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OpenSolaris 2009.06 - man page for rmformat (opensolaris section 1)

rmformat(1)				  User Commands 			      rmformat(1)

NAME
       rmformat - removable rewritable media format utility

SYNOPSIS
       rmformat [-DeHUv] [-b label] [-c blockno]
	    [-Fquick | long | force ] [-s filename] [devname]

       rmformat -V read | write devname

       rmformat -l [devname]

DESCRIPTION
       The  rmformat utility is used to format, label, partition, and perform other miscellaneous
       functions on removable, rewritable media that include floppy drives, and the PCMCIA memory
       and  ata  cards.  The  rmformat	utility  should  also  be  used with all USB mass storage
       devices, including USB hard drives. This utility can also be used for the verification and
       surface	analysis and for repair of the bad sectors found during verification if the drive
       or the driver supports bad block management.

       After formatting, rmformat writes the label, which covers the full capacity of  the  media
       as one slice on floppy and PCMCIA memory cards to maintain compatibility with the behavior
       of fdformat. The partition information can be changed with the help of other options  pro-
       vided by rmformat.

OPTIONS
       The following options are supported:

       -b label

	   Labels  the	media  with  a	SUNOS label. A SUNOS volume label name is restricted to 8
	   characters. For media size greater than 1 TB, an EFI label is created. For  writing	a
	   DOS Volume label, the user should use mkfs_pcfs(1M).

       -c blockno

	   Corrects and repairs the given block. This correct and repair option may not be appli-
	   cable to all devices supported by rmformat, as some devices may have a drive with  bad
	   block management capability and others may have this option implemented in the driver.
	   If the drive or driver supports bad block management, a best effort is made to rectify
	   the	bad  block. If the bad block still cannot be rectified, a message is displayed to
	   indicate the failure to repair. The block number can be provided in decimal, octal, or
	   hexadecimal format.

	   The normal floppy and PCMCIA memory and ata cards do not support bad block management.

       -D

	   Formats  a  720KB  (3.5  inch) double density diskette. This is the default for double
	   density type drives. This option is needed if the drive is a high or  extended-density
	   type.

       -e

	   Ejects  the media upon completion. This feature may not be available if the drive does
	   not support motorized eject.

       -F quick | long | force

	   Formats the media.

	   The quick option starts a format without certification or format with limited certifi-
	   cation of certain tracks on the media.

	   The long option starts a complete format. For some devices this might include the cer-
	   tification of the whole media by the drive itself.

	   The force option to format is provided to start a long format without  user	confirma-
	   tion before the format is  started.

	   In  legacy  media  such as floppy drives, all options start a long format depending on
	   the mode (Extended Density mode, High Density mode, or Double Density mode) with which
	   the floppy drive operates by default. On PCMCIA memory cards, all options start a long
	   format.

       -H

	   Formats a 1.44 MB (3.5 inch) high density diskette. This is the default for high  den-
	   sity type drives. It is needed if the drive is the Extended Density type.

       -l

	   Lists  all removable devices. By default, without any options, rmformat also lists all
	   removable devices. If the dev_name is given, rmformat lists the device associated with
	   the dev_name. The output shows the device pathname, vendor information, and the device
	   type.

       -s filename

	   Enables the user to lay out the partition information in the SUNOS label.

	   The user should provide a file as input with information about each slice in a  format
	   providing byte offset, size required, tags, and flags, as follows:

	     slices: n = offset, size [, flags, tags]

	   where  n  is  the slice number, offset is the byte offset at which the slice n starts,
	   and size is the required size for slice n. Both offset and size must be a multiple  of
	   512 bytes. These numbers can be represented as decimal, hexadecimal, or octal numbers.
	   No floating point numbers are accepted. Details about maximum number of slices can  be
	   obtained from the System Administration Guide: Basic Administration.

	   To  specify	the size or offset in kilobytes, megabytes, or gigabytes, add KB, MB, GB,
	   respectively. A number without a suffix is assumed to be a byte offset. The flags  are
	   represented as follows:

	     wm = read-write, mountable
	     wu = read-write, unmountable
	     ru = read-only, unmountable

	   The tags are represented as follows: unassigned, boot, root, swap, usr, backup, stand,
	   var, home, alternates.

