhance it, but note that it may
	      take a long time to find a better value by experimenting with the ts= option.

       dev=target
	      Sets the SCSI target for the CD/DVD/BluRay-Recorder, see notes  above.   A  typical
	      device specification is dev=6,0 .  If a filename must be provided together with the
	      numerical target specification, the filename is implementation specific.	The  cor-
	      rect  filename in this case can be found in the system specific manuals of the tar-
	      get operating system.  On a FreeBSD system without CAM support, you need to use the
	      control  device (e.g.  /dev/rcd0.ctl).  A correct device specification in this case
	      may be dev=/dev/rcd0.ctl:@ .

	      On Linux, drives connected to a parallel port adapter are mapped to a virtual  SCSI
	      bus. Different adapters are mapped to different targets on this virtual SCSI bus.

	      If  no  dev  option  is  present,  cdrecord  will  try  to  get the device from the
	      CDR_DEVICE environment.

	      If the argument to the dev= option does not contain the characters ',', '/', '@' or
	      ':',  it	is  interpreted  as  an  label	name  that  may  be  found  in	the  file
	      /etc/default/cdrecord (see FILES section).

	      If no dev= option is present, or if the dev= option only contains a transport spec-
	      ifyer  but  no  address,	cdrecord  tries to scan the SCSI address space for CD-ROM
	      drives.  If exactly one is found, this is used by default.

       gracetime=#
	      Set the grace time before starting to write to # seconds.  Values below  3  seconds
	      are  not	allowed  in  order to prevent the volume management from interrupting the
	      write process.

       timeout=#
	      Set the default SCSI command timeout value to # seconds.	The default SCSI  command
	      timeout  is  the minimum timeout used for sending SCSI commands.	If a SCSI command
	      fails due to a timeout, you may try to raise the default SCSI command timeout above
	      the  timeout  value  of  the  failed command.  If the command runs correctly with a
	      raised command timeout, please report the better timeout value and the  correspond-
	      ing  command  to	the  author  of  the program.  If no timeout option is present, a
	      default timeout of 40 seconds is used.

       driver=name
	      Allows the user to manually select a driver for the device.   The  reason  for  the
	      existence  of  the driver=name option is to allow users to use cdrecord with drives
	      that are similar to supported drives but	not  known  directly  by  cdrecord.   All
	      drives  made  after 1997 should be MMC standard compliant and thus supported by one
	      of the MMC drivers.  It is most unlikely that cdrecord is unable to find the  right
	      driver automatically.  Use this option with extreme care. If a wrong driver is used
	      for a device, the possibility of creating corrupted disks  is  high.   The  minimum
	      problem related to a wrong driver is that the -speed or -dummy will not work.

	      The following driver names are supported:

	      help   To get a list of possible drivers together with a short description.

	      mmc_bd The  generic  SCSI-3/mmc  BluRay  driver  is auto-selected whenever cdrecord
		     finds a MMC compliant drive that does support to write  BluRay  media  or	a
		     multi system that contains a BluRay disk as the current medium.  This driver
		     tries to close the tray, checks the  medium  found  in  the  tray	and  then
		     branches to the driver that matches the current medium.

	      mmc_bdr
		     The  generic  SCSI-3/mmc  BluRay  driver  is auto-selected whenever cdrecord
		     finds a MMC compliant drive that does support to write BluRay BD-R media  or
		     a multi system that contains a BluRay BD-R disk as the current medium.

	      mmc_bdre
		     The  generic  SCSI-3/mmc  BluRay  driver  is auto-selected whenever cdrecord
		     finds a MMC compliant drive that does support to write BluRay BD-RE media or
		     a multi system that contains a BluRay BD-RE disk as the current medium.

	      mmc_cd The  generic  SCSI-3/mmc  CD-ROM  driver  is auto-selected whenever cdrecord
		     finds a MMC compliant drive that does not identify itself to support writing
		     at  all,  or that only identifies to support media or write modes not imple-
		     mented in cdrecord.

	      mmc_cd_dvd
		     The  generic  SCSI-3/mmc  CD/DVD/BluRay  driver  is  auto-selected  whenever
		     cdrecord  finds  a MMC-2 or MMC-3 compliant drive that seems to support more
		     than one medium type and the tray is open or no medium  could  be	found  to
		     select  the  right  driver.  This driver tries to close the tray, checks the
		     medium found in the tray and then branches to the driver  that  matches  the
		     current medium.

	      mmc_cdr
		     The  generic SCSI-3/mmc CD-R/CD-RW driver is auto-selected whenever cdrecord
		     find a MMC compliant drive that only supports to write CDs or a multi system
		     drive that contains a CD as the current medium.

	      mmc_cdr_sony
		     The  generic SCSI-3/mmc CD-R/CD-RW driver is auto-selected whenever cdrecord
		     would otherwise select the mmc_cdr driver but the device seems to be made by
		     Sony.   The  mmc_cdr_sony	is definitely needed for the Sony CDU 928 as this
		     drive does not completely implement the MMC standard and  some  of  the  MMC
		     SCSI  commands  have  to  be replaced by Sony proprietary commands. It seems
		     that all Sony drives (even newer ones) still implement the Sony  proprietary
		     SCSI  commands so it has not yet become a problem to use this driver for all
		     Sony drives. If you find a newer Sony drive that does  not  work  with  this
		     driver, please report.

	      mmc_dvd
		     The  generic  SCSI-3/mmc-2  DVD-R/DVD-RW  driver  is  auto-selected whenever
		     cdrecord finds a MMC-2 or MMC-3 compliant drive that supports to write  DVDs
		     and an appropriate medium is loaded.  There is no Track At Once mode for DVD
		     writers.

	      mmc_dvdplus
		     The generic SCSI-3/mmc-3 DVD+R/DVD+RW driver is auto-selected  whenever  one
		     of  the  DVD+  media types that are incompatible to each other is found.  It
		     checks media and then branches  to  the  driver  that  matches  the  current
		     medium.

	      mmc_dvdplusr
		     The  generic  SCSI-3/mmc-3  DVD+R	driver	is auto-selected whenever a DVD+R
		     medium is found in an appropriate writer.	Note that for unknown reason, the
		     DVD-Plus  alliance  does  not like that there is a simulation mode for DVD+R
		     media.  The author of cdrecord tries to convince manufacturers to	implement
		     a	simulation mode for DVD+R and implement support.  DVD+R only supports one
		     write mode that is somewhere between Track At Once and Packet writing;  this
		     mode is selected in cdrecord via a the -dao/-sao option.

