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FIND(1) 										  FIND(1)

NAME
       find - search for files in a directory hierarchy

SYNOPSIS
       find [-H] [-L] [-P] [path...] [expression]

DESCRIPTION
       This  manual page documents the GNU version of find.  GNU find searches the directory tree
       rooted at each given file name by evaluating the given  expression  from  left  to  right,
       according  to  the rules of precedence (see section OPERATORS), until the outcome is known
       (the left hand side is false for and operations, true for or), at which point  find  moves
       on to the next file name.

       If  you	are  using find in an environment where security is important (for example if you
       are using it to seach directories that are writable by other users), you should	read  the
       "Security  Considerations" chapter of the findutils documentation, which is called Finding
       Files and comes with findutils.	 That document also includes a lot more detail	and  dis-
       cussion than this manual page, so you may find it a more useful source of information.

OPTIONS
       The  `-H',  `-L'  and  `-P' options control the treatment of symbolic links.  Command-line
       arguments following these are taken to be names of files or directories to be examined, up
       to  the first argument that begins with `-', `(', `)', `,', or `!'.  That argument and any
       following arguments are taken to be the expression describing what is to be searched  for.
       If  no  paths  are  given,  the current directory is used.  If no expression is given, the
       expression `-print' is used (but you should probably  consider  using  `-print0'  instead,
       anyway).

       This  manual page talks about `options' within the expression list.  These options control
       the behaviour of find but are specified immediately after the last path name.   The  three
       `real' options `-H', `-L' and `-P' must appear before the first path name, if at all.

       -P     Never follow symbolic links.  This is the default behaviour.  When find examines or
	      prints information a file, and the file is a symbolic link,  the	information  used
	      shall be taken from the properties of the symbolic link itself.

       -L     Follow  symbolic	links.	When find examines or prints information about files, the
	      information used shall be taken from the properties of the file to which	the  link
	      points,  not  from  the link itself (unless it is a broken symbolic link or find is
	      unable to examine the file to which the link points).  Use of this  option  implies
	      -noleaf.	 If  you later use the -P option, -noleaf will still be in effect.  If -L
	      is in effect and find discovers a  symbolic  link  to  a	subdirectory  during  its
	      search, the subdirectory pointed to by the symbolic link will be searched.

	      When  the -L option is in effect, the -type predicate will always match against the
	      type of the file that a symbolic link points to rather than the link itself (unless
	      the  symbolic  link  is broken).	Using -L causes the -lname and -ilname predicates
	      always to return false.

       -H     Do not follow symbolic links, except while processing the command  line  arguments.
	      When find examines or prints information about files, the information used shall be
	      taken from the properties of the symbolic link itself.   The only exception to this
	      behaviour  is when a file specified on the command line is a symbolic link, and the
	      link can be resolved.  For that situation, the information used is taken from what-
	      ever the link points to (that is, the link is followed).	The information about the
	      link itself is used as a fallback if the file pointed to by the symbolic link  can-
	      not  be examined.  If -H is in effect and one of the paths specified on the command
	      line is a symbolic link to a directory, the contents  of	that  directory  will  be
	      examined (though of course -maxdepth 0 would prevent this).

       If  more  than  one of -H, -L and -P is specified, each overrides the others; the last one
       appearing on the command line takes effect.  Since it is the default, the -P option should
       be considered to be in effect unless either -H or -L is specified.

       GNU  find  frequently stats files during the processing of the command line itself, before
       any searching has begun.  These options also affect how	those  arguments  are  processed.
       Specifically,  there  are  a number of tests that compare files listed on the command line
       against a file we are currently considering.  In each case, the file specified on the com-
       mand line will have been examined and some of its properties will have been saved.  If the
       named file is in fact a symbolic link, and the -P option is in effect (or  if  neither  -H
       nor  -L	were  specified),  the information used for the comparison will be taken from the
       properties of the symbolic link.  Otherwise, it will be taken from the properties  of  the
       file  the  link	points	to.   If  find cannot follow the link (for example because it has
       insufficient privileges or the link points to a nonexistent file) the  properties  of  the
       link itself will be used.

       When  the  -H  or  -L  options are in effect, any symbolic links listed as the argument of
       -newer will be dereferenced, and the timestamp will be taken from the file  to  which  the
       symbolic link points.  The same consideration applies to -anewer and -cnewer.

       The  -follow  option has a similar effect to -L, though it takes effect at the point where
       it appears (that is, if -L is not used but -follow is, any symbolic links appearing  after
       -follow on the command line will be dereferenced, and those before it will not).

EXPRESSIONS
       The  expression is made up of options (which affect overall operation rather than the pro-
       cessing of a specific file, and always return true), tests (which return a true	or  false
       value),	and actions (which have side effects and return a true or false value), all sepa-
       rated by operators.  -and is assumed where the operator is omitted.

       If the expression contains no actions other than -prune, -print is performed on all  files
       for which the expression is true.

   OPTIONS
       All  options always return true.  Except for -follow and -daystart, the options affect all
       tests, including tests specified before the option.  This is because the options are  pro-
       cessed  when the command line is parsed, while the tests don't do anything until files are
       examined.  The -follow and -daystart options are different in this respect,  and  have  an
       effect  only  on tests which appear later in the command line.  Therefore, for clarity, it
       is best to place them at the beginning of the expression.  A  warning  is  issued  if  you
       don't do this.

