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man(5)			       Standards, Environments, and Macros			   man(5)

       man - macros to format Reference Manual pages

       nroff -man filename...

       troff  -man filename...

       These  macros  are  used  to lay out the reference pages in this manual. Note: if filename
       contains format input for a preprocessor, the commands shown above must be  piped  through
       the appropriate preprocessor. This is handled automatically by the man(1) command. See the
       ``Conventions'' section.

       Any text argument t may be zero to six words. Quotes may be used to include SPACE  charac-
       ters  in  a  "word".  If text is empty, the special treatment is applied to the next input
       line with text to be printed. In this way .I may be used to italicize a whole line, or .SB
       may be used to make small bold letters.

       A  prevailing indent distance is remembered between successive indented paragraphs, and is
       reset to default value upon reaching a non-indented paragraph.  Default units for  indents
       i are ens.

       Type font and size are reset to default values before each paragraph, and after processing
       font and size setting macros.

       These strings are predefined by -man:

       \*R     `(R)', `(Reg)' in nroff.

       \*S     Change to default type size.

       * n.t.l. = next text line; p.i. = prevailing indent

	  Request	 Cause	      If no		       Explanation
			 Break	     Argument
	   .B t 	   no	    t=n.t.l.*		  Text is in bold font.
	   .BI t	   no	     t=n.t.l.	 Join words, alternating bold and italic.
	   .BR t	   no	     t=n.t.l.	 Join words, alternating bold and roman.
	    .DT 	   no	    .5i 1i...		  Restore default tabs.
	   .HP i	  yes	     i=p.i.*	 Begin paragraph with hanging indent. Set
						 prevailing indent to i.
	   .I t 	   no	     t=n.t.l.		     Text is italic.
	   .IB t	   no	     t=n.t.l.	 Join words, alternating italic and bold.
	  .IP x i	  yes	       x=""		 Same as .TP with tag x.
	   .IR t	   no	     t=n.t.l.	 Join	words,	 alternating  italic  and
	   .IX t	   no		-	  Index macro, for SunSoft internal use.

	    .LP 	  yes		-	 Begin left-aligned paragraph.	Set  pre-
						 vailing indent to .5i.
	    .P		  yes		-		       Same as .LP.
	   .PD d	   no	      d=.4v	 Set   vertical  distance  between  para-
	    .PP 	  yes		-		       Same as .LP.
	    .RE 	  yes		-	 End of relative  indent.  Restores  pre-
						 vailing indent.
	   .RB t	   no	     t=n.t.l.	 Join words, alternating roman and bold.
	   .RI t	   no	     t=n.t.l.	 Join	words,	 alternating   roman  and
	   .RS i	  yes	      i=p.i.	 Start relative indent,  increase  indent
						 by  i. Sets prevailing indent to .5i for
						 nested indents.
	   .SB t	   no		-	 Reduce size of text  by  1  point,  make
						 text bold.
	   .SH t	  yes		-		     Section Heading.
	   .SM t	   no	     t=n.t.l.	     Reduce size of text by 1 point.
	   .SS t	  yes	     t=n.t.l.		   Section Subheading.
       .TH n s d f m	  yes		-	 Begin reference page n, of of section s;
						 d is the date of the most recent change.
						 If present, f is the left page footer; m
						 is the main page (center) header.   Sets
						 prevailing indent and tabs to .5i.
	   .TP i	  yes	      i=p.i.	 Begin	indented  paragraph, with the tag
						 given on the next text  line.	Set  pre-
						 vailing indent to i.
	  .TX t p	   no		-	 Resolve  the  title abbreviation t; join
						 to punctuation mark (or text) p.

       When formatting a manual page, man  examines  the  first  line  to  determine  whether  it
       requires special processing. For example a first line consisting of:

       '\" t

       indicates that the manual page must be run through the tbl(1) preprocessor.

       A typical manual page for a command or function is laid out as follows:

       .TH title [1-9]	      The  name  of the command or function, which serves as the title of
			      the manual page. This is followed by the number of the  section  in
			      which it appears.

       .SH NAME 	      The  name,  or  list of names, by which the command is called, fol-
			      lowed by a dash and then a one-line  summary  of	the  action  per-
			      formed.  All  in roman font, this section contains no troff(1) com-
			      mands or escapes, and no macro requests. It is used to generate the
			      windex database, which is used by the  whatis(1) command.

			      Commands:    The	syntax of the command and its arguments, as typed
					   on the command line.  When in boldface, a word must be
					   typed exactly as printed.  When in italics, a word can
					   be replaced with an argument that you  supply.  Refer-
					   ences  to bold or italicized items are not capitalized
					   in other sections, even when they begin a sentence.

					   Syntactic symbols appear in roman face:

					   [ ]		An argument, when surrounded by  brackets
							is optional.

					   |		Arguments separated by a vertical bar are
							exclusive. You can supply only	one  item
							from such a list.

					   ...		Arguments  followed by an ellipsis can be
							repeated.  When  an  ellipsis  follows	a
							bracketed  set, the expression within the
							brackets can be repeated.

			      Functions:    If required, the data declaration, or #include direc-
					    tive,  is shown first, followed by the  function dec-
					    laration.  Otherwise,  the	function  declaration  is

       .SH DESCRIPTION	      A  narrative  overview of the command or function's external behav-
			      ior. This includes how it interacts with files or data, and how  it
			      handles  the  standard  input,  standard output and standard error.
			      Internals and implementation details  are  normally  omitted.  This
			      section  attempts  to  provide a succinct overview in answer to the
			      question, "what does it do?"

			      Literal text from the synopsis appears in  constant  width,  as  do
			      literal  filenames and references to items that appear elsewhere in
			      the  reference manuals. Arguments are italicized.

			      If a command interprets either subcommands or an input grammar, its
			      command interface or input grammar is normally described in a USAGE
			      section, which follows the OPTIONS section.  The	DESCRIPTION  sec-
			      tion only describes the behavior of the command itself, not that of

       .SH OPTIONS	      The list of options along with a description of  how  each  affects
			      the command's operation.

       .SH RETURN VALUES      A list of the values the library routine will return to the calling
			      program and the conditions that cause these values to be returned.

       .SH EXIT STATUS	      A list of the values the utility will return to the  calling   pro-
			      gram  or	shell,	and  the conditions that cause these values to be

       .SH FILES	      A list of files associated with the command or function.

       .SH SEE ALSO	      A comma-separated list of related manual pages, followed by  refer-
			      ences to other published materials.

       .SH DIAGNOSTICS	      A list of diagnostic messages and an explanation of each.

       .SH BUGS 	      A  description of limitations, known defects, and possible problems
			      associated with the command or function.



       man(1), nroff(1), troff(1), whatis(1)

       Dale Dougherty and   Tim O'Reilly, Unix Text Processing

SunOS 5.11				   30 Jan 1995					   man(5)
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