	      mmc_dvdplusrw
		     The  generic  SCSI-3/mmc-3  DVD+RW driver is auto-selected whenever a DVD+RW
		     medium is found in an appropriate writer.	As DVD+RW media needs to be  for-
		     matted before its first use, cdrecord auto-detects this media state and per-
		     forms a format before it starts to write.	Note that for unknown reason, the
		     DVD-Plus alliance does not like that there is a simulation mode nor a way to
		     erase DVD+RW media.  DVD+RW only supports one write mode that  is	close  to
		     Packet  writing;  this  mode  is  selected  in  cdrecord via a the -dao/-sao
		     option.

	      cw_7501
		     The driver for Matsushita/Panasonic CW-7501 is auto-selected  when  cdrecord
		     finds  this  old  pre MMC drive.  Cdrecord supports all write modes for this
		     drive type.

	      kodak_pcd_600
		     The driver for Kodak PCD-600 is auto-selected when cdrecord finds	this  old
		     pre  MMC drive which has been the first high speed (6x) CD writer for a long
		     time. This drive behaves similar to the Philips CDD-521 drive.

	      philips_cdd521
		     The driver for Philips  CDD-521  is  auto-selected  when  cdrecord  finds	a
		     Philips CDD-521 drive (which is the first CD writer ever made) or one of the
		     other drives that are known to behave similar to this  drive.   All  Philips
		     CDD-521  or  similar  drives (see other drivers in this list) do not support
		     Session At Once recording.

	      philips_cdd521_old
		     The driver for Philips old CDD-521 is auto-selected when  cdrecord  finds	a
		     Philips CDD-521 with very old firmware which has some known limitations.

	      philips_cdd522
		     The  driver  for  Philips	CDD-522  is  auto-selected  when cdrecord finds a
		     Philips CDD-522 which is the successor of the 521 or  one	of  its  variants
		     with  Kodak label.  Cdrecord does not support Session At Once recording with
		     these drives.

	      philips_dumb
		     The driver for Philips CDD-521 with pessimistic assumptions is  never  auto-
		     selected.	 It  may  be  used by hand with drives that behave similar to the
		     Philips CDD-521.

	      pioneer_dws114x
		     The driver for Pioneer DW-S114X is auto-selected when cdrecord finds one  of
		     the old non MMC CD writers from Pioneer.

	      plasmon_rf4100
		     The  driver  for  Plasmon	RF 4100 is auto-selected when cdrecord finds this
		     specific variant of the Philips CDD-521.

	      ricoh_ro1060c
		     The driver for Ricoh RO-1060C is  auto-selected  when  cdrecord  finds  this
		     drive. There is no real support for this drive yet.

	      ricoh_ro1420c
		     The  driver  for Ricoh RO-1420C is auto-selected when cdrecord finds a drive
		     with this specific variant of the Philips CDD-521 command set.

	      scsi2_cd
		     The generic SCSI-2 CD-ROM driver is auto-selected whenever cdrecord finds	a
		     pre  MMC drive that does not support writing or a pre MMC writer that is not
		     supported by cdrecord.

	      sony_cdu924
		     The driver for Sony CDU-924 / CDU-948  is	auto-selected  whenever  cdrecord
		     finds one of the old pre MMC CD writers from Sony.

	      teac_cdr50
		     The  driver  for Teac CD-R50S, Teac CD-R55S, JVC XR-W2010, Pinnacle RCD-5020
		     is auto-selected whenever one of the drives is found that is  known  to  the
		     non  MMC  command	set used by TEAC and JVC.  Note that many drives from JVC
		     will not work because they do not correctly implement the documented command
		     set  and  JVC  has  been unwilling to fix or document the bugs.  There is no
		     support for the Session At Once write mode yet.

	      tyuden_ew50
		     The driver for Taiyo Yuden EW-50 is  auto-selected  when  cdrecord  finds	a
		     drive with this specific variant of the Philips CDD-521 command set.

	      yamaha_cdr100
		     The driver for Yamaha CDR-100 / CDR-102 is auto-selected when cdrecord finds
		     one of the old pre MMC CD writers from Yamaha.  There is no support for  the
		     Session At Once write mode yet.

	      bd_simul
		     The  simulation  BluRay  driver  allows  to  run timing and speed tests with
		     parameters that match the behavior of BluRay writers.

	      cdr_simul
		     The simulation CD-R driver allows to run timing and speed tests with parame-
		     ters that match the behavior of CD writers.

	      dvd_simul
		     The simulation DVD-R driver allows to run timing and speed tests with param-
		     eters that match the behavior of DVD writers.

	      There are two special driver entries in the list: cdr_simul and  dvd_simul.   These
	      driver  entries  are designed to make timing tests at any speed or timing tests for
	      drives that do not support the -dummy option.  The simulation drivers  implement	a
	      drive  with  a  buffer  size  of 1 MB that can be changed via the CDR_SIMUL_BUFSIZE
	      environment variable.  The simulation driver  correctly  simulates  even	a  buffer
	      underrun condition.  If the -dummy option is present, the simulation is not aborted
	      in case of a buffer underrun.

       driveropts=option list
	      Set driver specific options. The options are specified a comma separated list.   To
	      get  a  list  of	valid  options	use driveropts=help together with the -checkdrive
	      option.  If you like to set driver options without running a typical cdrecord task,
	      you  need  to  use  the  -setdropts  option in addition, otherwise the command line
	      parser in cdrecord will complain.  Currently implemented driver options are:

	      burnfree
		     Turn the support for Buffer Underrun Free writing on.  This only  works  for
		     drives  that  support  Buffer Underrun Free technology.  This may be called:
		     Sanyo BURN-Proof, Ricoh Just-Link, Yamaha Lossless-Link or similar.

		     The default is to turn BURN-Free off, regardless  of  the	defaults  of  the
		     drive.

	      noburnfree
		     Turn the support for Buffer Underrun Free writing off.

	      varirec=value
		     Turn  on  the Plextor VariRec writing mode. The mandatory parameter value is
		     the laser power offset and currently may be selected from -2, -1, 0,  1,  2.
		     In  addition, you need to set the write speed to 4 in order to allow VariRec
		     to work.

	      gigarec=value
		     Manage the Plextor GigaRec writing mode. The mandatory  parameter	value  is
		     the  disk	capacity  ratio compared to normal recording and currently may be
		     selected from 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, 1.0, 1,1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4.  If values <  1.0
		     are  used, then the effect is similar to the Yamaha Audio Master Q. R.  fea-
		     ture. If values > 1.0 are used, then the disk capacity is increased.