       -daystart
	      Measure times (for -amin, -atime, -cmin, -ctime, -mmin, and -mtime) from the begin-
	      ning of today rather than from 24 hours ago.  This option only affects tests  which
	      appear later on the command line.

       -depth Process each directory's contents before the directory itself.

       -d     A synonym for -depth, for compatibility with FreeBSD, NetBSD, MacOS X and OpenBSD.

       -follow
	      Deprecated;  use	the  -L  option  instead.   Dereference  symbolic links.  Implies
	      -noleaf.	The -follow option affects only those tests which appear after it on  the
	      command  line.   Unless the -H or -L option has been specified, the position of the
	      -follow option changes the behaviour of the -newer predicate; any files  listed  as
	      the  argument  of -newer will be dereferenced if they are symbolic links.  The same
	      consideration applies to -anewer and -cnewer.  Similarly, the -type predicate  will
	      always  match  against  the  type of the file that a symbolic link points to rather
	      than the link itself.  Using -follow  causes  the  -lname  and  -ilname  predicates
	      always to return false.

       -help, --help
	      Print a summary of the command-line usage of find and exit.

       -ignore_readdir_race
	      Normally,  find  will  emit  an error message when it fails to stat a file.  If you
	      give this option and a file is deleted between the time find reads the name of  the
	      file  from  the  directory and the time it tries to stat the file, no error message
	      will be issued.	 This also applies to files or directories whose names are  given
	      on  the  command	line.	This  option takes effect at the time the command line is
	      read, which means that you cannot search one  part  of  the  filesystem  with  this
	      option  on  and  part  of it with this option off (if you need to do that, you will
	      need to issue two find commands instead, one with the option and one without it).

       -maxdepth levels
	      Descend at most levels (a non-negative integer) levels  of  directories  below  the
	      command  line  arguments.   `-maxdepth 0' means only apply the tests and actions to
	      the command line arguments.

       -mindepth levels
	      Do not apply any tests or actions at levels less than levels (a non-negative  inte-
	      ger).  `-mindepth 1' means process all files except the command line arguments.

       -mount Don't  descend  directories on other filesystems.  An alternate name for -xdev, for
	      compatibility with some other versions of find.

       -noignore_readdir_race
	      Turns off the effect of -ignore_readdir_race.

       -noleaf
	      Do not optimize by assuming that directories contain 2  fewer  subdirectories  than
	      their  hard  link  count.  This option is needed when searching filesystems that do
	      not follow the Unix directory-link convention, such as CD-ROM or MS-DOS filesystems
	      or  AFS  volume  mount  points.	Each directory on a normal Unix filesystem has at
	      least 2 hard links: its name and its `.'	entry.	Additionally, its  subdirectories
	      (if  any) each have a `..'  entry linked to that directory.  When find is examining
	      a directory, after it has statted 2 fewer subdirectories than the directory's  link
	      count,  it  knows that the rest of the entries in the directory are non-directories
	      (`leaf' files in the directory tree).  If only the files' names need  to	be  exam-
	      ined,  there  is	no need to stat them; this gives a significant increase in search
	      speed.

       -regextype type
	      Changes the regular expression syntax understood by -regex and -iregex tests  which
	      occur  later  on	the command line.  Currently-implemented types are emacs (this is
	      the default), posix-awk, posix-basic, posix-egrep and posix-extended.

       -version, --version
	      Print the find version number and exit.

       -warn, -nowarn
	      Turn warning messages on or off.	These warnings apply only  to  the  command  line
	      usage,  not  to  any conditions that find might encounter when it searches directo-
	      ries.  The default behaviour corresponds to -warn if standard input is a	tty,  and
	      to -nowarn otherwise.

       -xdev  Don't descend directories on other filesystems.

   TESTS
       Numeric arguments can be specified as

       +n     for greater than n,

       -n     for less than n,

       n      for exactly n.

       -amin n
	      File was last accessed n minutes ago.

       -anewer file
	      File was last accessed more recently than file was modified.  If file is a symbolic
	      link and the -H option or the -L option is in effect, the access time of	the  file
	      it points to is always used.

       -atime n
	      File  was  last  accessed  n*24  hours ago.  When find figures out how many 24-hour
	      periods ago the file was last accessed, any fractional part is ignored, so to match
	      -atime +1, a file has to have been accessed at least two days ago.

       -cmin n
	      File's status was last changed n minutes ago.

       -cnewer file
	      File's  status was last changed more recently than file was modified.  If file is a
	      symbolic link and the -H option or the -L option is in  effect,  the  status-change
	      time of the file it points to is always used.

       -ctime n
	      File's  status  was  last  changed  n*24 hours ago.  See the comments for -atime to
	      understand how rounding affects the interpretation of file status change times.

       -empty File is empty and is either a regular file or a directory.

       -false Always false.

       -fstype type
	      File is on a filesystem of type type.  The valid filesystem types vary  among  dif-
	      ferent  versions	of Unix; an incomplete list of filesystem types that are accepted
	      on some version of Unix or another is: ufs, 4.2, 4.3, nfs, tmp,  mfs,  S51K,  S52K.
	      You can use -printf with the %F directive to see the types of your filesystems.