	   The tags and flags can be omitted from the four tuple when finer control on those val-
	   ues	is  not  required.  It	is required to omit both or include both. If the tags and
	   flags are omitted from the four tuple for a particular slice, a default value for each
	   is assumed. The default value for flags is wm and for tags is unassigned.

	   Either full tag names can be provided or an abbreviation for the tags can be used. The
	   abbreviations can be the first two or more letters from the standard tag names. rmfor-
	   mat is case insensitive in handling the defined tags & flags.

	   Slice specifications are separated by :

	   For example:

	     slices: 0 = 0, 30MB, "wm", "home" :
		     1 = 30MB, 51MB :
		     2 = 0, 100MB, "wm", "backup" :
		     6 = 81MB, 19MB

	   rmformat  does  the necessary checking to detect any overlapping partitions or illegal
	   requests to addresses beyond the capacity of the media under consideration. There  can
	   be  only  one  slice information entry for each slice n. If multiple slice information
	   entries for the same slice n are provided, an appropriate error message is  displayed.
	   The slice 2 is the backup slice covering the whole disk capacity. The pound sign char-
	   acter, #, can be used to describe a line of comments in the input file.  If	the  line
	   starts  with  #, then rmformat ignores all the characters following # until the end of
	   the line.

	   Partitioning some of the media with very small capacity is permitted, but be  cautious
	   in using this option on such devices.

       -U

	   Performs  umount  on  any  file  systems  and then formats. See mount(1M). This option
	   unmounts all the mounted slices and issues a long format on the device requested.

       -V read | write

	   Verifies each block of media after format. The write  verification  is  a  destructive
	   mechanism.  The  user  is queried for confirmation before the verification is started.
	   The output of this option is a list of block numbers, which are identified as bad.

	   The read verification only verifies the blocks and report the blocks which  are  prone
	   to errors.

	   The list of block numbers displayed can be used with the -c option for repairing.

OPERANDS
       The following operand is supported:

       devname

	   devname  can  be  provided  as  absolute  device pathname or relative pathname for the
	   device from the current working directory or the nickname, such as cdrom or rmdisk.

	   For floppy devices, to access the first drive use /dev/rdiskette0 (for systems without
	   volume   management)   or  floppy0  (for  systems  with  volume  management).  Specify
	   /dev/rdiskette1 (for systems without volume management) or floppy1 (for  systems  with
	   volume management) to use the second drive.

	   For	systems without volume management running, the user can also provide the absolute
	   device pathname as /dev/rdsk/c?t?d?s? or the appropriate relative device pathname from
	   the current working directory.

EXAMPLES
       Example 1 Formatting a Diskette

	 example$ rmformat -F quick /dev/rdiskette
	 Formatting will erase all the data on disk.
	 Do you want to continue? (y/n)y

       Example 2 Formatting a Diskette for a UFS File System

       The following example formats a diskette and creates a UFS file system:

	 example$ rmformat -F quick /dev/aliases/floppy0
	 Formatting will erase all the data on disk.
	 Do you want to continue? (y/n)y
	 example$ su
	 # /usr/sbin/newfs /dev/aliases/floppy0
	 newfs: construct a new file system /dev/rdiskette: (y/n)? y
	 /dev/rdiskette: 2880 sectors in 80 cylinders of 2 tracks, 18 sectors
		  1.4MB in 5 cyl groups (16 c/g, 0.28MB/g, 128 i/g)
	  super-block backups (for fsck -F ufs -o b=#) at:
	   32, 640, 1184, 1792, 2336,
	 #

       Example 3 Formatting Removable Media for a PCFS File System

       The following example shows how to create an alternate fdisk partition:

	 example$ rmformat -F quick /dev/rdsk/c0t4d0s2:c
	 Formatting will erase all the data on disk.
	 Do you want to continue? (y/n)y
	 example$ su
	 # fdisk /dev/rdsk/c0t4d0s2:c
	 # mkfs -F pcfs /dev/rdsk/c0t4d0s2:c
	 Construct a new FAT file system on /dev/rdsk/c0t4d0s2:c: (y/n)? y
	 #