		     Not all drives support all GigaRec values.  When a drive  uses  the  GigaRec
		     feature, the write speed is limited to 8x.

	      audiomaster
		     Turn  on  the Yamaha Audio Master Q. R.  feature which usually should result
		     in high quality CDs that have less reading problems in  Hi-Fi  players.   As
		     this  is implemented as a variant of the Session at Once write mode, it will
		     only work if you select SAO write mode and there is no need to turn it  off.
		     The  Audio  Master  mode will work with a limited speed but may also be used
		     with data CDs. In Audio Master mode, the pits on  the  CD	will  be  written
		     larger then usual so the capacity of the medium is reduced when turning this
		     feature on.  A 74 minute CD will only have a capacity of 63 minutes if Audio
		     Master  is  active  and the capacity of a 80 minute CD will be reduced to 68
		     minutes, the capacity in will be reduced to 85% of  the  original	capacity.
		     On  newer Plextor drives, this feature is also present but the capacity will
		     be redued to 86.66% of the original capacity. For other factors  on  Plextor
		     drives, see the gigarec option above.

	      forcespeed
		     Normally,	modern drives know the highest possible speed for different media
		     and may reduce the speed in order to grant best write quality.   This  tech-
		     nology  may  be  called:  Plextor PowerRec, Ricoh Just-Speed, Yamaha Optimum
		     Write Speed Control or  similar.	Some  drives  (e.g.  Plextor,  Ricoh  and
		     Yamaha)  allow  to  force	the  drive  to use the selected speed even if the
		     medium is so bad that the write quality would be  poor.  This  option  tells
		     such  a  drive  to  force to use the selected speed regardless of the medium
		     quality.

		     Use this option with extreme care and note that the drive should know better
		     which  medium  will  work	at full speed.	The default is to turn forcespeed
		     off, regardless of the defaults of the drive.

	      noforcespeed
		     Turn off the force speed feature.

	      speedread
		     Some ultra high speed drives such as 48x  and  faster  drives  from  Plextor
		     limit the read speed for unknown media to e.g. 40x in order to avoid damaged
		     disks and drives.	Using this option tells the drive to read  any	media  as
		     fast  as  possible.  Be very careful as this may cause the media to break in
		     the drive while reading, resulting in a damaged media and drive!

	      nospeedread
		     Turn off unlimited read speed.

	      singlesession
		     Turn the drive into a single session only drive.  This allows to read defec-
		     tive or non-compliant (illegal) media with extremely non-standard additional
		     (broken/illegal) TOC entries in the TOC from the second or  higher  session.
		     Some  of  these  disks  become usable if only the information from the first
		     session is used.  You need to enable Single Session mode before  you  insert
		     the defective disk!

	      nosinglesession
		     Turn off single session mode. The drive will again behave as usual.

	      hidecdr
		     Hide  the	fact  that a medium might be a recordable medium.  This allows to
		     make CD-Rs look like CD-ROMs and applications believe that the media in  the
		     drive is not a CD-R.

	      nohidecdr
		     Turn off hiding CD-R media.

	      tattooinfo
		     Use  this option together with -checkdrive to retrieve the image size infor-
		     mation for the Yamaha DiskT@2 feature. The images always have a line  length
		     of  3744  pixel.	Line  number  0 (radius 0) is mapped to the center of the
		     disk.  If you know the inner and outer radius you will be able to	create	a
		     pre distorted image that later may appear undistorted on the disk.

	      tattoofile=name
		     Use this option together with -checkdrive to write an image prepared for the
		     Yamaha DiskT@2 feature to the medium.  The file must  be  a  file	with  raw
		     image  B&W  data  (one  byte per pixel) in a size as retrieved by a previous
		     call to tattoofile=name .	If the size of the image equals the maximum  pos-
		     sible size (3744 x 320 pixel), cdrecord will use the first part of the file.
		     This first part then will be written to the leftover space on the CD.

		     Note that the image must be mirrored to be readable from the pick up side of
		     the CD.

	      layerbreak
		     Switch a drive with DVD-R/DL medium into layer jump recording recording mode
		     and use automatic layer break position set up.

		     By default, DVD-R/DL media is written in sequential recording mode that com-
		     pletely fills up both layers.

	      layerbreak=value
		     Set  up a manual layer break value for DVD-R/DL and DVD+R/DL.  The specified
		     layer break value must not be set to less than half  of  the  recorded  data
		     size  and	must  not  be  set to more than the remaining Layer 0 size of the
		     medium.  The manual layer break value needs to be a multiple of the ECC sec-
		     tor  size	which is 16 logical 2048 byte sectors in case of DVD media and 32
		     logical 2048 byte sectors in case of HD-DVD or BD media.

		     Cdrecord does not allow to write DL media in case that the total  amount  of
		     data  is less then the Layer 0 size of the medium except when a manual layer
		     break has been specified by using the layerbreak=value option.

       -setdropts
	      Set the driveropts specified by driveropts=option list, the speed of the drive  and
	      the  dummy  flag	and  exit.  This allows cdrecord to set drive specific parameters
	      that are not directly used by cdrecord like e.g.	single session mode, hide cdr and
	      similar.	It is needed in case that driveropts=option list should be called without
	      planning to run a typical cdrecord task.

       -checkdrive
	      Checks if a driver for the current drive is present and exit.  If the  drive  is	a
	      known drive, cdrecord uses exit code 0.

       -prcap Print  the drive capabilities for SCSI-3/mmc compliant drives as obtained from mode
	      page 0x2A. Values marked with kB use 1000 bytes as kilo-byte, values marked with KB
	      use 1024 bytes as Kilo-byte.

       -inq   Do an inquiry for the drive, print the inquiry info and exit.

       -scanbus
	      Scan all SCSI devices on all SCSI busses and print the inquiry strings. This option
	      may be used to find SCSI address of the CD/DVD/BluRay-Recorder on  a  system.   The
	      numbers printed out as labels are computed by: bus * 100 + target

       -reset Try  to  reset the SCSI bus where the CD recorder is located. This works not on all
	      operating systems.

       -abort Try to send an abort sequence to the drive.  If you use cdrecord only, this  should
	      never  be  needed;  but  other software may leave a drive in an unusable condition.
	      Calling cdrecord -reset may be needed if a previous write has been interrupted  and
	      the software did not tell the drive that it will not continue to write.

       -overburn
	      Allow  cdrecord  to  write more than the official size of a medium. This feature is
	      usually called overburning and depends on the fact that most blank media	may  hold
	      more space than the official size. As the official size of the lead-out area on the
	      disk is 90 seconds (6750 sectors) and a disk usually works if there  are	at  least
	      150  sectors  of lead out, all media may be overburned by at least 88 seconds (6600
	      sectors).  Most CD recorders only do overburning in SAO or RAW mode.  Known  excep-
	      tions are TEAC CD-R50S, TEAC CD-R55S and the Panasonic CW-7502.  Some drives do not
	      allow to overburn as much as you might like and limit the size of a CD to  e.g.  76
	      minutes.	This  problem  may  be circumvented by writing the CD in RAW mode because
	      this way the drive has no chance to find the size before starting to  burn.   There
	      is  no guarantee that your drive supports overburning at all.  Make a test to check
	      if your drive implements the feature.