       -gid n File's numeric group ID is n.

       -group gname
	      File belongs to group gname (numeric group ID allowed).

       -ilname pattern
	      Like  -lname,  but  the match is case insensitive.  If the -L option or the -follow
	      option is in effect, this test returns false unless the symbolic link is broken.

       -iname pattern
	      Like -name, but the match is case insensitive.  For example, the patterns `fo*' and
	      `F??'  match  the  file names `Foo', `FOO', `foo', `fOo', etc.   In these patterns,
	      unlike filename expansion by the shell, an initial '.' can be matched by '*'.  That
	      is,  find  -name	*bar will match the file `.foobar'.   Please note that you should
	      quote patterns as a matter of course, otherwise the shell will expand any  wildcard
	      characters in them.

       -inum n
	      File has inode number n.	It is normally easier to use the -samefile test instead.

       -ipath pattern
	      Behaves  in  the	same way as -iwholename.  This option is deprecated, so please do
	      not use it.

       -iregex pattern
	      Like -regex, but the match is case insensitive.

       -iwholename pattern
	      Like -wholename, but the match is case insensitive.

       -links n
	      File has n links.

       -lname pattern
	      File is a symbolic link whose contents match shell pattern pattern.  The	metachar-
	      acters  do  not treat `/' or `.' specially.  If the -L option or the -follow option
	      is in effect, this test returns false unless the symbolic link is broken.

       -mmin n
	      File's data was last modified n minutes ago.

       -mtime n
	      File's data was last modified n*24 hours ago.   See  the	comments  for  -atime  to
	      understand how rounding affects the interpretation of file modification times.

       -name pattern
	      Base  of	file  name  (the path with the leading directories removed) matches shell
	      pattern pattern.	The metacharacters (`*', `?', and `[]') match a `.' at the  start
	      of  the  base name (this is a change in findutils-4.2.2; see section STANDARDS CON-
	      FORMANCE below).	To ignore a directory and the files under it, use -prune; see  an
	      example  in the description of -wholename.  Braces are not recognised as being spe-
	      cial, despite the fact that some shells including Bash imbue braces with a  special
	      meaning  in shell patterns.  The filename matching is performed with the use of the
	      fnmatch(3) library function.   Don't forget to enclose the  pattern  in  quotes  in
	      order to protect it from expansion by the shell.

       -newer file
	      File  was  modified more recently than file.  If file is a symbolic link and the -H
	      option or the -L option is in effect, the modification time of the file  it  points
	      to is always used.

       -nouser
	      No user corresponds to file's numeric user ID.

       -nogroup
	      No group corresponds to file's numeric group ID.

       -path pattern
	      See -wholename.	The predicate -path is also supported by HP-UX find.

       -perm mode
	      File's  permission bits are exactly mode (octal or symbolic).  Since an exact match
	      is required, if you want to use this form for symbolic modes, you may have to spec-
	      ify  a  rather  complex mode string.  For example '-perm g=w' will only match files
	      which have mode 0020 (that is, ones for which group write permission  is	the  only
	      permission set).	It is more likely that you will want to use the '/' or '-' forms,
	      for example '-perm -g=w', which matches any file with group write permission.   See
	      the EXAMPLES section for some illustrative examples.

       -perm -mode
	      All  of the permission bits mode are set for the file.  Symbolic modes are accepted
	      in this form, and this is usually the way in which would want  to  use  them.   You
	      must specify 'u', 'g' or 'o' if you use a symbolic mode.	 See the EXAMPLES section
	      for some illustrative examples.

       -perm /mode
	      Any of the permission bits mode are set for the file.  Symbolic modes are  accepted
	      in  this	form.	You must specify 'u', 'g' or 'o' if you use a symbolic mode.  See
	      the EXAMPLES section for some illustrative examples.  If no permission bits in mode
	      are set, this test currently matches no files.  However, it will soon be changed to
	      match any file (the idea is to be more consistent with the behaviour of perm -000).

       -perm +mode
	      Deprecated, old way of searching for files with any of the permission bits in  mode
	      set.   You  should  use -perm /mode instead. Trying to use the '+' syntax with sym-
	      bolic modes will yield surprising results.  For example, '+u+x' is a valid symbolic
	      mode  (equivalent to +u,+x, i.e. 0111) and will therefore not be evaluated as -perm
	      +mode but instead as the exact mode specifier -perm mode and so  it  matches  files
	      with  exact  permissions	0111  instead  of files with any execute bit set.  If you
	      found this paragraph confusing, you're not alone - just use -perm /mode.	This form
	      of the -perm test is deprecated because the POSIX specification requires the inter-
	      pretation of a leading '+' as being part of a symbolic mode, and so we switched  to
	      using '/' instead.

       -regex pattern
	      File  name  matches regular expression pattern.  This is a match on the whole path,
	      not a search.  For example, to match a file named `./fubar3', you can use the regu-
	      lar  expression  `.*bar.'  or  `.*b.*3',	but not `f.*r3'.  The regular expressions
	      understood by find are by default  Emacs	Regular  Expressions,  but  this  can  be
	      changed with the -regextype option.

       -samefile name
	      File  refers  to	the  same inode as name.   When -L is in effect, this can include
	      symbolic links.