       The  following  example describes how to create a PCFS file system without an fdisk parti-
       tion:

	 example$ rmformat -F quick /dev/rdiskette
	 Formatting will erase all the data on disk.
	 Do you want to continue? (y/n)y
	 example$ su
	 # mkfs -F pcfs -o nofdisk,size=2 /dev/rdiskette
	 Construct a new FAT file system on /dev/rdiskette: (y/n)? y
	 #

       Example 4 Listing All Removable Devices

       The following example shows how to list removable devices. This output shows a long  list-
       ing of such devices.

	 example$ rmformat -l
	 Looking for devices...
	 Logical Node: /dev/rdsk/c5t0d0s2
	 Physical Node: /pci@1e,600000/usb@b/hub@2/storage@4/disk@0,0
	 Connected Device: TEAC    FD-05PUB	    1026
	 Device Type: Floppy drive
	 Bus: USB
	 Size: 1.4 MB
	 Label: floppy
	 Access permissions: Medium is not write protected.

FILES
       /dev/diskette0

	   Directory providing block device access for the media in floppy drive 0.

       /dev/rdiskette0

	   Directory providing character device access for the media in floppy drive 0.

       /dev/aliases

	   Directory  providing  symbolic  links to the character devices for the different media
	   under the control of volume management using appropriate alias.

       /dev/aliases/floppy0

	   Symbolic link to the character device for the media in floppy drive 0.

       /dev/rdiskette

	   Symbolic link providing character device access for the media in  the  primary  floppy
	   drive, usually drive 0.

       /dev/dsk

	   Directory providing block device access for the PCMCIA memory and ata cards and remov-
	   able media devices.

       /dev/rdsk

	   Directory providing character device access for the PCMCIA memory and  ata  cards  and
	   removable media devices.

       /dev/aliases/pcmemS

	   Symbolic  link to the character device for the PCMCIA memory card in socket S, where S
	   represents a PCMCIA socket number.

       /dev/aliases/rmdisk0

	   Symbolic link to the generic removable media device that is not a CD-ROM, floppy, DVD-
	   ROM, PCMCIA memory card, and so forth.

       /dev/rdsk

	   Directory  providing  character  device access for the PCMCIA memory and ata cards and
	   other removable devices.

       /dev/dsk

	   Directory providing block device access for the PCMCIA memory and ata cards and  other
	   removable media devices.

ATTRIBUTES
       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:

       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |      ATTRIBUTE TYPE	     |	    ATTRIBUTE VALUE	   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |Availability		     |SUNWrmvolmgr		   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+

SEE ALSO
       cpio(1),   eject(1),   fdformat(1),   tar(1),   volcheck(1),   volrmmount(1),  format(1M),
       mkfs_pcfs(1M),  mount(1M),   newfs(1M),	 prtvtoc(1M),	rmmount(1M),   rpc.smserverd(1M),
       attributes(5), scsa2usb(7D), sd(7D), pcfs(7FS), udfs(7FS)

       System Administration Guide: Basic Administration

NOTES
       A  rewritable  media or PCMCIA memory card or PCMCIA ata card containing a ufs file system
       created on a SPARC-based system (using newfs(1M)) is not identical to a	rewritable  media
       or  PCMCIA memory card containing a ufs file system created on an x86 based system. Do not
       interchange any removable media containing ufs between these  platforms;  use  cpio(1)  or
       tar(1)  to  transfer  files on diskettes or memory cards between them. For interchangeable
       filesystems refer to pcfs(7FS) and udfs(7FS).

       rmformat might not list all removable devices in virtualization environments.

BUGS
       Currently, bad sector mapping is not supported on floppy diskettes or PCMCIA memory cards.
       Therefore, a diskette or memory card is unusable if rmformat finds an error (bad sector).

SunOS 5.11				   19 Feb 2009				      rmformat(1)


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