       -ignsize
	      Ignore the known size of the medium. This option should be used with extreme  care,
	      it  exists  only	for debugging purposes don't use it for other reasons.	It is not
	      needed to write disks with more than the nominal	capacity.   This  option  implies
	      -overburn.

       -useinfo
	      Use  *.inf  files  to  overwrite audio options.  If this option is used, the pregap
	      size information is read from the *.inf file that is associated with the file  that
	      contains the audio data for a track.

	      If  used	together  with the -audio option, cdrecord may be used to write audio CDs
	      from a pipe from cdda2wav if you call cdrecord with the *.inf files as track param-
	      eter  list instead of using audio files.	The audio data is read from stdin in this
	      case.  See EXAMPLES section below.  Cdrecord first verifies that stdin is not  con-
	      nected  to a terminal and runs some heuristic consistency checks on the *.inf files
	      and then sets the track lengths from the information in the *.inf files.

	      If you like to write from stdin, make sure that cdrecord is  called  with  a  large
	      enough  FIFO  size,  reduce  the write speed to a value below the read speed of the
	      source drive and switch the burn-free option for the recording drive on.

       defpregap=#
	      Set the default pre-gap size for all tracks except track	number	1.   This  option
	      currently  only  makes  sense with the TEAC drive when creating track-at-once disks
	      without the 2 second silence before each track.
	      This option may go away in future.

       -packet
	      Set Packet writing mode.	This is an experimental interface.

       pktsize=#
	      Set the packet size to #, forces fixed packet mode.  This is an experimental inter-
	      face.

       -noclose
	      Do  not  close the current track, useful only when in packet writing mode.  This is
	      an experimental interface.

       mcn=med_cat_nr
	      Set the Media Catalog Number of the CD to med_cat_nr.

       -text  Write CD-Text information based on information taken  from  a  file  that  contains
	      ascii  information  for  the  text  strings.  Cdrecord supports CD-Text information
	      based on the content of the *.inf files created by cdda2wav and CD-Text information
	      based  on  the  content  from  a CUE sheet file.	If a CUE sheet file contains both
	      (binary CDTEXTFILE and text based SONGWRITER) entries, then the  information  based
	      on the CDTEXTFILE entry will win.

	      You  need  to use the -useinfo option in addition in order to tell cdrecord to read
	      the *.inf files or cuefile=filename in order to tell cdrecord to read a  CUE  sheet
	      file  in	addition.   If	you  like to write your own CD-Text information, edit the
	      *.inf files or the CUE sheet file with a text editor and change the fields that are
	      relevant for CD-Text.

       textfile=filename
	      Write  CD-Text  based  on information found in the binary file filename.	This file
	      must contain information in a data format defined in the SCSI-3 MMC-2 standard  and
	      in  the Red Book. The four byte size header that is defined in the SCSI standard is
	      optional and allows to make the recognition of correct data less	ambiguous.   This
	      is  the  best option to be used to copy CD-Text data from existing CDs that already
	      carry CD-Text information. To get data in a format suitable  for	this  option  use
	      cdrecord -vv -toc to extract the information from disk.  If both, textfile=filename
	      and CD-Text information from *.inf or *.cue files  are  present,	textfile=filename
	      will overwrite the other information.

       cuefile=filename
	      Take  all recording related information from a CDRWIN compliant CUE sheet file.  No
	      track files are allowed when this option is present and one of  the  options  -dao,
	      -sao, -raw, -raw16, -raw96r is needed in addition.

TRACK OPTIONS
       Track options may be mixed with track file names.

       isrc=ISRC_number
	      Set the International Standard Recording Number for the next track to ISRC_number.

       index=list
	      Sets  an index list for the next track.  In index list is a comma separated list of
	      numbers that are counting from index 1. The first entry in this list must contain a
	      0,  the  following  numbers  must be an ascending list of numbers (counting in 1/75
	      seconds) that represent the start of the	indices.  An  index  list  in  the  form:
	      0,7500,15000  sets  index 1 to the start of the track, index 2 100 seconds from the
	      start of the track and index 3 200 seconds from the start of the track.

       -audio If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks are written in CD-DA (similar to Red
	      Book)  audio  format.   The  file  with data for this tracks should contain stereo,
	      16-bit digital audio with 44100 samples/s.  The byte order should be the following:
	      MSB left, LSB left, MSB right, LSB right, MSB left and so on. The track should be a
	      multiple of 2352 bytes. It is not possible to put the  master  image  of	an  audio
	      track  on a raw disk because data will be read in multiple of 2352 bytes during the
	      recording process.

	      If a filename ends in .au or .wav the file is considered to be a	structured  audio
	      data  file.   Cdrecord  assumes that the file in this case is a Sun audio file or a
	      Microsoft .WAV file and extracts the audio data from the files by skipping over the
	      non-audio  header  information.	In  all other cases, cdrecord will only work cor-
	      rectly if the audio data stream does not have any header.  Because many  structured
	      audio  files do not have an integral number of blocks (1/75th second) in length, it
	      is often necessary to specify the -pad option as well.   cdrecord  recognizes  that
	      audio  data  in a .WAV file is stored in Intel (little-endian) byte order, and will
	      automatically byte-swap the data if  the	CD  recorder  requires	big-endian  data.
	      Cdrecord	will  reject any audio file that does not match the Red Book requirements
	      of 16-bit stereo samples in PCM coding at 44100 samples/second.

	      Using other structured audio data formats as input to cdrecord will usually work if
	      the  structure  of  the data is the structure described above (raw pcm data in big-
	      endian byte order).  However, if the data format includes a header, you will hear a
	      click at the start of a track.

	      If  neither  -data  nor -audio have been specified, cdrecord defaults to -audio for
	      all filenames that end in .au or .wav and to -data for all other files.

       -swab  If this flag is present, audio data is  assumed  to  be  in  byte-swapped  (little-
	      endian)  order.	Some types of CD-Writers e.g. Yamaha, Sony and the new SCSI-3/mmc
	      drives require audio data to be presented in little-endian order, while other writ-
	      ers  require audio data to be presented in the big-endian (network) byte order nor-
	      mally used by the SCSI protocol.	Cdrecord knows if a CD-Recorder needs audio  data
	      in  big-	or little-endian order, and corrects the byte order of the data stream to
	      match the needs of the recorder.	You only need the -swab flag if your data  stream
	      is in Intel (little-endian) byte order.

	      Note  that the verbose output of cdrecord will show you if swapping is necessary to
	      make the byte order of the input data fit the required byte order of the	recorder.
	      Cdrecord will not show you if the -swab flag was actually present for a track.