       -size n[cwbkMG]
	      File uses n units of space.  The following suffixes can be used:

	      `b'    for 512-byte blocks (this is the default if no suffix is used)

	      `c'    for bytes

	      `w'    for two-byte words

	      `k'    for Kilobytes (units of 1024 bytes)

	      `M'    for Megabytes (units of 1048576 bytes)

	      `G'    for Gigabytes (units of 1073741824 bytes)

	      The size does not count indirect blocks, but it does count blocks in  sparse  files
	      that are not actually allocated.	Bear in mind that the `%k' and `%b' format speci-
	      fiers of -printf handle sparse files differently.  The `b'  suffix  always  denotes
	      512-byte blocks and never 1 Kilobyte blocks, which is different to the behaviour of
	      -ls.

       -true  Always true.

       -type c
	      File is of type c:

	      b      block (buffered) special

	      c      character (unbuffered) special

	      d      directory

	      p      named pipe (FIFO)

	      f      regular file

	      l      symbolic link; this is never true if the -L option or the -follow option  is
		     in  effect,  unless  the symbolic link is broken.	If you want to search for
		     symbolic links when -L is in effect, use -xtype.

	      s      socket

	      D      door (Solaris)

       -uid n File's numeric user ID is n.

       -used n
	      File was last accessed n days after its status was last changed.

       -user uname
	      File is owned by user uname (numeric user ID allowed).

       -wholename pattern
	      File name matches shell pattern pattern.	The metacharacters do not  treat  `/'  or
	      `.' specially; so, for example,
			find . -wholename './sr*sc'
	      will print an entry for a directory called './src/misc' (if one exists).	To ignore
	      a whole directory tree, use -prune rather than checking every  file  in  the  tree.
	      For  example, to skip the directory `src/emacs' and all files and directories under
	      it, and print the names of the other files found, do something like this:
			find . -wholename './src/emacs' -prune -o -print

       -xtype c
	      The same as -type unless the file is a symbolic link.  For symbolic links:  if  the
	      -H  or  -P option was specified, true if the file is a link to a file of type c; if
	      the -L option has been given, true if c is  `l'.	 In  other  words,  for  symbolic
	      links, -xtype checks the type of the file that -type does not check.

   ACTIONS
       -delete
	      Delete  files;  true if removal succeeded.  If the removal failed, an error message
	      is issued.  Use of this action automatically turns on the '-depth' option.

       -exec command ;
	      Execute command; true if 0 status is returned.  All following arguments to find are
	      taken to be arguments to the command until an argument consisting of `;' is encoun-
	      tered.  The string `{}' is replaced by the current file name being processed every-
	      where  it occurs in the arguments to the command, not just in arguments where it is
	      alone, as in some versions of find.  Both of these constructions might need  to  be
	      escaped  (with  a  `\') or quoted to protect them from expansion by the shell.  See
	      the EXAMPLES section for examples of the use of the `-exec' option.  The	specified
	      command is run once for each matched file.  The command is executed in the starting
	      directory.   There are unavoidable security problems surrounding use of  the  -exec
	      option; you should use the -execdir option instead.

       -exec command {} +
	      This  variant of the -exec option runs the specified command on the selected files,
	      but the command line is built by appending each selected file name at the end;  the
	      total  number  of  invocations  of the command will be much less than the number of
	      matched files.  The command line is built in much the same way  that  xargs  builds
	      its  command  lines.  Only one instance of '{}' is allowed within the command.  The
	      command is executed in the starting directory.

       -execdir command ;

       -execdir command {} +
	      Like -exec, but the specified command is run from the subdirectory  containing  the
	      matched  file, which is not normally the directory in which you started find.  This
	      a much more secure method for invoking commands, as it avoids race conditions  dur-
	      ing  resolution  of  the paths to the matched files.  As with the -exec option, the
	      '+' form of -execdir will build a command line to process  more  than  one  matched
	      file,  but  any  given invocation of command will only list files that exist in the
	      same subdirectory.  If you use this option, you must ensure that your  $PATH  envi-
	      ronment  variable  does not reference the current directory; otherwise, an attacker
	      can run any commands they like by leaving an appropriately-named file in	a  direc-
	      tory in which you will run -execdir.

       -fls file
	      True;  like -ls but write to file like -fprint.  The output file is always created,
	      even if the predicate is never matched.  See  the  UNUSUAL  FILENAMES  section  for
	      information about how unusual characters in filenames are handled.

       -fprint file
	      True; print the full file name into file file.  If file does not exist when find is
	      run, it is created; if it does exist, it is truncated.  The file names  ``/dev/std-
	      out''  and ``/dev/stderr'' are handled specially; they refer to the standard output
	      and standard error output, respectively.	The output file is always  created,  even
	      if  the predicate is never matched.  See the UNUSUAL FILENAMES section for informa-
	      tion about how unusual characters in filenames are handled.

       -fprint0 file
	      True; like -print0 but write to file like -fprint.  The output file is always  cre-
	      ated,  even  if  the predicate is never matched.	See the UNUSUAL FILENAMES section
	      for information about how unusual characters in filenames are handled.

       -fprintf file format
	      True; like -printf but write to file like -fprint.  The output file is always  cre-
	      ated,  even  if  the predicate is never matched.	See the UNUSUAL FILENAMES section
	      for information about how unusual characters in filenames are handled.

