vgrind(1) User Commands vgrind(1)
vgrind - grind nice program listings
vgrind [-2fntwx] [-d defs-file] [-h header] [-l language]
[-s n] [-o pagelist] [-P printer] [-T output-device] filename...
The vgrind utility formats the program sources named by the filename arguments in a nice
style using troff(1). Comments are placed in italics, keywords in bold face, and as each
function is encountered its name is listed on the page margin.
vgrind runs in two basic modes, filter mode or regular mode. In filter mode, vgrind acts
as a filter in a manner similar to tbl(1). The standard input is passed directly to the
standard output except for lines bracketed by the troff-like macros:
.vS starts processing
.vE ends processing
These lines are formatted as described above. The output from this filter can be passed to
troff for output. There need be no particular ordering with eqn(1) or tbl(1).
In regular mode, vgrind accepts input filenames, processes them, and passes them to troff
for output. Use a hyphen (`-') to specify standard input; otherwise, vgrind will exit
without attempting to read from the standard input. Filenames must be specified after all
other option arguments.
In regular mode, if the -t or -P option is specified, the output is:
o emitted (in troff format) to stdout if the -t option is specified.
o printed (as PostScript) to the named printer if the -P option is specified.
Otherwise, the output is:
o printed (as PostScript) on the system default printer, if one is defined, and
the command's stdout is a tty.
o emitted (as PostScript) to stdout if it is not a tty (that is, if stdout is a
pipe or a redirect to a file).
In both modes, vgrind passes any lines beginning with a decimal point without conversion.
The following options are supported:
-2 Produces two-column output. Specifying this option changes the default
point size to 8 (as if the -s8 option were supplied). It also arranges for
output to appear in landscape mode.
-f Forces filter mode.
-n Does not make keywords boldface.
-w Considers TAB characters to be spaced four columns apart instead of the
-x Outputs the index file in a "pretty" format. The index file itself is pro-
duced whenever vgrind is run with a file called index that is present in
the current directory. The index of function definitions can then be run
off by giving vgrind the -x option and the file index as argument.
-d defs-file Specifies an alternate language definitions file (default is
-h header Specifies a header to appear in the center of every output page. Use
quotes to specify headers with embedded spaces.
-l language Specifies the language to use. Among the languages currently known are:
Bourne shell (-lsh), C (-lc, the default), C++ (-lc++), C shell (-lcsh),
emacs MLisp (-lml), FORTRAN (-lf), Icon (-lI), ISP (-i), LDL (-lLDL),
Model (-lm), Pascal (-lp), and RATFOR (-lr).
-P printer Sends output to the named printer.
-s n Specifies a point size to use on output (exactly the same as the argument
of a troff .ps point size request).
vgrind passes the following options to the formatter specified by the TROFF environment
variable. See ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES.
-t Similar to the same option in troff; that is, formatted text goes to
the standard output.
-o pagelist Prints only those pages whose page numbers appear in the comma-sepa-
rated pagelist of numbers and ranges. A range N-M means pages N
through M; an initial -N means from the beginning to page N; and a
final N- means from N to the end.
-T output-device Formats output for the specified output-device.
The following operand is supported:
filename Name of the program source to be processed by vgrind. Use `-' to specify the
In regular mode, vgrind feeds its intermediate output to the text formatter given by the
value of the TROFF environment variable, or to /usr/bin/troff if this variable is not
defined in the environment. This mechanism allows for local variations in troff's name.
file where source for index is created
See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:
| ATTRIBUTE TYPE | ATTRIBUTE VALUE |
|Availability |SUNWdoc |
csh(1), ctags(1), eqn(1), tbl(1), troff(1), attributes(5), vgrindefs(5)
vgrind assumes that a certain programming style is followed:
C Function names can be preceded on a line only by SPACE, TAB, or an asterisk
(*). The parenthesized arguments must also be on the same line.
FORTRAN Function names need to appear on the same line as the keywords function or sub-
MLisp Function names should not appear on the same line as the preceding defun.
Model Function names need to appear on the same line as the keywords is beginproc.
Pascal Function names need to appear on the same line as the keywords function or pro-
If these conventions are not followed, the indexing and marginal function name comment
mechanisms will fail.
More generally, arbitrary formatting styles for programs usually give unsightly results.
To prepare a program for vgrind output, use TAB rather than SPACE characters to align
source code properly, since vgrind uses variable width fonts.
The mechanism of ctags(1) in recognizing functions should be used here.
The -w option is annoying, but there is no other way to achieve the desired effect.
The macros defined in tmac.vgrind do not coexist gracefully with those of other macro
packages, making filter mode difficult to use effectively.
vgrind does not process certain special characters in csh(1) scripts correctly.
The tmac.vgrind formatting macros wire in the page height and width used in two-column
mode, effectively making two column output useless for paper sizes other than the standard
American size of 8.5 inches by 11 inches. For other paper sizes, it is necessary to edit
the size values given in tmac.vgrind. A better solution would be to create a troff output
device specification intended specifically for landscape output and record size informa-
SunOS 5.11 3 Mar 2000 vgrind(1)