       -data  If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks are written in CD-ROM mode 1 (Yellow
	      Book) format. The data size is a multiple of 2048 bytes.	The file with track  data
	      should  contain  an  ISO-9660  or Rock Ridge filesystem image (see mkisofs for more
	      details). If the track data is an ufs filesystem image, fragment size should be set
	      to 2 KB or more to allow CD-drives with 2 KB sector size to be used for reading.

	      -data  is  the default, if no other flag is present and the file does not appear to
	      be of one of the well known audio file types.

	      If neither -data nor -audio have been specified, cdrecord defaults  to  -audio  for
	      all filenames that end in .au or .wav and to -data for all other files.

       -mode2 If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks are written in CD-ROM mode 2 format.
	      The data size is a multiple of 2336 bytes.

       -xa    If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks are written in CD-ROM XA mode 2 form
	      1  format.  The  data  size is a multiple of 2048 bytes.	The XA sector sub headers
	      will be created by the drive.  With this option, the write mode is the same as with
	      the -multi option.

       -xa1   If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks are written in CD-ROM XA mode 2 form
	      1 format. The data size is a multiple of 2056 bytes.  The XA sector sub headers are
	      part  of the user data and have to be supplied by the application that prepares the
	      data to be written.

       -xa2   If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks are written in CD-ROM XA mode 2 form
	      2  format. The data is a multiple of 2324 bytes.	The XA sector sub headers will be
	      created by the drive.

       -xamix If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks are written in a way that	allows	a
	      mix of CD-ROM XA mode 2 form 1/2 format. The data size is a multiple of 2332 bytes.
	      The XA sector sub headers are part of the user data and have to be supplied by  the
	      application  that  prepares  the	data  to  be written.  The CRC and the P/Q parity
	      ECC/EDC information (depending on the sector type)  have	to  be	supplied  by  the
	      application that prepares the data to be written.

       -cdi   If  this flag is present, the TOC type for the disk is set to CDI.  This only makes
	      sense with XA disks.

       -isosize
	      Use the ISO-9660 file system size as the size of the next track.	 This  option  is
	      needed  if  you want cdrecord to directly read the image of a track from a raw disk
	      partition or from a TAO master CD. In the first case the option -isosize is  needed
	      to  limit the size of the CD to the size of the ISO filesystem.  In the second case
	      the option -isosize is needed to prevent cdrecord from  reading  the  two  run  out
	      blocks  that  are appended by each CD-recorder in track at once mode. These two run
	      out blocks cannot be read and would cause a buffer  underrun  that  would  cause	a
	      defective  copy.	 Do  not  use this option on files created by mkisofs and in case
	      cdrecord reads the track data from stdin.  In the first  case,  you  would  prevent
	      cdrecord	from  writing the amount of padding that has been appended by mkisofs and
	      in the latter case, it will not work because stdin is not seekable.

	      If -isosize is used for a track, cdrecord will automatically add padding	for  this
	      track  as  if  the  -pad option has been used but the amount of padding may be less
	      than the padding written by mkisofs.  Note that if you use -isosize on a track that
	      contains Sparc boot information, the boot information will be lost.

	      Note also that this option cannot be used to determine the size of a file system if
	      the multi session option is present.

       -pad   If the track is a data track, 15 sectors of zeroed data will be added to the end of
	      this  and  each subsequent data track.  In this case, the -pad option is superseded
	      by the padsize= option. It will remain however as a shorthand for padsize=15s.   If
	      the  -pad option refers to an audio track, cdrecord will pad the audio data to be a
	      multiple of 2352 bytes.  The audio data padding is done with binary zeroes which is
	      equal to absolute silence.

	      -pad remains valid until disabled by -nopad.

       padsize=#
	      Set  the	amount of data to be appended as padding to the next track to #.  Opposed
	      to the behavior of the -pad option, the value for padsize= is  reset  to	zero  for
	      each  new  track.   Cdrecord  assumes  a sector size of 2048 bytes for the padsize=
	      option, independent from the real sector size and independent from the write  mode.
	      The  megabytes mentioned in the verbose mode output however are counting the output
	      sector size which is e.g. 2448 bytes when  writing  in  RAW/RAW96  mode.	 See  fs=
	      option  for  possible  arguments.  To pad the equivalent of 20 minutes on a CD, you
	      may write padsize=20x60x75s.  Use this option if your CD-drive is not able to  read
	      the  last  sectors  of  a track or if you want to be able to read the CD on a Linux
	      system with the ISO-9660 filesystem read ahead bug.  If an empty file is	used  for
	      track  data, this option may be used to create a disk that is entirely made of pad-
	      ding.  This may e.g. be used to find out how much overburning is	possible  with	a
	      specific media.

       -nopad Do not pad the following tracks - the default.

       -shorttrack
	      Allow  all  subsequent  tracks  to violate the Red Book track length standard which
	      requires a minimum track length of 4 seconds.  This option is only useful when used
	      in SAO or RAW mode.  Not all drives support this feature. The drive must accept the
	      resulting CUE sheet or support RAW writing.

       -noshorttrack
	      Re-enforce the Red Book track length standard. Tracks must be at least 4 seconds.

       pregap=#
	      Set the  pre-gap size for the next track.  This option currently only  makes  sense
	      with  the TEAC drive when creating track-at-once disks without the 2 second silence
	      before each track.
	      This option may go away in future.

       -preemp
	      If this flag is present, all TOC entries for subsequent audio tracks will  indicate
	      that  the  audio data has been sampled with 50/15 microsec pre-emphasis.	The data,
	      however is not modified during the process of transferring from file to disk.  This
	      option has no effect on data tracks.

       -nopreemp
	      If  this flag is present, all TOC entries for subsequent audio tracks will indicate
	      that the audio data has been mastered with linear data - this is the default.

       -copy  If this flag is present, all TOC entries for subsequent audio tracks of the result-
	      ing CD will indicate that the audio data has permission to be copied without limit.
	      This option has no effect on data tracks.

       -nocopy
	      If this flag is present, all TOC entries for subsequent audio tracks of the result-
	      ing  CD will indicate that the audio data has permission to be copied only once for
	      personal use - this is the default.

       -scms  If this flag is present, all TOC entries for subsequent audio tracks of the result-
	      ing CD will indicate that the audio data has no permission to be copied anymore.

       tsize=#
	      If  the  master  image  for  the next track has been stored on a raw disk, use this
	      option to specify the valid amount of data on this disk. If the image of	the  next
	      track  is stored in a regular file, the size of that file is taken to determine the
	      length of this track.  If the track contains an ISO 9660 filesystem image  use  the
	      -isosize option to determine the length of that filesystem image.
	      In  Disk at Once mode and with some drives that use the TEAC programming interface,
	      even in Track at Once mode, cdrecord needs to know the size of  each  track  before
	      starting to write the disk.  Cdrecord now checks this and aborts before starting to
	      write.  If this happens you will need to run mkisofs -print-size before and use the
	      output  (with  `s'  appended) as an argument to the tsize= option of cdrecord (e.g.
	      tsize=250000s).
	      See fs= option for possible arguments.