       -ok command ;
	      Like -exec but ask the user first (on the standard input); if the response does not
	      start with `y' or `Y', do not run the command, and return false.	If the command is
	      run, its standard input is redirected from /dev/null.

       -print True; print the full file name on the standard output, followed by a newline.    If
	      you  are	piping	the output of find into another program and there is the faintest
	      possibility that the files which you are searching for  might  contain  a  newline,
	      then  you should seriously consider using the `-print0' option instead of `-print'.
	      See the UNUSUAL FILENAMES section for information about how unusual  characters  in
	      filenames are handled.

       -okdir command ;
	      Like  -execdir but ask the user first (on the standard input); if the response does
	      not start with `y' or `Y', do not run the command, and return false.  If	the  com-
	      mand is run, its standard input is redirected from /dev/null.

       -print0
	      True; print the full file name on the standard output, followed by a null character
	      (instead of the newline character that `-print' uses).  This allows file names that
	      contain  newlines or other types of white space to be correctly interpreted by pro-
	      grams that process the find output.  This option corresponds to the `-0' option  of
	      xargs.

       -printf format
	      True;  print format on the standard output, interpreting `\' escapes and `%' direc-
	      tives.  Field widths and precisions can be specified as with the `printf'  C  func-
	      tion.   Please  note  that many of the fields are printed as %s rather than %d, and
	      this may mean that flags don't work as you might expect.	This also means that  the
	      `-'  flag  does work (it forces fields to be left-aligned).  Unlike -print, -printf
	      does not add a newline at the end of the string.	The escapes and directives are:

	      \a     Alarm bell.

	      \b     Backspace.

	      \c     Stop printing from this format immediately and flush the output.

	      \f     Form feed.

	      \n     Newline.

	      \r     Carriage return.

	      \t     Horizontal tab.

	      \v     Vertical tab.

	      \      ASCII NUL.

	      \\     A literal backslash (`\').

	      \NNN   The character whose ASCII code is NNN (octal).

	      A `\' character followed by any other character is treated as an	ordinary  charac-
	      ter, so they both are printed.

	      %%     A literal percent sign.

	      %a     File's last access time in the format returned by the C `ctime' function.

	      %Ak    File's last access time in the format specified by k, which is either `@' or
		     a directive for the C `strftime' function.  The possible values  for  k  are
		     listed  below;  some  of  them might not be available on all systems, due to
		     differences in `strftime' between systems.

		     @	    seconds since Jan. 1, 1970, 00:00 GMT.

		     Time fields:

		     H	    hour (00..23)

		     I	    hour (01..12)

		     k	    hour ( 0..23)

		     l	    hour ( 1..12)

		     M	    minute (00..59)

		     p	    locale's AM or PM

		     r	    time, 12-hour (hh:mm:ss [AP]M)

		     S	    second (00..61)

		     T	    time, 24-hour (hh:mm:ss)

		     +	    Date and time, separated by '+', for  example  `2004-04-28+22:22:05'.
			    The  time  is given in the current timezone (which may be affected by
			    setting the TZ environment variable).  This is a GNU extension.

		     X	    locale's time representation (H:M:S)

		     Z	    time zone (e.g., EDT), or nothing if no time zone is determinable

		     Date fields:

		     a	    locale's abbreviated weekday name (Sun..Sat)

		     A	    locale's full weekday name, variable length (Sunday..Saturday)

		     b	    locale's abbreviated month name (Jan..Dec)

		     B	    locale's full month name, variable length (January..December)

		     c	    locale's date and time (Sat Nov 04 12:02:33 EST 1989)

		     d	    day of month (01..31)

		     D	    date (mm/dd/yy)

		     h	    same as b

		     j	    day of year (001..366)

		     m	    month (01..12)

		     U	    week number of year with Sunday as first day of week (00..53)

		     w	    day of week (0..6)

		     W	    week number of year with Monday as first day of week (00..53)

		     x	    locale's date representation (mm/dd/yy)

		     y	    last two digits of year (00..99)

		     Y	    year (1970...)

	      %b     The amount of disk space used for this file in 512-byte blocks.  Since  disk
		     space is allocated in multiples of the filesystem block size this is usually
		     greater than %s/512, but it can also be smaller if  the  file  is	a  sparse
		     file.

	      %c     File's last status change time in the format returned by the C `ctime' func-
		     tion.

	      %Ck    File's last status change time in the format specified by k,  which  is  the
		     same as for %A.

	      %d     File's depth in the directory tree; 0 means the file is a command line argu-
		     ment.

	      %D     The device number on which the file  exists  (the	st_dev	field  of  struct
		     stat), in decimal.

	      %f     File's name with any leading directories removed (only the last element).

	      %F     Type of the filesystem the file is on; this value can be used for -fstype.

	      %g     File's group name, or numeric group ID if the group has no name.

	      %G     File's numeric group ID.

	      %h     Leading  directories of file's name (all but the last element).  If the file
		     name contains no slashes (since it is in the current directory) the %h spec-
		     ifier expands to ".".

	      %H     Command line argument under which file was found.

	      %i     File's inode number (in decimal).

