man(5) Standards, Environments, and Macros man(5)
man - macros to format Reference Manual pages
nroff -man filename...
troff -man filename...
These macros are used to lay out the reference pages in this manual. Note: if filename contains format input for a preprocessor, the com-
mands shown above must be piped through the appropriate preprocessor. This is handled automatically by the man(1) command. See the ``Con-
Any text argument t may be zero to six words. Quotes may be used to include SPACE characters in a "word". If text is empty, the special
treatment is applied to the next input line with text to be printed. In this way .I may be used to italicize a whole line, or .SB may be
used to make small bold letters.
A prevailing indent distance is remembered between successive indented paragraphs, and is reset to default value upon reaching a non-
indented paragraph. Default units for indents i are ens.
Type font and size are reset to default values before each paragraph, and after processing font and size setting macros.
These strings are predefined by -man:
*R `(R)', `(Reg)' in nroff.
*S Change to default type size.
* n.t.l. = next text line; p.i. = prevailing indent
Request Cause If no Explanation
.B t no t=n.t.l.* Text is in bold font.
.BI t no t=n.t.l. Join words, alternating bold and italic.
.BR t no t=n.t.l. Join words, alternating bold and roman.
.DT no .5i 1i... Restore default tabs.
.HP i yes i=p.i.* Begin paragraph with hanging indent. Set
prevailing indent to i.
.I t no t=n.t.l. Text is italic.
.IB t no t=n.t.l. Join words, alternating italic and bold.
.IP x i yes x="" Same as .TP with tag x.
.IR t no t=n.t.l. Join words, alternating italic and
.IX t no - Index macro, for SunSoft internal use.
.LP yes - Begin left-aligned paragraph. Set pre-
vailing indent to .5i.
.P yes - Same as .LP.
.PD d no d=.4v Set vertical distance between para-
.PP yes - Same as .LP.
.RE yes - End of relative indent. Restores pre-
.RB t no t=n.t.l. Join words, alternating roman and bold.
.RI t no t=n.t.l. Join words, alternating roman and
.RS i yes i=p.i. Start relative indent, increase indent
by i. Sets prevailing indent to .5i for
.SB t no - Reduce size of text by 1 point, make
.SH t yes - Section Heading.
.SM t no t=n.t.l. Reduce size of text by 1 point.
.SS t yes t=n.t.l. Section Subheading.
.TH n s d f m yes - Begin reference page n, of of section s;
d is the date of the most recent change.
If present, f is the left page footer; m
is the main page (center) header. Sets
prevailing indent and tabs to .5i.
.TP i yes i=p.i. Begin indented paragraph, with the tag
given on the next text line. Set pre-
vailing indent to i.
.TX t p no - Resolve the title abbreviation t; join
to punctuation mark (or text) p.
When formatting a manual page, man examines the first line to determine whether it requires special processing. For example a first line
indicates that the manual page must be run through the tbl(1) preprocessor.
A typical manual page for a command or function is laid out as follows:
.TH title [1-9] The name of the command or function, which serves as the title of the manual page. This is followed by the number of
the section in which it appears.
.SH NAME The name, or list of names, by which the command is called, followed by a dash and then a one-line summary of the
action performed. All in roman font, this section contains no troff(1) commands or escapes, and no macro requests.
It is used to generate the windex database, which is used by the whatis(1) command.
Commands: The syntax of the command and its arguments, as typed on the command line. When in boldface, a word
must be typed exactly as printed. When in italics, a word can be replaced with an argument that you
supply. References to bold or italicized items are not capitalized in other sections, even when they
begin a sentence.
Syntactic symbols appear in roman face:
[ ] An argument, when surrounded by brackets is optional.
| Arguments separated by a vertical bar are exclusive. You can supply only one item from
such a list.
... Arguments followed by an ellipsis can be repeated. When an ellipsis follows a bracketed
set, the expression within the brackets can be repeated.
Functions: If required, the data declaration, or #include directive, is shown first, followed by the function
declaration. Otherwise, the function declaration is shown.
.SH DESCRIPTION A narrative overview of the command or function's external behavior. This includes how it interacts with files or
data, and how it handles the standard input, standard output and standard error. Internals and implementation
details are normally omitted. This section attempts to provide a succinct overview in answer to the question, "what
does it do?"
Literal text from the synopsis appears in constant width, as do literal filenames and references to items that
appear elsewhere in the reference manuals. Arguments are italicized.
If a command interprets either subcommands or an input grammar, its command interface or input grammar is normally
described in a USAGE section, which follows the OPTIONS section. The DESCRIPTION section only describes the behav-
ior of the command itself, not that of subcommands.
.SH OPTIONS The list of options along with a description of how each affects the command's operation.
.SH RETURN VALUES A list of the values the library routine will return to the calling program and the conditions that cause these
values to be returned.
.SH EXIT STATUS A list of the values the utility will return to the calling program or shell, and the conditions that cause these
values to be returned.
.SH FILES A list of files associated with the command or function.
.SH SEE ALSO A comma-separated list of related manual pages, followed by references to other published materials.
.SH DIAGNOSTICS A list of diagnostic messages and an explanation of each.
.SH BUGS A description of limitations, known defects, and possible problems associated with the command or function.
man(1), nroff(1), troff(1), whatis(1)
Dale Dougherty and Tim O'Reilly, Unix Text Processing
SunOS 5.11 30 Jan 1995 man(5)