EXAMPLES
       For all examples below, it will be assumed that the CD/DVD/BluRay-Recorder is connected to
       the primary SCSI bus of the machine. The SCSI target id is set to 2.

       To record a pure CD-ROM at double speed, using data from the file cdimage.raw:

	   cdrecord -v speed=2 dev=2,0 cdimage.raw

       To create an image for a ISO 9660 filesystem with Rock Ridge extensions:

	   mkisofs -R -o cdimage.raw /home/joerg/master/tree

       To check the resulting file before writing to CD on Solaris:

	   mount -r -F fbk -o type=hsfs /dev/fbk0:cdimage.raw /mnt

       The fbk driver first appeared in 1988.

       Solaris	9 or newer come with a variant of the original fbk idea called lofi.  The command
       for the lofi variant is:

	    mount -r -F hsfs ` lofiadm -a /tmp/cdimage.raw ` /mnt

       Note that lofiadm needs absolute path names.

       On Linux:

	   mount cdimage.raw -r -t iso9660 -o loop /mnt

       Go on with:
	   ls -lR /mnt
	   umount /mnt

       If the overall speed of the system is sufficient and the structure of  the  filesystem  is
       not  too  complex, cdrecord will run without creating an image of the ISO 9660 filesystem.
       Simply run the pipeline:

	   mkisofs -R /master/tree | cdrecord -v fs=6m speed=2 dev=2,0 -

       The recommended minimum FIFO size for running this pipeline is 4 MBytes.  As  the  default
       FIFO  size  is  4  MB, the fs= option needs only be present if you want to use a different
       FIFO size.  If your system is loaded, you should run mkisofs in the real time  class  too.
       To raise the priority of mkisofs replace the command

	   mkisofs -R /master/tree
       by
	   priocntl -e -c RT -p 59 mkisofs -R /master/tree

       on Solaris and by

	   nice --18 mkisofs -R /master/tree

       on systems that don't have UNIX International compliant real-time scheduling.

       Cdrecord  runs  at priority 59 on Solaris, you should run mkisofs at no more than priority
       58. On other systems, you should run mkisofs at no less than nice --18.

       Creating a CD-ROM without file system image on disk has been tested  on	a  Sparcstation-2
       with  a	Yamaha	CDR-400. It did work up to quad speed when the machine was not loaded.	A
       faster machine may be able to handle quad speed also in the loaded case.

       To record a pure CD-DA (audio) at single speed, with each track contained in a file  named
       track01.cdaudio, track02.cdaudio, etc:

	   cdrecord -v speed=1 dev=2,0 -audio track*.cdaudio

       To  check if it will be ok to use double speed for the example above.  Use the dummy write
       option:

	   cdrecord -v -dummy speed=2 dev=2,0 -audio track*.cdaudio

       To record a mixed-mode CD with an ISO 9660 filesystem from cdimage.raw on the first track,
       the other tracks being audio tracks from the files track01.cdaudio, track02.cdaudio, etc:

	   cdrecord -v dev=2,0 cdimage.raw -audio track*.cdaudio

       To handle drives that need to know the size of a track before starting to write, first run

	   mkisofs -R -quiet -print-size /master/tree

       and then run

	   mkisofs -R /master/tree | cdrecord speed=2 dev=2,0 tsize=XXXs -

       where XXX is replaced by the output of the previous run of mkisofs.

       To copy an audio CD in the most accurate way, first run

	   cdda2wav dev=2,0 -vall cddb=0 -B -Owav

       and then run

	   cdrecord dev=2,0 -v -dao -useinfo -text  *.wav

       This  will  try to copy track indices and to read CD-Text information from disk.  If there
       is no CD-Text information, cdda2wav will  try  to  get  the  information  from  freedb.org
       instead.

       To copy an audio CD from a pipe (without intermediate files), first run

	   cdda2wav dev=1,0 -vall cddb=0 -info-only

       and then run

	   cdda2wav dev=1,0 -no-infofile -B -Oraw - | \
	   cdrecord dev=2,0 -v -dao -audio -useinfo -text *.inf

       This  will  get	all information (including track size info) from the *.inf files and then
       read the audio data from stdin.

       If you like to write from stdin, make sure that cdrecord is called  with  a  large  enough
       FIFO  size  (e.g.  fs=128m), reduce the write speed to a value below the read speed of the
       source drive (e.g.  speed=12), and switch the burn-free option for the recording drive  on
       by adding driveropts=burnfree.

       To set drive options without writing a CD (e.g. to switch a drive to single session mode),
       run

	   cdrecord dev=1,0 -setdropts driveropts=singlesession

       If you like to do this when no CD is in the drive, call

	   cdrecord dev=1,0 -force -setdropts driveropts=singlesession

       To copy a CD in clone mode, first read the master CD using:

	   readcd dev=b,t,l -clone f=somefile

       or (in case the CD contains many sectors that are unreadable by intention) by calling:

	   readcd dev=1,0 -clone -nocorr f=somefile

       will create the files somefile and somefile.toc.  Then write the CD using:

	   cdrecord dev=1,0 -raw96r -clone -v somefile

ENVIRONMENT
       CDR_DEVICE
	      This may either hold a device identifier that is suitable to the open call  of  the
	      SCSI transport library or a label in the file /etc/default/cdrecord.

       CDR_SPEED
	      Sets the default speed value for writing (see also -speed option).

       CDR_FIFOSIZE
	      Sets the default size of the FIFO (see also fs=# option).

       CDR_FORCERAWSPEED
	      If  this	environment variable is set, cdrecord will allow you to write at the full
	      RAW encoding speed a single CPU supports.  This will create high potential of  buf-
	      fer underruns. Use with care.

       CDR_FORCESPEED
	      If  this	environment variable is set, cdrecord will allow you to write at the full
	      DMA speed the system supports.  There is no DMA reserve for reading the  data  that
	      is  to  be written from disk.  This will create high potential of buffer underruns.
	      Use with care.

	      If this environment variable is set to the value any, cdrecord allows to	write  at
	      any speed even though it may fail later with a buffer underrun.

       RSH    If  the  RSH  environment is present, the remote connection will not be created via
	      rcmd(3) but by calling the program pointed to by RSH.  Use  e.g.	 RSH=/usr/bin/ssh
	      to create a secure shell connection.