	      %k     The  amount  of disk space used for this file in 1K blocks. Since disk space
		     is allocated in multiples of the  filesystem  block  size	this  is  usually
		     greater  than  %s/1024,  but  it can also be smaller if the file is a sparse
		     file.

	      %l     Object of symbolic link (empty string if file is not a symbolic link).

	      %m     File's permission bits (in octal).  This option uses the 'traditional'  num-
		     bers which most Unix implementations use, but if your particular implementa-
		     tion uses an unusual ordering of octal permissions bits, you will see a dif-
		     ference  between  the  actual value of the file's mode and the output of %m.
		     Normally you will want to have a leading zero on  this  number,  and  to  do
		     this, you should use the # flag (as in, for example, '%#m').

	      %M     File's  permissions  (in  symbolic form, as for ls).  This directive is sup-
		     ported in findutils 4.2.5 and later.

	      %n     Number of hard links to file.

	      %p     File's name.

	      %P     File's name with the name of the command line argument under  which  it  was
		     found removed.

	      %s     File's size in bytes.

	      %t     File's  last modification time in the format returned by the C `ctime' func-
		     tion.

	      %Tk    File's last modification time in the format specified by  k,  which  is  the
		     same as for %A.

	      %u     File's user name, or numeric user ID if the user has no name.

	      %U     File's numeric user ID.

	      %y     File's type (like in ls -l), U=unknown type (shouldn't happen)

	      %Y     File's type (like %y), plus follow symlinks: L=loop, N=nonexistent

	      A `%' character followed by any other character is discarded, but the other charac-
	      ter is printed (don't rely on this, as further  format  characters  may  be  intro-
	      duced).	A  `%' at the end of the format argument causes undefined behaviour since
	      there is no following character.	In some locales, it  may  hide	your  door  keys,
	      while in others it may remove the final page from the novel you are reading.

	      The %m and %d directives support the # , 0 and + flags, but the other directives do
	      not, even if they print numbers.	Numeric directives  that  do  not  support  these
	      flags  include  G,  U, b, D, k and n.  The `-' format flag is supported and changes
	      the alignment of a field from right-justified (which is the default) to left-justi-
	      fied.

	      See  the	UNUSUAL FILENAMES section for information about how unusual characters in
	      filenames are handled.

       -prune If -depth is not given, true; if the file is a directory, do not descend into it.
	      If -depth is given, false; no effect.

       -quit  Exit immediately.  No child processes will be left running, but no more paths spec-
	      ified  on  the command line will be processed.  For example, find /tmp/foo /tmp/bar
	      -print -quit will print only /tmp/foo.  Any command lines which have been built  up
	      with  -execdir ... {} + will be invoked before find exits.   The exit status may or
	      may not be zero, depending on whether an error has already occurred.

       -ls    True; list current file in `ls -dils' format on standard output.	The block  counts
	      are  of 1K blocks, unless the environment variable POSIXLY_CORRECT is set, in which
	      case 512-byte blocks are used.  See the UNUSUAL FILENAMES section  for  information
	      about how unusual characters in filenames are handled.

   UNUSUAL FILENAMES
       Many  of  the actions of find result in the printing of data which is under the control of
       other users.  This includes file names, sizes, modification  times  and	so  forth.   File
       names  are  a  potential problem since they can contain any character except '\0' and '/'.
       Unusual characters in file names can do unexpected and often undesirable  things  to  your
       terminal  (for  example,  changing  the settings of your function keys on some terminals).
       Unusual characters are handled differently by various actions, as described below.

       -print0, -fprint0
	      Always print the exact filename, unchanged, even if the output is going to a termi-
	      nal.

       -ls, -fls
	      Unusual  characters  are	always escaped.  White space, backslash, and double quote
	      characters are printed using C-style escaping  (for  example  '\f',  '\"').   Other
	      unusual  characters  are printed using an octal escape.  Other printable characters
	      (for -ls and -fls these are the characters between octal 041 and 0176) are  printed
	      as-is.

       -printf, -fprintf
	      If  the  output  is  not	going to a terminal, it is printed as-is.  Otherwise, the
	      result depends on which directive is in use.  The directives %D, %F,  %g,  %G,  %H,
	      %Y,  and	%y  expand to values which are not under control of files' owners, and so
	      are printed as-is.  The directives %a, %b, %c, %d, %i, %k, %m, %M, %n, %s,  %t,  %u
	      and %U have values which are under the control of files' owners but which cannot be
	      used to send arbitrary data to the terminal, and so these are printed  as-is.   The
	      directives %f, %h, %l, %p and %P are quoted.  This quoting is performed in the same
	      way as for GNU ls.  This is not the same quoting mechanism as the one used for  -ls
	      and  -fls.    If	you  are able to decide what format to use for the output of find
	      then it is normally better to use '\0' as a terminator than to use newline, as file
	      names can contain white space and newline characters.

       -print, -fprint
	      Quoting  is  handled in the same way as for -printf and -fprintf.  If you are using
	      find in a script or in a situation where the matched  files  might  have	arbitrary
	      names, you should consider using -print0 instead of -print.

       The  -ok and -okdir actions print the current filename as-is.  This may change in a future
       release.

   OPERATORS
       Listed in order of decreasing precedence:

       ( expr )
	      Force precedence.

       ! expr True if expr is false.

