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OpenSolaris 2009.06 - man page for file (opensolaris section 1)

file(1) 				  User Commands 				  file(1)

NAME
       file - determine file type

SYNOPSIS
       /usr/bin/file [-dh] [-m mfile] [-M Mfile] [-f ffile] file...

       /usr/bin/file [-dh] [-m mfile] [-M Mfile] -f ffile

       /usr/bin/file -i [-h] [-f ffile] file...

       /usr/bin/file -i [-h] -f ffile

       /usr/bin/file -c [-d] [-m mfile] [-M Mfile]

       /usr/xpg4/bin/file [-dh] [-m mfile] [-M Mfile] [-f ffile] file...

       /usr/xpg4/bin/file [-dh] [-m mfile] [-M Mfile] -f ffile

       /usr/xpg4/bin/file -i [-h] [-f ffile] file...

       /usr/xpg4/bin/file -i [-h] -f ffile

       /usr/xpg4/bin/file -c [-d] [-m mfile] [-M Mfile]

DESCRIPTION
       The file utility performs a series of tests on each file supplied by file and, optionally,
       on each file listed in ffile in an attempt to classify it. If the file is  not  a  regular
       file,  its  file  type  is  identified. The file types directory, FIFO, block special, and
       character special are identified as such. If the file is a regular file and  the  file  is
       zero-length, it is identified as an empty file.

       If  file  appears to be a text file, file examines the first 512 bytes and tries to deter-
       mine its programming language. If file is a symbolic link, by default the link is followed
       and file tests the file to which the symbolic link refers.

       If file is a relocatable object, executable, or shared object, file prints out information
       about the file's execution requirements. This  information  includes  the  machine  class,
       byte-ordering,  static/dynamic  linkage,  and any software or hardware capability require-
       ments. If file is a runtime linking configuration file, file prints information about  the
       target platform, including the machine class and byte-ordering.

       By  default,  file will try to use the localized magic file /usr/lib/locale/locale/LC_MES-
       SAGES/magic, if it exists, to identify files that have a magic number. For example, in the
       Japanese locale, file will try to use /usr/lib/locale/ja/LC_MESSAGES/magic. If a localized
       magic file does not exist, file will utilize /etc/magic. A magic number is  a  numeric  or
       string  constant that indicates the file type. See magic(4) for an explanation of the for-
       mat of /etc/magic.

       If file does not exist, cannot be read, or its file status could not be determined, it  is
       not  considered	an  error that affects the exit status. The output will indicate that the
       file was processed, but that its type could not be determined.

OPTIONS
       The following options are supported:

       -c	   Checks the magic file for format errors. For reasons of efficiency, this vali-
		   dation is normally not carried out.

       -d	   Applies  any  position-sensitive and context-sensitive default system tests to
		   the file.

       -f ffile    ffile contains a list of the files to be examined.

       -h	   When a symbolic link is encountered, this option identifies the file as a sym-
		   bolic  link. If -h is not specified and file is a symbolic link that refers to
		   a non-existent file, the file utility identifies the file as a symbolic  link,
		   as if -h had been specified.

       -i	   If a file is a regular file, this option does not attempt to classify the type
		   of file further, but identifies the file as a "regular file".

       -m mfile
		   /usr/bin/file	 Uses mfile  as  an  alternate	magic  file,  instead  of
					 /etc/magic.

		   /usr/xpg4/bin/file	 Specifies  the name of a file containing position-sensi-
					 tive tests that are applied to a file in order to  clas-
					 sify  it  (see  magic(4)). If the -m option is specified
					 without specifying the -d option or the -M option, posi-
					 tion-sensitive  default  system  tests are applied after
					 the position-sensitive tests specified by the -m option.

       -M Mfile    Specifies the name of a file  containing  position-sensitive  tests	that  are
		   applied  to	a file in order to classify it (see magic(4)). No position-sensi-
		   tive default system tests  nor  context-sensitive  default  system  tests  are
		   applied unless the -d option is also specified.

       If  the	-M  option  is specified with the -d option, the -m option, or both, or if the -m
       option is specified with the -d option, the concatenation of the position-sensitive  tests
       specified  by  these  options is applied in the order specified by the appearance of these
       options.

OPERANDS
       The following operands are supported:

       file    A path name of a file to be tested.

USAGE
       See largefile(5) for the description of the  behavior  of  file	when  encountering  files
       greater than or equal to 2 Gbyte ( 2^31 bytes).

EXAMPLES
       Example 1 Determining if an Argument is a Binary Executable Files

       The following example determine if an argument is a binary executable file:

	 file "$1" | grep -Fq executable &&
		   printf "%s is executable.0 "$1"

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       See  environ(5)	for  descriptions  of the following environment variables that affect the
       execution of file: LANG, LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE, LC_MESSAGES, and NLSPATH.

EXIT STATUS
       The following exit values are returned:

       0     Successful completion.

       >0    An error occurred.

FILES
       /etc/magic    file's magic number file

ATTRIBUTES
       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:

       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |      ATTRIBUTE TYPE	     |	    ATTRIBUTE VALUE	   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |Availability		     |SUNWcsu			   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |CSI			     |Enabled			   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |Interface Stability	     |Standard			   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+

SEE ALSO
       crle(1), elfdump(1),  ls(1),  magic(4),	attributes(5),	environ(5),  largefile(5),  stan-
       dards(5)

SunOS 5.11				   15 May 2006					  file(1)


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