	      Note that this forces cdrecord to create a pipe to the rsh(1) program and disallows
	      cdrecord to directly access the network socket to the remote server.  This makes it
	      impossible  to set up performance parameters and slows down the connection compared
	      to a root initiated rcmd(3) connection.

       RSCSI  If the RSCSI environment is present, the remote SCSI server will not be the program
	      /opt/schily/sbin/rscsi  but  the program pointed to by RSCSI.  Note that the remote
	      SCSI server program name will be ignored if you log in using an  account	that  has
	      been created with a remote SCSI server program as login shell.

FILES
       /etc/default/cdrecord
	      Default  values can be set for the following options in /etc/default/cdrecord.  For
	      example: CDR_FIFOSIZE=8m or CDR_SPEED=2

	      CDR_DEVICE
		     This may either hold a device identifier that is suitable to the  open  call
		     of  the  SCSI transport library or a label in the file /etc/default/cdrecord
		     that allows to identify a specific drive on the system.

	      CDR_SPEED
		     Sets the default speed value for writing (see also -speed option).

	      CDR_FIFOSIZE
		     Sets the default size of the FIFO (see also fs=# option).

	      CDR_MAXFIFOSIZE
		     Sets the maximum size of the FIFO (see also fs=# option).

	      Any other label
		     is an identifier for a specific drive on the system.  Such an identifier may
		     not contain the characters ',', '/', '@' or ':'.

		     Each line that follows a label contains a TAB separated list of items.  Cur-
		     rently, four items are recognized: the SCSI ID of	the  drive,  the  default
		     speed  that should be used for this drive, the default FIFO size that should
		     be used for this drive and drive specific options. The values for speed  and
		     fifosize  may be set to -1 to tell cdrecord to use the global defaults.  The
		     value for driveropts may be set to "" if no driveropts are used.  A  typical
		     line may look this way:

		     teac1= 0,5,0   4	 8m   ""

		     yamaha= 1,6,0  -1	 -1   burnfree

		     This  tells cdrecord that a drive named teac1 is at scsibus 0, target 5, lun
		     0 and should be used with speed 4 and a FIFO size of 8 MB.  A  second  drive
		     may  be  found  at scsibus 1, target 6, lun 0 and uses the default speed and
		     the default FIFO size.

SEE ALSO
       cdda2wav(1), readcd(1), scg(7), fbk(7), mkisofs(8), rcmd(3), ssh(1).

NOTES
       Not all options described in this manual may be supported by  the  OpenSource  variant  of
       cdrecord.  Cdrecord  issues a warning if an attempt is made to use an option that has been
       disabled in the OpenSource variant.

       On Solaris before Solaris 10 Update 1, you need to stop the volume management if you  like
       to use the USCSI fallback SCSI transport code. Even things like cdrecord -scanbus will not
       work if the volume management is running.

       Disks made in Track At Once mode are not suitable as a master for direct  mass  production
       by  CD manufacturers.  You will need the disk at once option to record such disks.  Never-
       theless the disks made in Track At Once will normally be read in all CD players. Some  old
       audio CD players however may produce a two second click between two audio tracks.

       The  minimal size of a track is 4 seconds or 300 sectors. If you write smaller tracks, the
       CD-Recorder will add dummy blocks. This is not an error, even though the  SCSI-error  mes-
       sage looks this way.

       Cdrecord  has  been  tested  on	an upgraded Philips CDD-521 recorder at single and double
       speed on a SparcStation 20/502 with no problems, slower computer systems should work also.
       The  newer  Philips/HP/Plasmon/Grundig  drives  as well as Yamaha CDR-100 and CDR-102 work
       also. The Plasmon RF-4100 work, but has not tested in multi session.   A  Philips  CDD-521
       that  has not been upgraded will not work.  The Sony CDU-924 has been tested, but does not
       support XA-mode2 in hardware.  The Sony therefore cannot create conforming  multi  session
       disks.	The  Ricoh RO-1420C works, but some people seem to have problems to use them with
       speed=2, try speed=0 in this case.

       The Yamaha CDR-400 and all new SCSI-3/mmc conforming drives are supported  in  single  and
       multi-session.

       You  should run several tests in all supported speeds of your drive with the -dummy option
       turned on if you are using cdrecord on an unknown system. Writing  a  CD  is  a	real-time
       process.   NFS  will  not always deliver constantly the needed data rates.  If you want to
       use cdrecord with CD-images that are located on a NFS mounted filesystem, be sure that the
       FIFO  size is big enough.  I used cdrecord with medium load on a SS20/502 and even at quad
       speed on a Sparcstation-2 which was heavily loaded, but it is  recommended  to  leave  the
       system  as  lightly  loaded as possible while writing a CD.  If you want to make sure that
       buffer underruns are not caused by your source disk, you may use the command

	   cdrecord -dummy dev=2,0 padsize=600m /dev/null

       to create a disk that is entirely made of dummy data.  Cdrecord needs to run  as  root  to
       get access to the /dev/scg?  device nodes and to be able to lock itself into memory.

       If  you	don't  want  to allow users to become root on your system, cdrecord may safely be
       installed suid root. This allows all users or a group of users with no root privileges  to
       use cdrecord.  Cdrecord in this case checks, if the real user would have been able to read
       the specified files.  To give all user access to use cdrecord, enter:

	    chown root /usr/local/bin/cdrecord
	    chmod 4711 /usr/local/bin/cdrecord

       To give a restricted group of users access to cdrecord enter:

	    chown root /usr/local/bin/cdrecord
	    chgrp cdburners /usr/local/bin/cdrecord
	    chmod 4710 /usr/local/bin/cdrecord

       and add a group cdburners on your system.

       Never give write permissions for non root users to the /dev/scg?  devices unless you would
       allow anybody to read/write/format all your disks.

       You  should  not connect old drives that do not support disconnect/reconnect to either the
       SCSI bus that is connected to the CD-Recorder or the source disk.

       A Compact Disc can have no more than 99 tracks.

       When creating a disc with both audio and data tracks, the data should be on track 1 other-
       wise  you should create a CDplus disk which is a multi session disk with the first session
       containing the audio tracks and the following session containing the data track.

       Many operating systems are not able to read more than a single data track, or need special
       software to do so.

       More information on the SCSI command set of a HP CD-Recorder can be found at:

	    http://www.hp.com/isgsupport/cdr/index.html

       If you have more information or SCSI command manuals for currently unsupported CD/DVD/Blu-
       Ray-Recorders please contact the author.

       The Philips CDD 521 CD-Recorder (even in the upgraded version) has several firmware  bugs.
       Some of them will force you to power cycle the device or to reboot the machine.