       -not expr
	      Same as ! expr, but not POSIX compliant.

       expr1 expr2
	      Two expressions in a row are taken to be joined with an implied "and"; expr2 is not
	      evaluated if expr1 is false.

       expr1 -a expr2
	      Same as expr1 expr2.

       expr1 -and expr2
	      Same as expr1 expr2, but not POSIX compliant.

       expr1 -o expr2
	      Or; expr2 is not evaluated if expr1 is true.

       expr1 -or expr2
	      Same as expr1 -o expr2, but not POSIX compliant.

       expr1 , expr2
	      List;  both expr1 and expr2 are always evaluated.  The value of expr1 is discarded;
	      the value of the list is the value of expr2.	The comma operator can be  useful
	      for  searching  for several different types of thing, but traversing the filesystem
	      hierarchy only once.   The -fprintf action can be used to list the various  matched
	      items into several different output files.

STANDARDS CONFORMANCE
       The following options are specified in the POSIX standard (IEEE Std 1003.1, 2003 Edition):

       -H     This option is supported.

       -L     This option is supported.

       -name  This option is supported, but POSIX conformance depends on the POSIX conformance of
	      the system's fnmatch(3) library function.  As of findutils-4.2.2, shell metacharac-
	      ters  ('*'.  '?'	or  '[]' for example) will match a leading '.', because IEEE PASC
	      interpretation 126 requires this.   This is a  change  from  previous  versions  of
	      findutils.

       -type  Supported.    POSIX  specifies `b', `c', `d', `l', `p', `f' and `s'.  GNU find also
	      supports `D', representing a Door, where the OS provides these.

       -ok    Supported.   Interpretation of the response is not locale-dependent  (see  ENVIRON-
	      MENT VARIABLES).

       -newer Supported.   If  the  file specified is a symbolic link, it is always dereferenced.
	      This is a change from previous behaviour, which used to take the relevant time from
	      the symbolic link; see the HISTORY section below.

       Other predicates
	      The   predicates	 `-atime',  `-ctime',  `-depth',  `-group',  `-links',	`-mtime',
	      `-nogroup', `-nouser', `-perm', `-print', `-prune', `-size', `-user'  and  `-xdev',
	      are all supported.

       The  POSIX  standard  specifies	parentheses `(', `)', negation `!' and the `and' and `or'
       operators (`-a', `-o').

       All other options, predicates, expressions and so forth are extensions  beyond  the  POSIX
       standard.  Many of these extensions are not unique to GNU find, however.

       The POSIX standard requires that

	      The  find  utility shall detect infinite loops; that is, entering a previously vis-
	      ited directory that is an ancestor of the last file encountered. When it detects an
	      infinite	loop,  find  shall write a diagnostic message to standard error and shall
	      either recover its position in the hierarchy or terminate.

       The link count of directories which contain entries which are hard links  to  an  ancestor
       will often be lower than they otherwise should be.  This can mean that GNU find will some-
       times optimise away the visiting of a subdirectory which is actually a link to  an  ances-
       tor.  Since find does not actually enter such a subdirectory, it is allowed to avoid emit-
       ting a diagnostic message.  Although this behaviour  may  be  somewhat  confusing,  it  is
       unlikely  that  anybody	actually depends on this behaviour.  If the leaf optimisation has
       been turned off with -noleaf, the directory entry will always be examined and the diagnos-
       tic message will be issued where it is appropriate.  Symbolic links cannot be used to cre-
       ate filesystem cycles as such, but if the -L option or the -follow option  is  in  use,	a
       diagnostic message is issued when find encounters a loop of symbolic links.  As with loops
       containing hard links, the leaf optimisation will often	mean  that  find  knows  that  it
       doesn't	need  to  call stat() or chdir() on the symbolic link, so this diagnostic is fre-
       quently not necessary.

       The -d option is supported for compatibility with various BSD systems, but you should  use
       the POSIX-compliant option -depth instead.

       The  POSIXLY_CORRECT  environment  variable does not affect the behaviour of the -regex or
       -iregex tests because those tests aren't specified in the POSIX standard.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       LANG   Provides a default value for the internationalization variables that are	unset  or
	      null.

       LC_ALL If  set  to a non-empty string value, override the values of all the other interna-
	      tionalization variables.

       LC_COLLATE
	      The POSIX standard specifies that this variable affects the pattern matching to  be
	      used  for  the `-name' option.   GNU find uses the fnmatch(3) library function, and
	      so support for `LC_COLLATE' depends on the system library.

	      POSIX also specifies that the `LC_COLLATE' environment variable affects the  inter-
	      pretation  of the user's response to the query issued by `-ok', but this is not the
	      case for GNU find.

       LC_CTYPE
	      This variable affects the treatment of character	classes  used  with  the  `-name'
	      test, if the system's fnmatch(3) library function supports this.	 It has no effect
	      on the behaviour of the `-ok' expression.

       LC_MESSAGES
	      Determines the locale to be used for internationalised messages.

       NLSPATH
	      Determines the location of the internationalisation message catalogues.

       PATH   Affects the directories which are searched  to  find  the  executables  invoked  by
	      `-exec', `-execdir', `-ok' and `-okdir'.