       When  using  cdrecord  with  the  broken  Linux SCSI generic driver.  You should note that
       cdrecord uses a hack, that tries to emulate the functionality of the scg driver.  Unfortu-
       nately, the sg driver on Linux has several severe bugs:

       o      It cannot see if a SCSI command could not be sent at all.

       o      It cannot get the SCSI status byte.  Cdrecord for that reason cannot report failing
	      SCSI commands in some situations.

       o      It cannot get real DMA count of transfer.  Cdrecord cannot tell you if there is  an
	      DMA residual count.

       o      It  cannot  get number of bytes valid in auto sense data.  Cdrecord cannot tell you
	      if device transfers no sense data at all.

       o      It fetches to few data in auto request sense (CCS/SCSI-2/SCSI-3 needs >= 18).

       The FIFO percent output is computed just after a block of data has  been  written  to  the
       CD/DVD/BluRay-Recorder.	For  this  reason, there will never be 100% FIFO fill ratio while
       the FIFO is in streaming mode.

DIAGNOSTICS
       You have 9 seconds to type ^C to abort cdrecord after you see the message:

       Starting to write CD at speed %d in %s mode for %s session.

       A typical error message for a SCSI command looks like:

	      cdrecord: I/O error. test unit ready: scsi sendcmd: no error
	      CDB:  00 20 00 00 00 00
	      status: 0x2 (CHECK CONDITION)
	      Sense Bytes: 70 00 05 00 00 00 00 0A 00 00 00 00 25 00 00 00 00 00
	      Sense Key: 0x5 Illegal Request, Segment 0
	      Sense Code: 0x25 Qual 0x00 (logical unit not supported) Fru 0x0
	      Sense flags: Blk 0 (not valid)
	      cmd finished after 0.002s timeout 40s

       The first line gives information about the transport of the command.  The text  after  the
       first  colon gives the error text for the system call from the view of the kernel. It usu-
       ally is: I/O error unless other problems happen. The next words contain a  short  descrip-
       tion  for  the  SCSI  command that fails. The rest of the line tells you if there were any
       problems for the transport of the command over the SCSI bus.  fatal error  means  that  it
       was  not  possible  to transport the command (i.e. no device present at the requested SCSI
       address).

       The second line prints the SCSI command descriptor block for the failed command.

       The third line gives information on the SCSI status code returned by the command,  if  the
       transport of the command succeeds.  This is error information from the SCSI device.

       The fourth line is a hex dump of the auto request sense information for the command.

       The  fifth  line is the error text for the sense key if available, followed by the segment
       number that is only valid if the command was a copy command. If the error message  is  not
       directly related to the current command, the text deferred error is appended.

       The  sixth line is the error text for the sense code and the sense qualifier if available.
       If the type of the device is known, the sense data is decoded from tables in scsierrs.c	.
       The text is followed by the error value for a field replaceable unit.

       The  seventh  line  prints the block number that is related to the failed command and text
       for several error flags. The block number may not be valid.

       The eight line reports the timeout set up for this command and the time that  the  command
       really needed to complete.

       The following message is not an error:

	      Track 01: Total bytes read/written: 2048/2048 (1 sectors).
	      cdrecord: I/O error. flush cache: scsi sendcmd: no error
	      CDB:  35 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
	      status: 0x2 (CHECK CONDITION)
	      Sense Bytes: F0 00 05 80 00 00 27 0A 00 00 00 00 B5 00 00 00 00 00
	      Sense Key: 0x5 Illegal Request, Segment 0
	      Sense Code: 0xB5 Qual 0x00 (dummy data blocks added) Fru 0x0
	      Sense flags: Blk -2147483609 (valid)
	      cmd finished after 0.002s timeout 40s

       It  simply  notifies, that a track that is smaller than the minimum size has been expanded
       to 300 sectors.

BUGS
       Cdrecord has even more options than ls.

       There should be a recover option to make disks usable, that have  been  written	during	a
       power failure.

CREDITS
       Bill Swartz    (Bill_Swartz@twolf.com)
		      For helping me with the TEAC driver support

       Aaron Newsome  (aaron.d.newsome@wdc.com)
		      For letting me develop Sony support on his drive

       Eric Youngdale (eric@andante.jic.com)
		      For supplying mkisofs

       Gadi Oxman     (gadio@netvision.net.il)
		      For tips on the ATAPI standard

       Finn Arne Gangstad  (finnag@guardian.no)
		      For the first FIFO implementation.

       Dave Platt     (dplatt@feghoot.ml.org)
		      For creating the experimental packet writing support, the first implementa-
		      tion of CD-RW blanking support, the first .wav file decoder and  many  nice
		      discussions on cdrecord.

       Chris P. Ross (cross@eng.us.uu.net)
		      For the first implementation of a BSDI SCSI transport.

       Grant R. Guenther   (grant@torque.net)
		      For creating the first parallel port transport implementation for Linux.

       Kenneth D. Merry (ken@kdm.org)
		      for  providing  the  CAM	port  for  FreeBSD  together  with  Michael Smith
		      (msmith@freebsd.org)

       Heiko Eiszfeldt (heiko@hexco.de)
		      for making libedc_ecc available (needed to write RAW data sectors).

MAILING LISTS
       If you want to actively take part on the development of cdrecord, you may join the  devel-
       oper mailing list via this URL:

       http://lists.berlios.de/mailman/listinfo/cdrecord-developers

       The mail address of the list is: cdwrite@other.debian.org

AUTHOR
       Joerg Schilling
       Seestr. 110
       D-13353 Berlin
       Germany

       Additional information can be found on:
       http://cdrecord.berlios.de/private/cdrecord.html

       If you have support questions, send them to:

       cdrecord-support@berlios.de
       or cdwrite@other.debian.org

       If you have definitely found a bug, send a mail to:

       cdrecord-developers@berlios.de
       or joerg.schilling@fokus.fraunhofer.de

       To subscribe, use:

       http://lists.berlios.de/mailman/listinfo/cdrecord-developers
       or http://lists.berlios.de/mailman/listinfo/cdrecord-support

       The old cdwrite mailing list may be joined by sending mail to:

	    cdwrite-request@other.debian.org

       and including the word subscribe in the body.  The mail address of the list is:

	    cdwrite@other.debian.org

ATTRIBUTES
       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:

       +--------------------+-----------------+
       |  ATTRIBUTE TYPE    | ATTRIBUTE VALUE |
       +--------------------+-----------------+
       |Availability	    | SUNWmkcd	      |
       +--------------------+-----------------+
       |Interface Stability | Unstable	      |
       +--------------------+-----------------+
NOTES
       This  utility is part of cdrtools.  The source for cdrtools is available on http://openso-
       laris.org.

Joerg Schilling 			   Version 2.0				      CDRECORD(1)


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