       POSIXLY_CORRECT
	      Determines  the  block size used by `-ls' and `-fls'.  If `POSIXLY_CORRECT' is set,
	      blocks are units of 512 bytes.  Otherwise they are units of 1024 bytes.

       TZ     Affects the time zone used for  some  of	the  time-related  format  directives  of
	      -printf and -fprintf.

EXAMPLES
       find /tmp -name core -type f -print | xargs /bin/rm -f

       Find files named core in or below the directory /tmp and delete them.  Note that this will
       work incorrectly if there are any filenames containing newlines, single or double  quotes,
       or spaces.

       find /tmp -name core -type f -print0 | xargs -0 /bin/rm -f

       Find files named core in or below the directory /tmp and delete them, processing filenames
       in such a way that file or directory names containing single or double quotes,  spaces  or
       newlines  are  correctly  handled.  The -name test comes before the -type test in order to
       avoid having to call stat(2) on every file.

       find . -type f -exec file '{}' \;

       Runs `file' on every file in or below the current directory.  Notice that the  braces  are
       enclosed in single quote marks to protect them from interpretation as shell script punctu-
       ation.	The semicolon is similarly protected by the use of a backslash, though ';'  could
       have been used in that case also.

       find /	 \( -perm -4000 -fprintf /root/suid.txt '%#m %u %p\n' \) , \
		 \( -size +100M -fprintf /root/big.txt '%-10s %p\n' \)

       Traverse   the	filesystem   just   once,  listing  setuid  files  and	directories  into
       /root/suid.txt and large files into /root/big.txt.

       find $HOME -mtime 0

       Search for files in your home directory which have been modified in the	last  twenty-four
       hours.	This command works this way because the time since each file was last modified is
       divided by 24 hours and any remainder is discarded.  That means that to match -mtime 0,	a
       file will have to have a modification in the past which is less than 24 hours ago.

       find . -perm 664

       Search  for  files  which  have	read and write permission for their owner, and group, but
       which other users can read but not write to.  Files which meet  these  criteria	but  have
       other  permissions  bits  set  (for  example  if someone can execute the file) will not be
       matched.

       find . -perm -664

       Search for files which have read and write permission for their owner and group, and which
       other  users  can  read,  without regard to the presence of any extra permission bits (for
       example the executable bit).  This will match a file which has mode 0777, for example.

       find . -perm /222

       Search for files which are writable by somebody (their owner, or their group,  or  anybody
       else).

       find . -perm /220
       find . -perm /u+w,g+w
       find . -perm /u=w,g=w

       All  three of these commands do the same thing, but the first one uses the octal represen-
       tation of the file mode, and the other two use the  symbolic  form.   These  commands  all
       search for files which are writable by either their owner or their group.  The files don't
       have to be writable by both the owner and group to be matched; either will do.

       find . -perm -220
       find . -perm -g+w,u+w

       Both these commands do the same thing; search for files which are writable by  both  their
       owner and their group.

       find . -perm -444 -perm /222 ! -perm /111
       find . -perm -a+r -perm /a+w ! -perm /a+x

       These  two  commands  both search for files that are readable for everybody (-perm -444 or
       -perm -a+r), have at least on write bit set (-perm /222 or -perm /a+w) but  are	not  exe-
       cutable for anybody (!  -perm /111 and ! -perm /a+x respectively)

EXIT STATUS
       find exits with status 0 if all files are processed successfully, greater than 0 if errors
       occur.	This is deliberately a very broad description, but if the return  value  is  non-
       zero, you should not rely on the correctness of the results of find.

SEE ALSO
       locate(1),  locatedb(5),  updatedb(1),  xargs(1), chmod(1), fnmatch(3), regex(7), stat(2),
       lstat(2), ls(1), printf(3), strftime(3), ctime(3), Finding  Files  (on-line  in	Info,  or
       printed).

HISTORY
       As  of  findutils-4.2.2, shell metacharacters ('*'. '?' or '[]' for example) used in file-
       name patterns will match a leading '.', because IEEE  POSIX  interpretation  126  requires
       this.

NON-BUGS
       $ find . -name *.c -print
       find: paths must precede expression
       Usage: find [-H] [-L] [-P] [path...] [expression]

       This happens because *.c has been expanded by the shell resulting in find actually receiv-
       ing a command line like this:

       find . -name bigram.c code.c frcode.c locate.c -print

       That command is of course not going to work.  Instead of doing things this way, you should
       enclose the pattern in quotes:
       $ find . -name '*.c' -print


BUGS
       The  test  -perm  /000  currently matches no files, but for greater consistency with -perm
       -000, this will be changed to match all files; this change will probably be made in  early
       2006.  Meanwhile, a warning message is given if you do this.

       There  are  security  problems inherent in the behaviour that the POSIX standard specifies
       for find, which therefore cannot be fixed.  For example, the -exec  action  is  inherently
       insecure, and -execdir should be used instead.  Please see Finding Files for more informa-
       tion.

       The   best   way   to   report	a   bug   is   to   use   the	form   at   http://savan-
       nah.gnu.org/bugs/?group=findutils.   The  reason for this is that you will then be able to
       track progress in fixing the problem.   Other comments about find(1) and about the  findu-
       tils  package in general can be sent to the bug-findutils mailing list.	To join the list,
       send email to bug-findutils-request@gnu.org.

											  FIND(1)
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